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THE J. F. C. 





vol. fit 
























— — — — ■ \ 

irswicM : 




To Our Readers ....... 1 

Association and General Agency . . . . .1 

Observations on the Vegetarian System .... 2 

Tlic Controversialist and Correspondent 3, 15, 23, 29, 36, 47, 60, 76, 84, 90, 96, 104 

The Vegetarian Treasury . . 6, 19, 25, 33, 53, 67, 79, 86, 92, 101, 106 

Results of Discussion . . ... 7 

Man's Repugnance to the Destruction of Life . . . .7 

On the Proper Food of Man . . ... . 10 

The London Commissariat . . . . . .12 

Impediments to Progress . . . . .■ .21,27 

Flesh-Eating and its Concomitants . . . . .21 

Vegetarian Diet as a Curative Agent — Scrofula . . . . 22 

Flesh-Eating an Incentive to the "War Spirit . . . .27 

Difficulties in the Social Circle . . . . .35 

The Vegetarian Practice in Extreme Climates . . . .35 

The Annual Meeting and Conference . . . .43 

The Preying upon Animals the Trainer for War . . . .43 

Birds, the Horticulturists' Best Friends . . . .46 

The Eighth Annual Meeting . . . . . .57 

Moral Movements and their Adherents . . . . 57 

Enemies of the Oyster . . . . . .58 

Testimony of a Working Man . . . . .59 

The Recent Conference and Meeting . . . . .71 

Culture and Importance of Rice • . . . .71 

Village Horticultural Societies . ... . .75 



Approaching Vegetarian Festivals . . . . .83 

The Banana ...... 83 

Eecent and Approaching Meetings . . . . .89 

Disadvantages of Hurried Criticism .... 89 

Experience of a Cornish Mechanic . . . . .89 

Curious Subject of Discussion ..... 9-5 

Approaching Banquet in Birmingham . . . . . .95 

The Dietetic Constitution of Man .... 95 

The Recent Birmingham Banquet . . . . .103 

The Close of the Year ...... 103 

The Facts at our Doors . . . . . .103 

Supplement : — 

Accrington Vegetarian Association Lectures . . . 1, 85, 49 

Local Operations and Intelligence . 10, 11, 13, 21, SO, 31, 33, 48, 5G, <Sb^ 78 

London Vegetarian Association Meeting . . . .11 

Vegetarian Meeting at Middleton . . . . 13 

Accrington Vegetarian Association Meeting . . . .15 

Crawshawbooth Vegetarian Association Meeting ... 23 

Birmingham Vegetarian Association Lectures . . , , 23, 33 

Eighth Anniversary of the Vegetarian Society ... 39 

Banquet of the Glasgow Vegetarian Association . . . .59 

Birmingham Vegetarian Association Banquet ... 67 


The Letter S refers to the Supploncnt. 

Accrinpton Vegetarian Associa- 
tion, Lecture, 1 S., 35 S. ; Meetiiijr 15 S. 
Acknowledgment, A.n Encouraging 25 
Advantage of Mixing Foo'X 

The, G7; of Vegetarian Tractice 52 

African Eiiicnrisiu . . . 102 

Agriculture, Importance of 2G 

Aliment The Moral Effect of . 6 

All Good Things ai-e Common . 70 

Animalcula; in Water . . 13 
Annual Meeting and Conference, 

4:5; The Eighth ... 57 
Appeal to Mothers, An . . 55 
Approaching Banquet in Bir- 
mingham 05 

Approaching Vegetarian Festivals 83 

Art of Health, The . . bO 
Associations, Formation of, 24 ; 

and General Agency . . 1 

Autumn ... . . 91 

Bailey, W. G., Letter of, 47 . 62 
Balbirnie, Dr., Letter of 3 ; 

versus Dr. Balbirnie . 17 

Banana, The 83 

Bandelocuue, M., on Scrofula l(i 
Beauty, a World of . . .20 
Birds the Horticulturists' Best 

Friends ...... 46 

Birmingham " Renegade," The 
32 f Vegetarian Association 
Lecture, 23 S., 33 S., Ap- 
proaching Banquet in, 95 ; 
Kecent Banquet in, 103 ; Ve- 
getarian Association Ban- 
quet 67 S. 

Boatmen or the Volga, The . 79 

Body, The Demands of the . 02 

BoRMOND, Mr Joseph, Speech of 7i S. 

Brahmins of India, The . . 10 
Bread, Whole Meal, 34 ; Brown, 

How they Make in liondon 52 

I'ritish Seaman, Letter of a . 9 

BuFFON, Opinion of . . . OS. 

Bulk in Food, Necessity for . 33 

Bushmen, The .... 3 S. 

Butter Making, Dutch . . . 03 

Carrara, Vegetarianism in . . 03 
Carnivorous Animal, Letter 

of a 30 

Children, Little . . . . 79 

Clarke, Mr. Geo., Speech of . 18 S. 

Clear the Way .... 106 
Closeof the Year . . . .103 
Commissariat, The London, 12 ; 

The Glasgow ... 76 

Composition of Sausages . . 87 

Compulsory Vaccination . . 76 
Conference, The Recent, and 

Meeting 71 

Conlinement, Wild Animals in 81 
Consumption, Vegetarianism 

and, 20; of Meat in Loudon 80 

Controversial Articles, 99 . . 101 
Cornish Mechanic, Experience 

of a 89 

Corpulent, A Useful Hint to the 79 
Crawshawbooth Vegetarian 

Association Meeting . . 23 S. 

Croat Labourers, The . . 101 
Cruelty to Animals Society, A 

Subject for the ... 70 

Cruelties in the Preparation of 

Animals for Food 
i>ueltics in the Fattening of 

Animals, 101 . . ' . 
Culture and Importance of Rice 
OaNLiFFE, Mr. J., Lecture of, 

35, S.; Speech of . . . 
Curious Subject of Discu5Sion . 



47 S. 

Driily Neivs, The, 90 ; and Vege- 
tarians 96 

Dairies, The London . 
Danger of the Present Period 
Dangers of Becoming Too Fat 

in Sparta .... 
Darwen Discussion, The, 47, 60 
Death of a Remnant of the 

Keign of Georgk II. 


Deaths from Preveniible Diseases 51 
Demands of the Body, The 92 

Destruction of Life, Man's Re- 
pugnance to the . . .7 
Diet aud Health of the Romans 6 
Diet, Inquiries as to . . . 77 
Dietary of O.mar Pasha's Troop? 93 
Dietetic Tables for the Seden- 
tary and the Active . . 66 
Dietetic Constitution of Man, 

The 95 

Differences, Enmities and . . 106 
Ditficulties of the Social Circle 35 
Disadvantages of HurriedCritieism 80 
Discussion, Results of, 7; Curi- 
ous Subject of . . . 95 
Disease in Fattened Animals . 86 
Diseases of Animals Communi- 
cated to Man ... 94 
Doors, The Facts at Our . . 103 
Dutch Butter-making . . 93 

Eating Houses, Vegetarian 

Edinbiu'gh Vegetarian Associa- 

Effects of Tea and Coffee on 
the Poor .... 

Eighth Annual Meeting 

Eighth Anniversary of the Ve- 
getarian Society . 

Encouraging Acknowledge- 
ment, An 

Enemies of the Oyster 

Enjoyment of Life, Vegetarian 
Diet and the 

Enmities and Differences . 

Epicurism, African . 

Erroneous Quotations . 

Esquimaux, The 

Excessive Sleep 

Exercise Essential to Growth 










Experience of a Cornish INIechanic 89 
Experiments, Satisfactory . 78 
Extreme Climates, Vegetarian- 
ism and .... 35 
Facts at our Doors, The . . 103 
Fattened Animals, Disease in . 86 
Feeding Poultry .... 26 
Festive Occasions ... 33 
Flesh-Eating, Lecture on, I S ; 
a Hindrance to Missionary 
Success, 19 ; and its Con- 
comitants; 21 ; SWEDENBORG 

on, 87 ; An Incentive to the 
War Spirit . . . .27 

Flesher Trade versus Vegetari- 
anism, The . . .37, 

Pleshers of Glasgow, Soiree of the 

Flowers, The, are in the Fields 

Food and Clothing of tlic Rus- 
sian Soldier .... 

Formation of Associations . 

PoRSTER, Dr., Letter of . 

French, Scotch, and English 

French Emperor, The, the Cook 
aud Pine Apples 

Gardens, Japanese ... 88 
General Agency, Associations aud 1 
German Vegetarian Testimony 18 
Glasgow Vegetarian Associa- 
tion, Banquet of the . .50 8. 
Glasgow Commissariat, The . 75 
Good, How to Do . . , 53 

Gratitude 6 

Griffin, Mr. N. Speech o/ . 42 S 
Gutta Percha, Substitute for . 87 

Habit and Ignorance 

Harvey, Alderman, Speech of 

Health, The Art of . 

Himalaya, The Natives of . 

Hint to Employers 

Historical Fact, An 

Home of Florence Nigut- 
iNOALE, The .... 

Home-made Sausages . 

florse-flesh Sausages . 

Horticultm-al Societies, Village 

How they Make Brown Bread 
in London ... 

How to Do Good 

Hurried Criticism, Disadvan- 
tages of . . . 

Idle, The . . . . . 
Impediments to Progi'ess 21, 
Importance of Agriculture 
Importance of Tranquillity in 
Nurses .... 


76 S. 







Inconsiderate Writer, An 
Infant and the Mother, The . 
Influence of War, The . 
Inhabitants of Travancorc, The 
Innovation .... 
Inquiries as to Diet 
Insti'uctions for Vegetarian Diet 

Jains or Buddhists, The . 
Japanese Gardens .... 
Jewish Mode of Slaughtering . 
Johnston, Professor, Opinion of 
Joining the Society 

Kaffirs, The 

Kan-mahomed, Anecdote of 
King, Mr. C. R., Lecture of, 
23 S ; Speech of, . 

Labourers, The Croat . . .101 
Laurie, Dr., Speech of . . 71 S. 
Lawrence, Professor, Opinion of 8 S. 

Lentils 102 

Letter of a Vearetarian, 37, 39 ; 
of John Temple, 38 ; of a 
Carnivorous Animal, 39 ; of 
a British Seaman, 9 ; of 
Another ''Renegade" . • 24 






77 S. 


Little Children .... 79 
Local Operations and Intelligence : — 

Accrington, 10, 21, 31, 34, 18 . 56 S. 

Earnsley 56 S. 

Bii-mingham, 11,13,30,31, 34, 
48, 57, 65, 78 S. 

Boston, 30, . . . . 48 S. 

Colchester, 10, 11, 22,30, 31, 
34,57 65 S. 

Crawshawbooth, 10, 13,22, 31, 
67, 66 S. 

Darweu, 13, . . . .48 S. 

Dunfermline, 57, . . . 66 S. 

Edinburgh, 31,34,57, . .66 8. 

Glasgow, 22, 30, 31, 57, G6, . 78 S. 

Hull, 12, 13,31,34, . . .58 8. 

Kirkcaldy, 22, 31, . , . 34 S. 

Leeds, 13,22,31,34, . . .588. 

Liverpool, . . , . 12 S. 

London, 12, 13, 22, 31, . .58 8. 

Manchester, 12, 22, . . . 58 8. 

Methven, 10, 30, 34, . . . 58 8. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 31,58, . 66 8. 

Newton-le-\Aailovvs , . . 22 8. 

Padstow 34 8. 

Paisley 66 S. 

Salford .... 58 8, 

Locusts from the Holy Land . 17 
Lombard, M., on Phthisis . . 16 
London Commissariat, The, 12; 
■Vegetarian Association Meet- 
ing, 11 8.; Oonsiimption of 
"Wheat in, 80; Dairies, The 70 
Love of Nature . . . .56 
LowNE, Dr., Letter of . . 61 

Man, The Dietetic Constitution of 95 
Man's Kepugnance to the De- 
struction of Life . . .7 
Manure for Strawberries . . 87 
Memory, The, of the Dead . . 25 
Metcalfe, llev, "W., Speech of 74 S. 
Middleton, Vegetarian Meeting at 13 8. 
Misery, Whisky and . . .66 8. 
Mistaken Medical Practice . 88 
"Modern Nebuchadnezzars," The 104 
MoralEffectof Aliment, The, 6; 

Movements and their Adherents 57 
Mothers, An Appeal to . . .55 

Natives of Sien-a Leone, The, 

54; of Himalaya ... 68 
Nature, Love of . . . .56 
Natural Instincts, Perversion of 69 
"Nebuchadnezzars, The Modem" 104 
Necessity for Bulk in Pood . 33 
New Zealanders, The . . 3 8. 
Nightingale, Florence, The 

Home of .... 87 
Noble, Mr. J. Speech of . .45 S. 
North British JReview . . 45 
Novel Temperance Society, A 81 
Nursery, Ventilation of the . 56 

Objection Answered, An . . 17 
Observations on the Vegetarian 

System 2 

Otaheitans, The ... 19 

Oyster, Enemies of the 58 

Palmer, J. G. Esq., Lecture of, 

49 8., Speech of . . . 77 S. 
Palmer^ Mr., Speech of . . 65 8. 
Patagonians, The . . . .2 8. 
Patriotic Sporting . . 8 

Pekeira, Dr, Opinions of . .7 8, 
Peiversion, Virulence and, 91 ; 

of Natural Instincts . . 69 
PiLLSBURY, Mr. Parker, Speech 

of , 62 S. 

Poetry :— 
A World of Beauty . . 20 
Love of Nature . . . .56 
All Good Things are Common 70 
The Flowers are in the Fields 

again .... 82 
Autumn ; .... 94 
Clear the Way . . . 1C6 
Politeness and Truth . . .66 
Pork and Scrofula ... 20 
Pork-Eaters, A Scrap for . . 82 
Preying upon Animals the 

Trainer for War, The . 43 
Progress, Impediments to, 21 . 27 
Proper Food of Man, On the . 10 
Publication of Speeches as Tracts 5 
Pwich's Vegetarian Eating House 62 

Rations for the Troops, Varied, 68 
liccent and Approaching Meet- 
ings, The, h9 ; Conference 
and Meeting, 71 ; Birming- 
ham Banquet . . . 103 
Register ! Register ! Register ! 32 
Results of Discussion . . 7 
Rice, Culture and Importance of 71 
Robust Health, Vegetarianism 

and 86 

Romans, Diet and Health of the 6 
Russian Soldier, Food and 

Clothing of the . . . 20 

Satisfactory Experiments . 78 
Sausage Making Mania, The 69 

Sausages, Horse Flesh, 26 ; Home- 

made, 69 ; Composition of 

Scrofula, Pork and, 20 ; Vege- 
tarian Diet, as a Curative 

" Scrutator, " Letter of, 32, 49 

Seizure of Unwholesome Meat 

Sierra Leone, Natives of . 

Simpson, James, Esq., Speech of, 
IS., 15 8., 35 S., 39 8., 69 S., 
Letter of 

Slaughtering, Jewish Mode of . 

Sleep, Excessive .... 

Smith, John Pye, D.D., Opinion 

Soap and Tallow .... 

Social Circle, Difficulties of the 







Soir6e of the Fleshers of Glasgow 36 

Spencer's Social Statics 
Sporting, Patriotic . 
Strawberries, Manure for . 
Subject for the Cruelty to 

Animals Society, A 
Substitute for Gutta Percha . 




SwEDENBORG, 19 ; ou Flesh-catiug 87 

Swedes and Spirit Drinking, The 88 

Tea and Coffee, Effects of, on 

the Poor 102 

Teeth of Man, Lecture on the 49 S. 
Teetotalism and Vegetarianism . 24 
Temple, John, Letter of . . 38 
Terra del Fuego, Inhabitants of . 2 S. 
Testimony, A Valuable, 91 ; of 

a Working Man ... 59 
To Our Readers .... 1 
TowGooD, Mr. F.. Speech of . 47 S. 
Tour, A Vegetarian . . .85 
Travancore, The Inhabitants of 25 
Truth, Politeness and . . .67 

Unwholesome Meat, Seizure of . 56 
Useful Hint to the Corpulent . 79 

Vaccination, Compulsory . . 76 
Valuable Testimony, A . . 91 
Varied Rations for the Ti oops . 68 
Vegetable Locust, The, 17, . 20 
Vegetarian, Eating House,A,54; 
Controversy, 3, 15, 23 ; Diet. 
Instructions for, 19 ; Diet as 
a Curative Agent, 22; Meet- 
ings in Edinburgh, 3'-'; Prac- 
tice in Extreme Climates, 
35; Practice, Advantages of, 
52; Letter of a, 37, 39 ; Eat- 
ing Houses, 66; Approach- 
ing Festivals, 83 ; Tour, 85 ; 
Society.Eighth Anniversary 
of the, 39 S.; Diet and the 
Enjoyment of Life, 93; 
Humbug Tract, The . 
Vegetarianism, Teetotalism and 
24 ; and Economy, 5 ; The 
Flesher Trade verszcs, 37, 38; 
In Relation to the Pleasures 
of Life, 35 S.; and Robust 
Health, 86; in Cararra,93; 
and Consumption . 
Ventilation of the Nursery 
" Viator," Letter of . 
Village Horticultural Societies 
Virulence and Perversion . 
Volga, The Boatmen of the . 

War, The Preying upon Animals 
the Trainer for, 43 ; The In- 
fluence of . 
Ward, Mr. W. G., Letter of, 15, 
32 ; Lecture of, 33 S.;'Speecli 
of, 42 8. .... 72 S. 

Way. to Convince the Mistaken, 

The 86 

Wesley's, John, Endurance and 

Health 33 

Whisky and Misery . . 56 

Whole-Meal Bread . . .34 
MHiolesale Destruction of Larks 34 
" Why ! How in the World do 

you Live ? " ... 81 
Wild Animals in Confinement 81 
Working Man, Testimony of a . 59 
World of Beauty, A . . . 20 
Writer, An Inconsiderate . . 91 
Year, The Close of the • . 103 







In entering upon the Sixth volume of the Messenger, we have to inform our Readers that 
the plan of our publication is precisely that carried out during the volume just completed. 
We are happy to learn that our arrangement and labours during the past year have 
produced at least a measure of satisfaction in our Subscribers and Friends, as well as 
that we have been welcomed in our mission to the more distant Inquirer into Dietetic 
Reform. Our declaration is, thus, " to go straight on " in the course approved, rather 
than to waste time, or divert a moment's energy from the demands of usefulness before 
us in the year 1855. 

In relation to the past year, we have heartily to acknowledge the support of our 
Friends in the dissemination of the knowledge of Vegetarian Principles, by the circula- 
tion of the Messenger^ and to state that, independent of their private aid, and of the 
number of copies disposed of by booksellers, twenty-one thousand stamped copies of the 
3fessenger and Supplement have been circulated through the post to all parts of Great 
Britain, and many copies to various parts of the Continent, as well. It is to labours in 
this direction that we think we trace the growing inquiry, interest, and often intelligence , 
which are now so commonly discovered almost every where, as to the principles and 
objects of the Vegetarian Movement — an impression far beyond the influence directly 
produced by the number of acknowledged organized adherents of the Vegetarian Society, 
and calling for strenuous exertion, in order to secure the results that may naturally 
follow from more extended advocacy. 

There is, thus, every encouragement to prosecute our way rejoicing, and we have the 
more pleasure in once more inviting the co-operation of the friends of Dietetic Reform, 
still further to spread information of the truth and happiness of the Vegetarian System, 
in the first instance ; and next, to labour to advance to organization and active usefulness 
all who, from previous acquaintance with our reform, have already attained to the 
determination to make it a fixed habit of life. It is thus, as every year's reflection 
and experience more powerfully demonstrate, that whilst reaping the advantages 
of a peaceful and happy system of life ourselves, we shall best discharge the duties 
of our position and time, in actively ministering to the wants, progress, and happiness 
of the world. 


"We are happy to learn that the active 
operations of some of the various Associa- 
tions, with which the year has just termi- 
nated, are likely to be followed up, in the 
first months of the year, by arrangements 
not merely securing similar measures in 
bringing meetings to bear, but also in more 
attention than heretofore being given to 
General Agency. 

London, in continuing the routine of 
activities persevered in since May last, is 
the first to enter upon a course of Agency 
for the first two months of the year, and 
several Associations in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, are also identified with simi- 
lar engagements for a somewhat later 

Considering the number of Associations, 


it is no doubt within the means of these, to 
engage and maintain one or more talented 
Agents, whose sphere of operations could he 
made wider than that of the Association in 
its monthly arrangements of meetings or 
lectures, and would thus materially aid in 
increasing the number of members and 
inquirers in connection with such Associa- 
tions. Much can no doubt be said in favour 
of the volunteer labours of the movement ; 
but since these can hardly be maintained 
with sufficient continuity at certain times 
when it may be desirable to make a wide 

impression, the matter of fact procedure of 
Agency has to be resorted to, and here, as in 
other benevolent movements, where ability, 
principle, and good management are brought 
to bear, the public are, no doubt, most 
essentially to be benefited. 

We thus hope to see the attention of our 
Associations directed more to the wants and 
labours of Agency, as an adjunct to what 
else is being done amongst us during the 
present year, and as a work already called 
for in the demands and increasing interest 
of the Vegetarian question. 


The following matter is from the pen of 
Professor Daumer, of Nurnberg, Bavaria, 
and will be read with interest, as further 
evidence of the soundness of Vegetarian 
theories, which claim to be based upon facts 
as widely extended as the history of mankind. 

" Among the many physical and moral 
reforms which are to obtain amongst us, is the 
dietetic, if not the most important of all, at 
least one of the most important. Yet is the 
civilized world blotted by a horrible set of bar- 
barisms, and the old, customary, cruel, 
slaughtering of animals, and the use of their 
flesh as food, is still so commonly carried out, 
that people cannot think that this reform 
would be other than distasteful to them, 
whilst activity in its propagation is re- 
garded as absurd, treated with ridicule, and 
sometimes results in exasperation and hate. 
The Vegetarian system, however, which 
advocates the giving up of the use of flesh as 
food, is based upon the most weighty physi- 
ological, moral, ethical, and philanthropic 
reasons. That a state of high moral and 
intellectual culture and refinement cannot 
possibly be arrived at by mankind whilst the 
devouring and entombing of flesh in our own 
stomachs continues, and that this aliment 
produces and fosters an army of diseases, is 
to me so clear that only a pertinacious fond- 
ness for the use of flesh can withstand its 

"Before giving up my flesh-eating prac- 
tice (which, alas, I wished to do only after 
I had lived in it half a century), Itsuff'ered 
from time to time with a horrible tooth- 
ache, which continued for many days 
and nights at a time. Since I have given 
up the use of flesh as food I have been free 
from this sufi'ering, and as I have not re- 
nounced the use of the vegetable stimulant 
which I used whilst living in the use of flesh, 
as tea, coffee, "and condiments, but now use 

them more than formerly, it is clear these 
last cannot be regarded as the cause of my 
former sufi'erings. Only twice in the course 
of several years, have I fallen back into this 
misery, after having been induced in each 
case to accommodate myself to the prevailing 
regimen and eat flesh, which has tended to 
confirm my opinion as to the injurious and 
disease-producing eff'ect of this food. Two 
other instances illustrative of this have come 
under my observation. One is the case of a 
child who was much troubled with worms 
whilst fed on flesh, but these disappeared as 
the quantity of flesh -meat was reduced. 
That a flesh diet is a great disadvantage in 
relation to the intellectual powers, seems very 
clearly demonstrated in the experience of my 
former foster-son — the foundling Caspar 
Hauser. This young man was sustained 
in his cage on bread and water only, and ate 
and drank nothing else for a long time after 
his appearance in the world ; he, however, 
gradually accustomed himself to partake 
of water-soups, milk-pap, and unseasoned 
chocolate without disadvantage, but the 
smell of flesh-meat was intolerably ofi'ensive 
to him, and of this he felt the greatest ab- 
horrence. On his simple diet he became 
well developed, displayed considerable power 
of apprehension, and manifested unusually 
flne and delicate feeling. At length, how- 
ever, and with the greatest precaution and 
very gradually, a little flesh-broth was in- 
troduced into his water-soups, and as he 
became accustomed to it, the quantity and 
strength of the flesh-broth were increased, 
until in this respect he conformed to the or- 
dinary dietetic practice. But the most de- 
plorable results were produced in relation to 
his intellect and mental powers ; learning 
became difficult, the nobleness and refine- 
ment of his nature were beclouded, and he 
appeared only as an ordinary individual. Of 


course, this change was attributed to any 
cause rather than to the use of flesh-meat, 
and I was not then sufficiently acquainted 
with the effects of diet on the mental and 
moral powers, to regard it as I should now . 
But from my present point of view, and 
with my present information on the subject, 
I have little doubt this unfortunate result 
was caused by the use of preparations of 
flesh, and that it operates even more inju- 

riously mentally and morally, than in its 
physical results, I am astonished that the 
use of flesh as food should be so much sup- 
ported by physiologists and medical men, 
surely for no other reason than that they 
are themselves passionately fond of this in- 
human diet ; for, alas ! man is too much 
accustomed to use his reason to justify and 
support those practices which please and 
delight him on other grounds." 



Our readers will have understood from the 
remarks of our last number,* that the dis- 
cussion raised and carried on in the pages 
of the Nonconformist, and reproduced by 
us with some additions, was terminated. 
It appears, however, that there is matter 
on both sides the question unsaid, for the 
expression of which we have been appealed 
to. Our fairness, and desire to see the truth 
established, as well as that every opportunity 
of elucidation and explanation of what has 
already been said, should be given, lead us thus 
to re-open the controversy by the insertion 
of the following letter from Dr. Balbirnie. 
\ye would, however, remark that exceed- 
ingly lengthy communications are inconve- 
nient to us, as well as to the Nonconform st, 
and we therefore trust that our correspondents 
who may favour us with any further matter 
of this kind, will bear this in mind, as far as 
is consistent with the due expression of the 
matter in hand, since exceedingly lengthy 
articles necessarily exclude a variety of 
matter, which is generally more acceptable, 
as well as more useful to the general reader. 

Dear Sir — Perceiving that you have repro- 
duced in your pages an unfinished controversy, 
I may with great propriety transmit you the 
substance of my second letter to the Noncon- 
formist, which, however, was refused insertion 
on the ground of the controversy occupying too 
much space for a general newspaper — an objec- 
tion which will not apply to your periodical. 

" To the Editor of the Nonconfonnist ." 
" It will be seen from the time that has elapsed 
since the date of the last letter of Mr. Ward, 
that I sit very easy under his accusations, and 
should have treated them with the silence they 
deserve ; but, having Had letters from strangers 
as well as friends, appealing ' to me to extract 
the poison from a venomous pen,' I obey their 
call. T plainly stated that it formed no part of 
the object of my first letter to open any of the 
grounds of the Vegetarian controversy, but sim- 
ply to rebut certain allegations. At the same 
time I shall not shun further discussion with any 
of your correspondents, who are sufl5ciently wise 
to discuss the mooted points in a tone and tem- 
per worthy of sincere truth-seekers. Without 
* Controversialist and Correspondent, vol. v. p. 116, 

any periphrasis, 'beating about the bush,' or any 
refutation of Grub-street abuse, I proceed to deal 
briefly with his accusations. 

" 1st. As to my ' audacity ' in quoting Mr. W. 
' where he never spoke,' for this he must blame 
himself or his printer. He gives a sentence from 
Dr. Euchan defined by inverted commas; and 
then goes on to say, 'But the disease most com- 
mon in this country is the scurvy,' etc. — leaving 
the reader to believe that he has ceased quoting 
Dr. BuCHAN, and is now speaking ' on his own 
head.' Is not this a fair inference ? 

"2nd. I am gravely charged with making a 
' wholesale perversion ' of a sentence of Mr. 
Ward's — of ' dishonestly ' holding him up as 
teaching a new dietetic doctrine, Mr. W. even 
propounding a ' moral problem as to the amount 
of castigation I deserve for my dishonesty !' Again, 
the impartial reader must judge between us. I 
quote in italics the sentence on which I founded 
my induction of the doctrine Mr, Ward taught. 
" 'We boldly tell the doctor, that we reject from 
our bodies, as superfluous and unnecessary, more 
fihrine and iron every day after our meals of brown 
bread, than he can yet from the amount of flesh he 
can safely eat in a day J 1 1 ! 

" What is the obvious inference ? the inference, 
at least, that a medical man would draw from it — 
one M'ho knows that the alvine evacuation is an 
excretion from the glands of the bowels — the scum 
(so to speak) of the blood — who knows that in 
the healthy individual it contains not a particle of 
the nutrient elements of the food, but only its indi- 
gestible debris, as the husk of farinaceous grains, 
the skins and seeds of fruits, leaves, woody fibre, 
etc. ? Can language convey more clearly than 
these words the idea that brown bread is especially 
rich in nutrient principle, that even the part re- 
jected, • the superfluous and unnecessary ' part of 
it, i. e. the branny scale (I don't say bran), con- 
tains more fibrine and iron than any amount of 
flesh a man can safely consume in a day ? Yet, 
for drawing this necessary inference, Mr. Ward 
charges me with dishonesty ! Had I not a right 
to observe on this, that * no one but a person 
unacquainted with the facts would make an asser- 
tion so utterly nonsensical ' ? And who does not 
reiterate this sentiment ? Then I go on to state, 
what is the fact, that the branny scale in question 
(the excreted one. Men entendu) is as devoid of 
nutriment, and as incapable of solution, as are 
the rinds or stones of fruits, the exterior pellicle 
of the potato, or the fibres of the cocoa nut. 

" But Mr. Ward is evideatly conscious of 
having here got into a mess, and resolved upon a 


redeeming stroke. He treats us to the 'artful 
dodg-e ' in right earnest. He tries adroitly to 
make a feint — a diversion from a telling attack 
upon his weak point. He seeks to shift the ground 
of the controversy, and begins to talk of a matter 
that was never the subject of dispute. He invokes 
Professor* Johnston's analysis of wheat to prove 
the nutritive power of the hran of bread — which 
was not the matter called in qiiestion. Now 
everybody who knows the A B C of dietetics and 
chemistry knows this. Mr. 'Ward's vainglorious 
chuckling at my ' ignorance ' here is quite amus- 
ing. Why, I could give him chapter and verse 
of my own writings in which I say even stronger 
things of the natural power of hran (with the 
meal) than even Mr. Johnston's analysis 
shadows forth. How different this bran is from 
the denuded, exhausted, scaly refuse (' twenty 
scales ' ! Mr. Ward says ; twenty thousand is 
nearer the mark) of the brown bread-eater's 
excreta, needs not to be told. 

" But out of Mr. Ward's own mouth I will 
convict him. He says: 'Now the intelligent 
reader of my former letter fully understands that 
the nutriment I spoke of, was in bread and not 
in the bran.^ Begging Mr. Ward's pardon, 
the nutriment he spoke of was 'that ivhich we 
reject from our bodies as superfluous and un- 
necessary.^ Do we then reject bread as the super- 
fluous and unnecessary part of our food ? 
Certainly not, but the branny scale. The sub- 
stance, therefore, of which Mr. Ward really 
spoke was the branny scale — not the bread — 
which indicates at once my inference and my 
honesty, and saddles Mr. Ward with the double 
stigma of a bad logician and a cunning calum- 
niator. The possible evasion, may be the reply, 
'Oh! but I meant bran as it exists in bread.' 
To this I make answer, that we have only to do 
with what Mr. Ward said. If he was not 
competent clearly to express his meaning, he had 
no right to enter the arena of discussion with the 
airs and flourishes he displayed, much less to 
arraign those who do mean exactly what they 
affirm. By this time it will be seen that we are 
quite at one with Vegetarians as to the nutritive 
power of whole-meal bread. Mr. Ward admits 
all I contend for, viz., that the nutriment is not 
contained in the ' branny scale ' — that it is 
'something besides,' as he expresses it, 'some- 
thing between the bran and the fine flour.' Pre- 
cisely. This tertium. quid, then, is something 
between the inert covering, or 'branny scale,' 
and tlie fine flour, viz., the pollen, or 'pollard,' 
adherent to the scales. 

"3rd. I am next accused of not supporting 
my statement about the connection of Vege- 
tarianism and consumption. But it is time 
enough to come to the rescue of my opinion 
when it is in danger of being overthrown. I 
have yet seen neither facts nor figures to in- 
validate it. When I do, I shall gladly give it up, 
as I have no object to maintain but truth, on 
whose side soever it may be. 

* He makes for the nonce, this quondam Profes- 
sor into a "Profound" Chemist !— the said *• Profes- 
sor " (Lecturer) being the author of an Anti-Vegeta- 
rian and Anti- Teetotal book full of blunders. Any- 
thing for a flourish ! 

"Another correspondent (Mr. Wilkinson) 
has my best thanks for his kindly-tempered note. 
He and others must decide who is the aggressor. 
I do not profess, however, to go to quaker- 
lengths in the doctrine of forbearance. The 
feelings of almost every man in the country 
just now is with me here. When ' Russia' comes 
' bullying,' meekness is no virtue — the shine 
must be taken out of him — his shallowness and 
bravadoism exposed. I hope Mr. Wilkinson 
will well understand that I am neither an enemy 
to the Vegetarianism of some, nor a thick-and- 
thin advocate of a mixed diet for all. I am 
often making converts to it of men who will 
bless me every day of their lives for the change. 
But many are Vegetarians who should not be 
Vegetarians, or not till much later in life. Doc- 
trinally on this subject, let me distinctly contend 
for the principle that so long as the circumstances 
and constitutions of mankind are so diverse as they 
are, there can be no universal diet ! — no more 
than there can be a standard size and cut and 
quality of coat. Far too much stress is laid on 
the renunciation of flesh-eating — as if in that 
precise article of faith and practice, consisted the 
whole ' law and prophets ' of a sound dietetic 
regimen. Moderate flesh-eating would be in- 
finitely less mischievous than the - diversified 
mixtures and dainties by which many Vegeta- 
rians compound for flesh. Let me here, also, 
repudiate the common notion that men can be 
classed dieletically, like the lower animals. No ! 
Man is neither a carnivorous, frugivorous, grami- 
nivorous, herbivorous, nor omnivorous animal. 
Neither anatomically, nor physiologically has he 
any precise analogues in the brutes beneath him ; 
— nor can he have. Man is essentially a cooking 
animal, and one that has no fixed habitat. He is 
a denizen of every clime. To talk of man's 
natural food, therefore, in the same sense that we 
talk of the natural food of brute animals is an 
error. When at all removed from the savage 
state, almost every morsel he puts into his mouth 
is denaturalized by the arts of cookery — changed 
into an entirely different substance from its ori- 
ginal by the chemic force. How wide is the 
distance between boiled potatoes, peas-pudding, 
rice-curry, apple-dumpling, bread, porridge, 
hominy, omelettes, soups, buttered-toast, and pie- 
crust, blanc-mange, and mushroom patties, 
and their raio representatives ! Animals eat the 
food that is daily furnished them from the 
liberal bosom of nature. Man (under Provi- 
dence) as his own provider, and as the ' partaker 
of a condition' wherein there is a mighty dis- 
tance between the food and his mouth, has to 
seek it in all climes, and has also to preserve it 
from spoiling when gotten, and store it up against 
a thousand contingencies. In an Edenic clime, 
and with an Edenic life, one could very well 
afford to live on Eden's food. Far other is the 
toiling lot of ninety-nine in the hundred of our 

"From the two striking facts stated by Mr. 
Wilkinson, no positive inference in favour of 
my position can be drawn. Nevertheless, they 
carry with them a weight and suggestiveness we 
cannot ignore. The late Dr. Hope, and a large 


family of brothers and sisters, all died of con- 
sumption before forty. If I recollect rightly, 
there was said to be no hereditary taint. He at- 
tributed the tendency to his mother's Vegetarian 
crotchets, and the squashy, or stinted diet she 
enforced upon them as children, and growing 
youths. Isolated fucts, however, tell nothing. 
Another correspondent, a patient (H. S.), throve 
upon Vegetarian diet. His was just the sort of 
constitution it was fitted for, and he would never 
have been ill if his lot had not placed him tempo- 
rarily under ungenial or under unhygienic influ- 

" Here, then, I calmly take ray leave of Mr. 
Ward ; not in the least 'irate,' or disconcerted 
at the spectre of quackery he holds up to frighten 
me withal. The water-cure is only another word 
for a mode of healing diseases on strict hygienic 
principles, or an enforcement of diet, regimen, 
air, exercise, etc. In all this there is no 
quackery. You may conceive, then, how easily 
I sit under Mr. Ward's puerile insinuations on 
this head. Those who know me intimately, or 
have consulted me professionally, and who have 
read my humble efforts to unveil the mystery of 
physic, and to strip it of its false pretensions, will 
vindicate me of any taint or tendency of this sort. 
My work on Consumption has been reviewed in 
upwards of fifty journals, and the best of them 
have all concurred in this eulogy — that it was 
utterly free from the least tincture of quackery. 

"I have, in conclusion, to apologize for the 
length of this letter (my last to Mr. Ward). I 
have had to unhorse and disarm one of the 
Bashi-hazouks of literature — men overbearing in 
their tone, furious in their passions, haters of all 
who touch their prejudices, deadly in their as- 
saults when they think they may pounce upon 
an antagonist from a safe ambush, and gloating 
with savage delight when they imagine they have 
* thrust the lance home ' ; but who, when fairly 
eonfronted, prove utterly unskilful in fence." 
Your obedient servant, 

John Balbirnie. 

publication of speeches as tracts. 

Dear Sir — Having been for some consider- 
able time an advocate of Vegetarianism, and 
also a reader of its publications, I think it 
the duty of its friends to spread its principles 
as widely as possible, and in no way, in my 
opinion, can it be done more efficiently than by 
reading. I always make a practice of lending 
my Messenger to my friends, and find that the 
speeches of Mr. Simpson, Mr. Smith, and 
others, have very great weight with them, 
and tend to convince, if not to induce all to 
adopt the Vegetarian diet. 

I think if a reprint of the speeches of these 
gentlemen were brought out in a series of tracts, 
in a cheap form for circulation, that many of 
our friends would purchase them for gratuitous 
distribution, and this would no doubt tend to 
facilitate our onward progress. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

Bristol. P. G. 

Our correspondent does not seem to be 
aware that several of the earlier addresses 

on the Vegetarian question were thus pub- 
lished as tracts, and were widely circulated 
in 1848 and 1849, such tracts being still to 
be had, if required. 


Sir — As the economical character of the 
Vegetarian system of diet is sometimes ques- 
tioned, and nothing is so convincing as practical 
experience, I send you a summary of the house- 
hold expenses, of a family of three persons resi- 
ding in Manchester, from July 1st, 1853, to 
July 3rd, 1854, as taken from entries regu- 
larly made in the Working Man's Housekeeping 






ot a family 

of a family 

of 3 persons. 

of 3 persons, 



£ s. d. 



Bread, Flour, and Barm 

8 12 61 



Oatmeal, liice, & Tapioca 

12 8i 


Fruit . . . . 

1 10 1 


Vegetables . 

1 15 6 



4 1 4 



Butter .... 

5 41 


E.-gs . . . . 

1 9 10 


Sugar .... 

2 15 8 



1 14 10 


Coffee .... 

2 5 


Cocoa . . . . 

14 5i 



9 Oi 


Treacle and Honey . 

6 lOi 


Buttermilk . 

1 4i 

Salt, Vinegar, Spices, &c. 

11 1 

Baking Powder 

4 11 



£32 1 



Although the price of flour has been, during 
the greater part of that period, nearly double 
what it previously was, it will be seen that the 
whole expenditure for food for 52 weeks only 
amounted to £32 Is. Od., the annual expendi- 
ture for each individual being thus £10 13s. 8d. 
per head. 

A s butter forms the largest item of expense 
next to bread and flour, and may, as well as 
tea and coffee, be dispensed with, or at least 
materially lessened, to the great advantage of 
health, perhaps a saving of from £7 to £8 
might thus be effected, after allowing for the 
use of a greater proportion of fruit, cocoa, etc., 
as substitutes. 

An examination of the summary which, indeed, 
is a principal advantage of the Housekeeping 
Book, which should be more generally used — will 
show that an undue expense has been incurred 
for flour in proportion to the other farinaceous 
articles — oatmeal and rice — also that too little 
fruits and vegetables, especially the former, have 
been consumed. To this as well as the saving 
above alluded to, I am now directing my 
attention, being satisfied that Providence 
has so wisely ordered all things as to make 
the cheapest and most palatable food also the 

I may observe that our bread was made at 
home and of the best bread flour, and wheat-meal, 
fresh from the mill, mixed in equal proportions : 
also, that we drink no intoxicating liquors, do 

not use tobacco in any form, and have had no 
occasion for a doctor in the house. 

I ara, Sir, respectfully yours, 
Manchester. E. S. 

P. S. — T beo^ to suggest that a Vegetarian 
Housekeeping Book be published, containing the 
items adapted to our wants. 



As the infant begins to discriminate between 
the objects around, it soon discovers one 
countenance that ever smiles upon it with 
peculiar benignity. When it wakes from 
its sleep, there is ever one watchful form 
bent over its cradle. If startled by some 
unhappy dream, a guardian angel seems ever 
ready to soothe its fears. If cold, that min- 
istering spirit brings it warmth ; if hungry, 
she feeds it ; if happy, she caresses it. In joy 
or sorrow, weal or Avoe, she is the first object 
of its thoughts. Her presence is heaven ; the 
mother is the Deity of infancy. — Dickens, 


So fully were the Homans at one time 
persuaded of the superior goodness of vege- 
table diet, that, besides the private example 
of many of their great men, they estab- 
lished laws concerning food, amongst which 
were the lex fannia, and the lex licinia^ 
which allowed very little animal food ; 
and, for a period of five hundred years, 
diseases were banished, along with the physi- 
cian, from the Roman empire. Nor has 
our age been destitute of examples of men, 
brave from the vigour both of their bodies 
and minds, who, at the same time, have 
been drinkers of water and eaters of vege- 
tables. — Dr. Whitlaw. 

AN historical FACT. 

"Wheat was first sown in the North American 
colonies in 1692, on the Elizabeth Islands, 
in Massachusetts, by Gospold, at the time 
he explored that coast. That was just 252 
years ago, and since that time so great has 
been the increase of this cereal, that, in the 
year 1849, according to the census of 18-50, 
the product amounted to 100,503,899 bushels. 
Up to IGIO, and perhaps later, England 
supplied the colonics with the greater part 
of their breadstuffs. How changed is it 
now ! All Europe is looking to us for bread. 
The bread sent to the colonies in 1610 was 
not cast upon the waters never more to return. 
Two hundred and forty years afterwards it 
rolls back in a continuous stream, to gladden 
the hearts of half-famished millions in Eng- 
land, and France, and Belgium. The de- 
scendants of men originally lashed and 
scourged from their shores, and forced to 
make their future habitations beneath the 
uninviting sky — more humane than the 
taskmasters of their fathers — are now striving 

to return good for what was considered an 
evil, by supplying them with bread. 


The moral effect of aliment is clearly evinced 
in the different tempers of carnivorous and 
frugivorous animals. The same effect of 
aliment is discernible among the different 
species of men ; the peaceful temper of the 
frugivorous Asiatic is strongly contrasted 
with the ferocious disposition of the carni- 
vorous European. — Rousseau. 


Habit and ignorance have a much greater 
share in occasioning the dirt, diseases, and 
wretchedness of large sections of the popu- 
lation than has generally been understood 
by philosophers and philanthropists. The 
Scottish Highlander gives up the best room 
in his cabin to a cow, the Irish cotter to a 
pig ; they sleep surrounded with filth ; and 
whether the potato crop has failed or been 
abundant, makes no difference, in this respect, 
to their condition. Poverty is not the cause 
of the dungheap before the door, but indiffe- 
rence to cleanliness ; an indifference which they 
carry with them as emigrants, and retain in 
the United States when their wages have 
been quadrupled. Upon this subject the 
sanitary reports have rendered invaluable 
service to the public, in removing prevalent 
misconceptions by plain statements of fact. 
They abound with instances of disease and 
wretchedness, occasioned, not by poverty, but 
a total disregard of the laws of health ; and 
this, not only in towns, but in rural villages 
and situations naturally salubrious ; and they 
trace the effect of causes of mortality, by 
which the rich are, relatively to their num- 
bers, as frequently the victims as the poor. 
— Westminster Review. 


Ah ! while wc view the blessings of the year, 
Chasten the smile of joy with virtue's tear ; 
And as we take the heaven conferr'd supplies, 
Let soft compassion in our bosom rise ; 
Since from thy hand unsparing we receive, 
teach our hearts unsparingly to give ; 
With souls uplifted while the knee we bend, 
May grateful incense to thy throne ascend. 
And may the suppliants find acceptance there, 
As warm with pious love they breathe the 

prayer ; 
With thee may every thought begin and end, 
First and Last ! Creator ! Father ! Friend ! 



The results of the honest discussion of sub- 
jects is no doubt beneficial, in leading to the 
formation of more correct opinions than are 
generally entertained to begin with upon any 
new question. The method in which discus- 
sion may be conducted, however, is so varied, 
as very materially to affect the conclusions 
to be arrived at, and even in the minds of 
those who are the principal actors in it. 

Inquiry and communication are constantly 
producing discussion in social life, and when 
this is for the purpose of eliciting the truth, 
the results thus regulated are useful at every 
step. Unfortunately, however, there are 
other objects than those of truth, so com- 
monly made leading elements in discussion, 
and especially in public discussion, that what 
should be its natural product, is of an exceed- 
ingly uncertain character, and is often falla- 
cious to the public, whilst productive of mis- 
chief to the actors in it. Probably this has 
led to the popular conclusion that " a man 
can prove any thing" in discussion, "if he 
be but clever enough." 

There is, however, it must be admitted, a 
counterpart to the want of candour, honesty, 
or other errors of the discussionist, and that is 
in the want of intelligence, discriminating 
power, and, above all, the substituting 
of opinions for facts, in the public who are 
appealed to. With the mass of the public, 
it seems sutficient to quote influential names 
in support of positions intended to be sup- 
ported, forgetful that the deductions of the 
greatest philosophers are all simple and 
intelligible to the " common sense " of men, 
when once they are referred to the facts on 
which they are founded. " Common sense " 
and " common things" ever go together in 
the progress of the world ; the apparently 
complicated is ever being reduced to the 
simple, and if the theories of all are sub- 
mitted to the test of a common sense view 

of the facts on which they profess to be 
founded, an issue is satisfactorily arrived at, 
for the analysis and subsequent corrobora- 
tion, or refutation, of the subject for which 
attention is claimed. This position is 
absolutely true of all essential things ; and 
for the more abstract questions of truth, 
these neither are nor can be addressed to 
popular attention with any practical result, 
and can thus well be left to the disputations 
of the scientific world, who, however, so far 
as any thing can be made useful, have to 
resort to the same searching analysis for 
fact and sound deduction therefrom, which 
has to be pursued in commoner and more 
essential things. 

How much safer, then, for the public, in 
estimating the value of the positions of the 
discussionist, to ask for the facts on which 
the opinions of men of name and profound 
acquirement are supposed to be based, and to 
receive the name and opinion as at all times 
secondary to the facts on which it is pre- 
sumed to be founded. It is this simple 
process, due to the common sense of society, 
that would, at once, put down two-thirds 
of the errors and false assumptions which 
belong to opinions without facts, and 
whether on all essential facts of science, or 
social, or even political questions, would be 
a grand safeguard to the well-being of the 
honest and well-intentioned of every class. 

Discussion, thus, for want of honesty in 
the discussionist, and more intelligence in 
the public, is rendered questionable and 
uncertain in its results ; but with the general 
observance of the rule of seeking the facts, 
and letting the opinions of the authorities 
quoted be regarded as valuable, or otherwise, 
as it may be found in accordance with these, 
the public have the most powerful engine 
for the correction of error, and the sound 
guidance of the future. 


There is an error far too commonly enter- 
tained, that man is by nature prone to inflict 
pain, and is capable of deriving pleasure 
from such pursuits as result in the destruc- 

tion of life. In a world in which order is 
the exception, and disorder the prevailing 
characteristic, this may seem a somewhat 
natural conclusion, but will not for a moment 


bear the test of a careful examination. In- 
stances in support of this view are quoted 
from the striking conduct of certain classes 
of the animal creation in the destruction of 
their prey, and from man's own conduct to 
the inferior animals, and even toAvards his 
own species, in uncertain and conflicting 
passages of his history. "We need hardly, 
however, for a moment observe, that the in- 
stance of the carnivorous tribes in relation 
to their prey, especially if taken "with their 
other characteristics, is much more cal- 
culated to serve as a warning than as an 
example, and that the higher order of endow- 
ments observable in the nature of man, — 
ascending in our admiration of the broad 
difference we seek to establish between him 
and the inferior animal creation, to the 
"lordly and noble" — are at least strikingly 
inharmonious with habits of prey. Nor can 
man in his savage conflicts with his brother 
man, be presented in such a light as at all to 
do honour to our perceptions of what we 
acknowledge to be the highest attributes of 
his character. "With the progress of civili- 
zation, the arts of peace, and the cultivation 
of brotherly kindness, have been discovered 
to be the most ennobling to nations as well 
as to individuals ; and thus, man, in rela- 
tion to the savage acts of the earlier periods 
of his fallen history, or the blood-thirsty 
cravings of savage races of the present day, 
can no more draw a precedent for the ad- 
vantages of a course of destructive conduct 
to his fellow-beings, than he can from the 
observance of the practice of the carnivorous 
animals in destroying their prey. Both 
courses are unworthy of him. 

The great error in all the conclusions 
which have tended to ascribe pleasure to 
man's nature in destruction and bloodshed, 
arises from the consideration of man in 
depraved or abnormal conditions, and the 
want of careful consideration as to his 
nature, moral, intellectual, and physical. 
It cannot be for a moment denied, that the 
tiger, as well as the other tribes of the car- 
nivora, are constituted in direct relation to 
their prey, and, as what is natural is ever 
made easy and pleasurable, the normal con ■ 
dition of all these races shows that there is 
not merely adaptation, but the highest 
satisfaction in every act associated with it, 
not excepting those of the destruction of life, 
essential to their existence as animals of 
prey. Unless, however, we take the Carib 
(commonly regarded as the most degraded 
and blood-thirsty of the human species) as a 
type of the human race, we shall find nothing 
in the families of mankind which at all 
approximates to the thoroughly expressed 
characteristics of the animals of prey ; and 
from the moment that we seek a standard 

in relation to the highest orders of humanity, 
and bring philosophical observation to bear 
in pointing out what are the essential cha- 
racteristics of human nature, we find that 
the assumed tendency to destroy life is at 
least more than brought into question. 

Regarding man as a physical being, his 
natural instincts are all repelled by every 
step essential to the strict imitation of the 
animal of prey ; and though intellect may 
aid him in substituting the knife and other 
destructive implements for the teeth and 
claws of the carnivora, nature is still forcible 
in her instinctive declarations of repugnance 
to the processes essential to the making use 
of these. Above and beyond all, however, 
there is the moral nature of man, which, in 
its leading benevolent characteristic, opposes 
itself to the destruction of life, and to the 
needless injury of the weak and defenceless; 
and though the intellect may here again be 
said to have an influence in modifying and 
directing this tendency where the life and 
health, or other essential conveniences of 
man, are brought into danger, the modifying 
influence of this is still such as ever tends to 
the declaration, that the bloodshed and de- 
struction of the inferior animal creation, as 
well as of the human species, are opposed 
both to the instincts, the intellectual, and 
the moral state of the human subject. 

"We, of course, at once apprehend the ob- 
jections to the picture we have attempted to 
draw of the natural constitution of man, but 
are ready to meet them without fear that our 
theory should be at all marred in fact. " "We 
see men delight in the destructive acts of 
sporting," says one ; and " have we not be- 
fore us ample evidence in the destructive 
features of history, that men take- delight in 
the destruction of life, and this even in the 
most civilized nations of the earth } " says 
another. " Is not man unquestionably en- 
dowed with a tendency to combat and 
destroy?" says a third. On the first of 
these popular objections we have simply to 
remark, that the phases of society suggesting 
such conclusions are the result of erroneous 
training. Certainly, we behold men who, 
from the force of education in destructive 
practices in sporting, can shoot down and 
otherwise destroy thousands of the beautiful 
specimens of the animal creation, and some 
of these even of the gentlest and most in- 
offensive kind, and with an apparent zest, 
which seems to declare that they are vain of 
their practice as destroyers. We behold 
even men of rank and title most conspicuous 
in these practices, and the other day, even, 
nearly a thousand of God's harmless crea- 
tures, — warm-blooded, complete in their ani- 
mal existence, and of nervous life sentient 
as that of their destroyers — were shot down 


in the name of kindness and patriotism, if 
not of mercy itself, as we read in the follow- 
ing extract from the public prints : 

"Patriotic Sporting. — Lord Ward with 
some of his friends commenced shooting on 
the Hurcott Manor, on Friday last, the game 
which he intends to send to our soldiers in 
the Crimea. There were eight guns, and at 
the close of the day's warfare the result was 
the death of 336 hares, 140 rabbits, 78 
pheasants, 3 partridges, and 1 woodcock, 
total 558. On the following day his lord- 
ship, with Sir J. S. Pakington, Bart., and 
others, had a day's shooting for the same 
object, on the Witley estates. There Avere 
nine guns, and the day's sport yielded 188 
hares, 123 rabits, and 103 pheasants, making j 
a total of 414, and of both days, 972." I 

All this, however, we contend, is solely j 
and purely the result of training ; for though i 
there is certainly considerable difference j 
manifested between the savage and the | 
civilized in the tendencies to destructive \ 
pursuits (the results of training in previous 
generations), there is, in degree at least, 
pain and compunction experienced in the 
first steps which have to be passed through 
before the practice of sporting in any of 
these forms can give pleasure. The acci- 
dental shooting of one's dog, or the wailing 
cry of the hare when closely pressed by the 
hound, are quite suflScient, early on, to turn 
some from what might ultimately have 
become a confirmed sporting habit. But 
though the sense of pain is associated with 
the first acts of slaughter, and even in some 
cases intense compunction experienced, 
where, from trepidation, inexperience, or 
other accidental circumstances, life has not 
been fully destroyed, the shame at manifest- 
ing other feelings than those of the trained 
sportsman, with other indurating effects of 
progress in the perpetration of such acts, but 
too commonly suffice to repress much of these 
early natural feelings (where the steps to 
the ultimate practice of the sportsman are 
not even more imperceptibly taken), till, at 
length, what was painful becomes, compara- 
tively at least, an inferior pleasure. It is 
in this way, just as in the processes to which 
the helpers of the slaughter-houses are sub- 
mitted, that education can be perfected, and 
though the first act in each vocation is 
accompanied by a throbbing bosom, the 
ultimate results of departure from nature 
(always constant in proclaiming against the 
practice, notwithstanding, to begin with) is 
to prove, at most, that man, by the force of 
adaptability, can exist otherwise than as the 
instincts of his nature, the powers of his 
reason, and the mercy and benevolence of 
his moral nature, will infallibly direct. 
As to the conclusions to be drawn from 

the warlike practices of the majority of the 
races of mankind, and more especially of 
those of the most civilized communities, (on 
the practice of which the argument is in- 
tended to be most forcibly placed), we might 
simply call attention to the notable discre- 
pancy between the principles of profession or 
belief, and the practice of such communities, 
and inquire whether, in a land of Christians, 
the obligations of Christian conduct to others 
are only to be binding so far as suits the 
convenience or expediency of individuals or 
nations. But we prefer to go to the root of 
the matter, and to state that the destruction 
of human life is lamentably opposed to the 
whole nature of man. By man in a state 
of nature, we only refer to the normal state 
of man — not the savage state, 

*' Nor think in Nature's state they blindly trod ; 
The state of Nature was the reign of God : " 

And if required to account for the facts that 
seem to establish any other conclusion, we 
have again to revert to the force of habit and 
unfortunate training, in bringing about the 
dire conflicts and slaughter of Christian 
nations as now witnessed, after hundreds of 
years of the profession of the " humanizing 
teaching of the Gospel of Peace." Men are 
not proof against evil example and training, 
even here, any more than in their erroneous 
practices in slaughtering and preying upon 
the brute creation — the great step of tran- 
sition to the '' forging of the sword," and the 
slaughter of our " brother man.'' For illus- 
trations to prove our position, the merest 
every-day incidents of war, will amply 
satisfy us. We extract one worthy of deep 
attention, from the events of the present war. 

" It would be difficult to find in the whole 
range of fiction, a more affecting incident 
than is contained in the following extract 
from a letter written by a British seaman, 
now serving in the Baltic, to his wife, who 
resides in the neighbourhood of Boston, 
Lincolnshire. The letter is dated Hango 
Roads, May 22nd, and is published at length 
in the Boston Guardian. It was his first 
service on shore as a soldier, having been 
sent on shore with a boat's crew of marines 
to silence a fort and take some guns : — 

' We dispersed at a few hundred yards dis- 
tance from the beach, to keep the coast clear 
whilst the boat's crew made prizes of the 
guns. The enemy had the advantage of the 
wood, and also knowing the country well, 
and a troop of them showed in advance. 
We were ordered to fire. I took steady aim 
and fired on my man at about sixty yards. 
He fell like a stone. At the same time a 

broadside from the went in amongst 

the trees, and the enemy disappeared, we 
could scarce tell how. I felt as though I 
must go up to him^ to see whether he was 



dead or alive. He lay_ quite still, and I was 
more afraid of him lying so tlian when he 
stood facing me a few minutes before. It's 
a strange feeling to come over you all at once 
that you have killed a man. He had 
unbuttoned his jacket, and was pressing his 
hand over the front of his chest where the 
wound v/as. He breathed hard, and the 
blood poured from the wound, and also from 
his mouth, every breath he took. His face 
was white as death, and his eyes looked so 
big and bright as he turned them and stared 
at me. I shall never forget it. He was a 
fine young fellow, not more than five-and- 
twenty. I went down on my knees beside 
him, and my breast felt so full, as though 
my own heart would burst. He had a real 
English face, and did not look like an 
enemy. "What I felt I never can tell, but if my 
life would have saved his, I believe I should 
have given it. I laid his head on my knees, 
and he grasped hold of my hand and tried to 
speak, but his voice was gone. I could not 
tell a word he said ; and every time he tried 
to speak the blood poured out so, I knew it 
would soon be over. I am not ashamed to 
say that I was worse than he, for he never 
shed a tear, and I couldn't help it. His eyes 
were closing when a gun was fired from the 

to order us aboard, and that roused 

him. He pointed to the beach, where the 
boat was just pushing ofi" with the guns 
which we had taken, and where our mariners 
were waiting to man the second boat, and 
then he pointed to the wood, where the 
enemy were concealed — poor fellow, he little 
thought how I had shot him down ! I was 
wondering how I could leave him to die and 
no one near him, when he had something 
like a convulsion for a moment, and then 
his face rolled over, and without a sigh he 
was gone. I trust the Almighty has received 
his soul. I laid his head gently down on 
the grass and left him. It seemed so strange 
when I looked at him for the last time ; I 
somehow thought of everything I had heard 
about the Turks and the Russians and the 

rest of them — but all that se§med mfar offy 
and the dead man so near. * 

To man, even in a transition state from 
nature's ways, it must, indeed, be " a strange 
feeling that you have killed a man." But let 
us glance from this instance of early compunc- 
tion to the results of a few months' training 
in the trenches before Sebastapol, and what 
then do we see ? We make the extract from 
the letter of a Marine. f 

" I have not had my clothes off to sleep 
since I have been here, and I shan't if we 
stop for six months. We sleep with our 
belts on and 60 rounds of ammunition, and 
our muskets loaded by our sides. * * * * 
You can tell Bob"! have got a slap-up great- 
coat for him, that I got one night when I 
was out on picket. The man that had it 
that night will never want it again, for he 
was not able to carry away a small bit of 
lead I made him a present of.' ' 

We here see how lightly is the destruction 
of life held after the " hard practice" of a 
brief period ; and it is thus, we contend, that 
the instances presented of men taking pleasure 
in the pursuits of war, are but a further stage 
of erroneous and abnormal training. 

For the rest, man is obviously both comba- 
tive and destructive, whether he live without 
preying upon the animal creation, or carry- 
ing war into his neighbour's country .'' But 
combativeness and destructiveness but re- 
quire the regulation of the moral nature to 
be important gifts, even for the progress of 
morals, and their legitimate exercise is the 
contending against and putting down of 
difficulty and evil. 

Man in harmony with his nature, is thus 
opposed to slaughter and bloodshed, whether 
encountered in seeking food, or conquest, 
and an accurate observation of the features 
of his history, we believe, will prove what 
the wisest moralists have contended for, that 
he is only susceptible of enduring happiness 
in a life of obedience to the peaceful, mer- 
ciful, and noble attributes of his being. 
• Inquirer^ July 15, 1854. + Times, Sept., 29, 1854. 


There are few subjects on which a greater 
diversity of opinions is entertained than 
that which relates to the proper diet of the 
human family. Some of those who have 
investigated the subject extensively, have 
come to a full conviction that a Vegetarian 
diet is that which is most in accordance Avith 
the laws of human physiology, and for which 
the anatomical structure of man is evidently 
best adapted. So far as history can be relied 
on from its earliest records down to the pre- 
sent period, it is manifest that from two- 
thirds to three-fourths of the human race 
have in every age subsisted almost exclu- 


sively on vegetable aliment, The Brahmins 
of India, and the mass of the inhabitants of 
Hindostan, neither kill nor eat any sort of 
animal for food ; and it is certain that such 
has been the rule of their conduct for more 
than tv)o thousand years ! While they rear 
numerous herds of cattle on account of their 
useful'and patient services to man, such is 
their sympathy and veneration for these 
animals, that to'kill, or even treat one of them 
with cruelty, is there deemed a capital offence. 
There, indeed, every living creature, even 
the meanest animal, meets with justice and 
tenderness, and the idea that fruits, grains. 



and farinaceous productions are the proper 
and natural sources of man's nutriment, and 
are sufficient for the support of his physical 
existence, seems to obtain almost universally. 
The Japanese for the most part feed on rice, 
pulse, fruits, roots, and herbs. The Chinese, 
and the most laborious and useful portions 
of the families and nations on the earth, sub- 
sist for the most part on vegetable diet. And 
the people that are sustained on such food 
exclusively, are said " of all men to be the 
handsomest, the most robust, the least ex- 
posed to disease and violent passions, and to 
attain to the greatest longevity." 

There are others, again, well versed in the 
knowledge of human nature, who think a 
mixed diet, partly animal and partly vege- 
table, is that which is the most suitable and 
best fitted for maa'8 nourishment. Animal 
food, they contend, is more allied to our 
nature than vegetable, and more easily assi- 
milated to the sustenance of our physical 
powers. Yet it is admitted that the vege- 
table kingdom is the only source of nourish- 
ment, directly or indirectly, of all animal 
support ; and, consequently, that there is no 
nutrition for animal or man's maintenance 
but what is drawn from the vegetable world. 
It is admitted also by such as have investi- 
gated this dietetic inquiry with a desire to 
come to a knowledge of the truth, that, in 
temperate and warm climates especially, an 
animal diet is more wasting than one of 
vegetables, because it excites, and by its 
stimulating qualities produces, a temporary 
fever after every Jlesh-meal^ and by these 
stimulating tendencies, urges unduly the 
springs of life into constant preternatural 
and debilitating exertions; and that we 
seldom see those who indulge much in a 
mixed or animal diet, to be remarkable for 
health or longevity. 

But it is not uncommon to meet with per- 
sons whose views and habits are still more 
carnivorous; who seem to look upon Jiesh 
rather than bread^ as being the constituent, 
or '' staff of life," and who endeavour to 
convince us, that throughout all life, struggle 
is the law of ascension, death is indispensable 
to the continuation of human life, and that 
hence all those butcheries, and even those 
rude antagonisms, occurring between man 
and man, are justifiable and in accordance 
with the nature of things. War is considered 
by such persons as a legitimate consequence 
of the condition of our race, and all the con- 
comitants of war, such as butchery, hunting, 
martial games, and field sports, are equally 
legitimate. When battle and destruction 
cease, say they, the whole animal world, 
with man at its head, must terminate in an- 
nihilation ; the law is that animal life must 
be perpetuated through death and decay. 

We remember reading, with no little sur- 
prise, in a very popular work, on The Rela- 
tion between the Holy Scriptures and some 
parts of Geological Science, by John Pye 
Smith, D.D., sentiments like the above. 
"The mysterious principle of life," says 
Dr. Smith, " is universally maintained by 
the agency of death. From dead organic 
matter the living structure derives its neces- 
sary supplies. The processes of nutrition, assi- 
milation, growth, exhaustion, and reparation, 
hold on their irresistible course to decay 
and dissolution — in other words, to death. 
Some persons have dreamed of sustaining 
animal life by exclusively vegetable food ; 
ignorant that in every leaf, or root, or fruit, 
which they feed upon, and in every drop of 
water they drink, and in the very air they 
breathe, they put to death myriads of living 
creatures, whose bodies are as ' curiously 
and wonderfully made ' as our own, which 
were full of animation and agility, and 
enjoyed their modes and periods of existence 
as really and efiectively under the bountiful 
care of Him '■ who is good to all, and whose 
tender mercies are over all his works,' as the 
stately elephant and the majestic horse, or 
man, the earthly lord of all. By far the 
larger portion of the animal creation is 
formed, in every part of its anatomy, internal 
and external, for living upon animal food, 
and cannot live upon any other." Agreeing 
with the principles of Dr. Smith, we were 
not surprised to read corresponding senti- 
ments in a work recently published by J. W. 
Bradley, of our city, entitled, Wild Scenes and 
Wild Hunters of the World, written by J. C. 
Webber. We could not reasonably expect a 
Wild Hunter to advocate any other view of 
human diet than one, by the carrying out of 
which his every day's existence is sustained ; 
but we might have expected something more 
intellectual, more scientific, more in harmony 
with truth, and resting less, in its conclusions, 
on mere appearances, from one so elevated 
in the literary world as Dr. Smith. We 
admit, with him, that a "large portion of 
the animal creation is formed, in every part 
of its anatomy, internal and external, for 
living upon animal food"; we do not even 
stop here, but maintain that each and every 
part of any organized animal, taken sepa- 
rately, indicates and gives the key to a know- 
ledge of all the rest, and demonstrates the 
structure, the character, and habits of the 
animal. Thus, if the stomach of an animal 
is so organized and adapted as only to digest 
animal food, its jaws must also be so con- 
trived as to lay hold on and devour such prey ; 
its claws to seize and tear it ; its teeth to cut 
and divide it ; the whole structure of its 
locomotive organs to pursue and obtain it; 
its organs of sense to perceive it from afar ; 



and in its brain must have been placed by 
creation the necessary instinct to enable it to 
conceal itself, and to bring its victim -within 
its toils. Are these anatomical peculiarities 
met with in the structure of man's organiza- 
tion ? Is every part of his anatomy, internal 
and external, formed for living upon animal 
food ? Is his stomach like that of the carni- 
vora ? or has he the corresponding " external 
anatomy" of their /ae^s, claws, teeth, locomo- 
tive organs, organs of sense, and instinct- 
imbued brain ? Baron Cuvier, whose know- 
ledge of comparative anatomy was acknow- 
ledged to be profound, says, " Fruits, roots, 
grains, and the succulent parts of vegetables, 
are the natural food of man ; his hands 
afford him a facility in gathering them ; and 
his short and canine teeth, not passing beyond 
the common line of the others, and the tu- 
bercular teeth, would not permit him to feed 
on herbage, nor devour Jlesh, unless these 
substances were previously prepared by the 
culinary processes." Linnaeus, one of the 
most celebrated naturalists that ever lived, 
says, " The species of food most proper and 
suitable for the human race is fruits, fari- 
nacea, etc. ; this is evinced by the series of 
quadrupeds, by analogy, the wild man, or 
orang outang ; by the structure of the mouth, 
of the s^omacA, and of the hands." Gassendi, 
Daubenton, Sir Edward Home, Ray, 
Professor Lawrence, Lord Monboddo, 
Roget, Bell, and other eminent and scientific 
men concur in their testimony, that man, by 
his anatomical structure, " internal and ex- 
ternal," is unquestionably designed to feed 
on fruits, grains, roots, and other vegetable 

It is not necessary that we should here 
dwell upon the Bible testimony respecting 
the proper food of man. Science and reli- 
gion, when correctly understood, will always 
be found in harmony with each other. The 
original dietetic law, recorded in Gen. i, 29, 
gives direction to mankind to eat seeds, and 
fruits, and "living herbs" ; but no such 
ordinance or appointment is there to be found 
respecting^^sA for food. In Paradise, "The 
Lord God caused to grow every tree that 
was pleasant to the sight, and good for food." 
" Mark well ; no stain 
Of blood is seen— no reeking flesh appears 
In Eden's banquet hall ; but luscious fruits 
In rich profusion lie, and every sense 
Is charmed and sated too, but not inflamed 
To lawless lust, or sensual act. Around 
The harmless Lion walks ; the fearless Lamb 
Beside the monarch plays ; the gentle Dove, 
And tow'ring Eagle, here are friends for love." 

But we must here again recur to Dr. 
Smith's account of those deluded persons 
who "have dreamed of sustaining human 
life by a diet exclusively vegetable,' ' igno- 
rant that in all that they eat and drink and 
breathed, they put to death myriads of living 
creatures. All this is mere declamation ; 
unsustained by scientific facts. Whenever 
men of standing undertake to assume premises 
agreeing more with the suggestions of per- 
verted appetites than with the teachings of 
unbiassed science, they ought to give "the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth." It is true that animalculse may be 
found in stagnant water, in putrid roots, and 
decaying fruits ; but no such existences are 
found in those articles when pure. Take 
your most powerful microscopes, and ex- 
amine the sound and healthful root, or the 
equally perfect and nutritious fruit, and 
where are your "myriads of living crea- 
tures." Look at a drop of pure fresh water. 
Where are all those innumerable animal- 
culae, "fighting with each other like young 
demons," of which Dr. Smith speaks ? No 
such things are ever found in pure, fresh, 
living water. An excellent article on this 
subject appeared in the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger, of August 2, 1853. " The idea en- 
tertained by most persons, that all water, 
whether found in springs, wells, brooks, 
ponds, or cisterns; or even the fresh rain 
water, is filled with living creatures, is, 
as far as the miscroscope will enable us to 
ascertain, without foundation in truth. Water 
is a compound of two gases — hydrogen and 
oxygen — and the existence of animalcules in 
it is altogether dependent on certain causes, 
such, for example, as its contact with vege- 
table matter ; thus, if you take a bowl of 
water, and place a handful of hay, or other 
vegetable matter in it, in a few days the top 
will be covered with a scum, which, by 
putting a small quantity under the micro- 
scope, will be found to be a mass of ani- 
malcules, but still only of the lower order, 
most of them being the Monads; the 
smallest of which class being so minute that 
80,000,000 can swim about in one drop." 

Thus far, then, we are persuaded our 
sentiments in favour of Vegetarianism, as 
the proper food of man, are borne out by 
the facts of science. The objections have 
been met and answered, and we trust our 
readers will join us in the faith and practice 
of Vegetarianism. — American Vegetarian, 
by the Rev. W. Metcalfe, M.D. 


A VERY interesting article in the Quarterly 
Review gives us some insight into the extent 
of the requirements of London and its neigh- 

bourhood, supposed to contain about two 
millions and a half of inhabitants. Billings- 
gate, Smithfield, and Covent Garden, are the 



representatives of the three different divisions. 
Mark Lane is the great corn market ; but 
with regard to corn, it is more spread 
abroad, and if the calculation is made that 
each person consumes 1 qr., or 480 lb., in 
the year, we may reckon that they require 
2,500,000 qrs., in one shape or another. Our 
estimate would be that such a quantity of 
corn, combined with fruits and vegetables, 
would be sufficient to maintain the popula- 
tion without the flesh of animals. 



Salmon and Salmon Trout 406,000 

Live Cod . . 400,000 

Sole3 .... 97,520,000 

Whiting .... 17,920,000 

Haddock . . . 2,470,000 

Plaice .... 33,600,000 

Mackarel . . • 23,520,000 

Fresh Herrings (in barrels) 175,000,000 

Ditto (in bulk) 1,050,000,000 

Sprats .... 32.000,000 

Eels .... 10,000,000 

Flounders . . . 259,000 

Dabs . . . 270,000 


Cods . . . . . 750,000 

„ salted . . . 1,600,000 

Haddocks, smoked . . 19,500,000 

Bloaters .... 147,000,000 

Red Herrings . . 50,000,000 

Dried Sprats . . . 288,000,000 


Oysters .... 495,896,000 

Lobsters .... 1,200,000 

Crabs .... 600,000 

Shrimps .... 498,429,000 

Whelks, Mussels, Periwinkles, 
Cockles .... 420,700,000 


Three thousand three hundred and sixty 
seven million, is the number of lives sacri- 
ficed from the fishy tribes, to supply the 
unnatural demand of the London stomachs. 
Who would believe it .'> Christian men and 
women eat them .greatly without considera- 
tion. Many of these fish are kept in a state 
between life and death, retaining that spas- 
modic quivering of the flesh, which shows 
that life and feeling are not quite extinct. 
The lobsters are dragged reluctantly out of 
their rock-bound dwellings with much pinch- 
ing and twisting. On arriving here, the 
fighting, twisting masses are plunged in 
their baskets into boiling water, and thus an 
end is put to their existence, and the black 
coat changed for a red. What tortures they 
endure we cannot say ; they are not injured 
for the market ; so that question is not con- 
sidered. The crabs, however, cannot be 
treated in the same way ; their nervous 
systems being more acute, or their tenacity 
being less, they dash off their claws in con- 
vulsive agony, if placed alive in boiling 
water. To prevent this, a needle is merci- 
lessly thrust through the head, to kill them 
before boiling. The careless cruelties that 

are perpetrated on this host of God's crea- 
tures, that men thoughtlessly, foolishly, 
needlessly devour, to bring upon themselves 
numerous ills, is beyond the power of 

Oxen sent to London by rail 322,188 

Sheep .... 1,630,793 

Calves .... 101,776 

Pigs .... 127,852 

Oxen imported into London . 56,065 

Sheep . • . . 229,918 

Calves .... 25,720 

Pigs .... 10,131 

Besides these supplies about 37,000 tons 
of flesh are forwarded to the market, 
which vpill probably cost the lives of 
200,000 sheep and 20,000 oxen 




An estimate of the fowls and game, 
pigeons and wild fowl, rabbits, hares, 
and other game, gives us the probable 
total amount supplied to London . 5,759,900 

All these animals, being killed with all their 
blood in them, are very unwholesome. 

Here we have a sacrifice to the human 
mausoleum, which undertakes to put away 
eight millions and a half of the inhabitants 
of this terrestial globe. 

A description of Smithfield is the least 
horrible part of the drama, which indivi- 
duals of the human race are compelled to 
enact to supply the smoking boards, the 
origin of the dire diseases which afflict the 
race. " If a stranger ventures into this 
living mass, he is enabled to watch more 
narrowly the reason of the universal ferment 
among the beasts. The drover with his goad 
is forcing the cattle into the smallest possible 
compass, and a little further on half-a-dozen 
men are making desperate efforts to drag 
refractory oxen up to the rails with ropes. 
In the scuffle which ensues, the slipping of 
the ropes often snaps the fingers of the per- 
sons who are conducting the operation, and 
there is scarcely a drover in the market who 
has not had some of his digits broken. The 
sheep squeezed into the hurdles like figs in a 
drum, lie down upon each other, ' and make 
no sign ' ; the pigs, on the other hand, cry 
out before they are hurt. This scene, which 
has more the appearance of a hideous night- 
mare than a weekly exhibition in a civilized 
country, is accompanied by the barking of 
dogs, the bellowing of cattle, the cursing of 
men, and the dull blow of sticks, a charivari 
sound, which must be heard to be appreci- 
ated. The hubbub gradually abates from 
twelve o'clock at night, the time of opening, 
to its close, 3 p .m. next day ; although 
during the whole period, as fresh lots are 
headed up, individual acts of cruelty continue. 
Can it excite surprise that a state of things, 



the worst details of which we have suppressed, 
because of the pain which such horrors ex- 
cite, sometimes so injures the stock that, to 
quote the words of one of the witnesses before 
the Smithfield Commission, ' a grazier will 
not know his own beast four days after it 
has left him ? ' The flesh itself suffers in 
quality ; for anything like fright or passion 
is well known to affect the blood, and con- 
sequently the flesh itself. Beasts subjected 
to such disturbances, will often turn green 
within twenty-four hours after death. Mr. 
Slater, the well-known butcher of Kensing- 
ton and Jermyn-street, asserts that mutton 
is often so disfigured by blows and the goad, 
that it cannot be sold for the west end 

There are officers appointed to condemn 
all tainted flesh in the markets. According, 
however, to a competent witness — Mr. 
Harper — bad flesh-meat can be disposed of 
to any amount in the metropolis to butchers 
who live in low neighbourhoods, and who 
impose it on the poor at night. " There is 
one shop, I believe, " he says, " doing £500 
per week on diseased flesh. This firm has 
a large foreign trade. The trade in diseased 
flesh is very alarming, and anything in the 
shape of flesh can be sold at Id. per lb., or 
about 8d. per stone ! ! " 

Thus, in addition to the natural evils 
arising from eating the flesh and blood of 
animals, the air is tainted, the morals and 
the health of the population are corrupted, 
and no wonder fevers and cholera prevail. 

Let us now turn to a more pleasant de- 
partment of the commissariat. 

At the first dawn of morning, in the midst 
of squalid London, sweet country odours 
greet the early riser, and cool orchards and 
green strawberry slopes seem ever present to 
the mind — 

" Bright volumes of vapour through Lothbury 
And a river flows on through the vale of 

As early as two o'clock in the morning, a 
person, looking down the way of Piccadilly, 
will perceive the first influx of fruit and 
vegetables to Covent Garden. Different 
portions of the market are dedicated to dis- 
tinct classes of vegetables and fruits. The 
finest of the delicate and soft fruits, such as 
strawberries, peaches etc., are lodged in the 
central alley. On the large covered space to 
the north is the wholesale fruit station, fra- 
grant with pears, apples, greengages or other 
fruits in season. The southern open space 
is dedicated to cabbages and other vegetables, 
and the extreme south front is occupied 
wholly by potato-salesmen. Around the 
whole quadrangle on a busy morning there 
is a party-coloured fringe of waggons backed 

in towards the central space, in which the 
light green of cabbages forms the prevailing 
colour, interrupted here and there with 
the white of turnips, or the deep orange 
of digit-like carrots ; and as the spectator 
watches, the whole mass is gradually absorbed 
into the centre of the market. Meanwhile, 
the wholesale fruit-sales are well furnished 
from the railways, which pour in supplies 
from the surrounding country and from 
foreign ports. In one night the south-eastern 
line brought up 

100 tons of green peas from France 
50 ,, of fruit from Kent 
10 ,, of filberts 
25 ,, of plums from France 
10 ,, of black currants from France. 

During two mornings that we visited 
Covent Garden, we saw 613 baskets (bushels) 
of strawberries that had arrived from Hou- 
fleur, and 1,000 baskets of greengages 
arrived from the same place during the week. 
It is impossible to give any idea of the 
amount of fruits and vegetables imported into 
London. The returns of the five railways 
show that about 70,000 tons of vegetables 
and green fruits are brought up in this way. 
The total amount must be very large ; and 
we have no hesitation in asserting that if 
these articles were properly used, with a 
mixture of farinaceous produce, and if no 
fruits and corn were fermented and made 
into alcoholic and poisonous drinks, there 
would be enough to feed the population, 
without resort to the carcasses of animals, 
fish, flesh, or fowl. 

That is what we desire to see, in order 
that the health and moral tone of England 
may improve, and reach to that height 
which philanthropists vainly imagine will 
come without this return to the laws of 
nature. Science and the experience of 
many living witnesses can testify to the 
great benefits likely to be derived from such 
a course. When no blood is spilt to furnish 
our meals, no poison is drunk to stimulate 
and destroy our life powers, then may we 
expect that the prophecies of the world's 
happiness will be fulfilled, and they shall 
" no more hurt nor destroy in all God's holy 
mountain." As true journalists, we must 
give this as our opinion ; and the Vegeta- 
rians who have acted on this principle are 
ready to testify to the comparative health, 
strength, and moral vigour which they enjoy 
in entire abstinence from the flesh of ani- 
mals. Although we plead for hydropathy 
and homoeopathy as the cures of the ills 
which afflict humanity, we advocate a pure 
diet, cleanliness, air, and exercise as the 
means of securing health. Try this system 
in the hospitals, in the schools, in the work- 
houses. Science, we know, is in our favour, 



and we are prepared to maintain by chemis- 
try, physiology, and comparative anatomy, 
that fruits and farinacea are the proper food 
for man ; and when that doctrine shall be 
acted on, we may say with Shelley, 

And science dawn, though late, upon the earth, 

Peace cheers the mind, health renovates the frame, 

Disease and pleasure cease to mingle here, 

Reason and passion cease to combat there, 

And every shape and mode of matter lends 

Its force to the omnipotence of mind, 

Which from its dark mine drags the gem of truth 

To decorate its paradise of peace." 

— Journal of Health and Progressionist. 



We present the following letters, in reply 
to the one inserted in our last * by Dr. 

DR. balbirnie and HIS LAST WORDS. 

"Over proud 
- And under honest ; in self-assumption greater 
Than in the note of judgment."— Shakespeare. 

"I am well acquainted with your manner of 
wrenching the true cause the false way. It is not 
a confident brow, nor the throng of words that 
come with such more than impudent sauciness from 
you, can thrust me from a level consideration." — 


Dear Sir — Aha! the doctor is in the field 
again ! He is again convalescent. True, we had 
evidence of his raving mania, his exhaustion, and 
then his leave takings, and all was over. But 
his " friends " have exhumed him ; anxious for his 
fame, they have given a little spasmodic activity 
to the battered doctor, placed him on Rosinante 
again, handed him his lance and shield, and sent 
him in search of another windmill ! But how 
altered ! We are not now soiled with the rude 
abuse of the dragoon who would ruthlessly 
trample us beneath his horse's hoofs. The Indian 
has laid aside his tomahawk, and, if we can but 
heal his wounded vanity, he will perhaps hand us 
the pipe of peace! Now he comes with "bated 
breath and whispering humbleness," "to ask 
leave for room for a few more last words," "to 
rebut certain allegations," to parade his learning 
and importance, to refer us to the " chapter and 
verse of his own writings," to assure us that fifty 
journals have reviewed "my work" and the best 
of them have concurred in eulogising it. Pshaw ! 
we are nauseated with this endless sound, this 
brassy ring of vanity. Fifty journals have looked 
at Balbirnie, and the best of them — none but 
the best ! — have concurred in burning incense to 
his idol — self. Pray, doctor, tell us, was the fact 
of their eulogising your book the test of their 
respectability? We may pause for an answer. 

But we have gained a point. "By this time" 
the Vegetarian has compelled the doctor to admit 
the nutritive value of bran. And yet, ungrateful 
for the teaching he has received, he spends about 
half his letter to show that somehow, or in some 
way, I have blundered on the bran question. 
And yetj marvellous ! he is "at one with me by 
this time," he says on this same question ! 

The doctor is thimble-rigging. Tor peas he 
has questions. The"fibrine and iron "is first. 
That is answered : we have it in our whole-meal 
bread ; even the refuse, the undigested portion, 
contains more fibrine and iron than the doctor's 
* Controversialist and Correspondent, p. 3. 

beef-steak. But then he shows the question of 
" nutriment." " Your undigested, indigestible 
branny scale contains no nutriment." Of 
course not, doctor. Your oracular statement is 
but a miserable truism. Surely, every one knows, 
without a revelation from Malvern, that the re- 
fuse is not the product, that the faeces is not the " 
nutriment. The doctor sets out with the iniict- 
ment that the Vegetarians are a " flabby," pale 
lot, without " stamina and power of energetic en- 
durance." Because our food, " unless well ma- 
naged (!) tends to produce an excess of the al- 
buminous elements of the blood, and a deficiency 
of its fibrine, iron, and red particles." This was 
met with a positive negative ; no Vegetarian 
eating whole-meal bread will be afflicted with 
one of the doctor's list of failings. And the 
doctor's statement is miserably unscientific. 
Every authority in physiology (but, of course, no 
one is an authority with the doctor but himself) 
would teach him that the deficiency of " fibrine " 
in the blood is not from any defect in the food 
while there is a sufficiency of albumen, but from 
a languid assimilating power. Por the fibrine of 
the blood is not the fibrine of the food, but a 
vitalized product of the albuminous elements. 
Therefore, although the consumptive sufferer is 
afflicted with a deficiency of " fibrine," and an 
excess of unvitalized albumen in his blood, the 
error is not in the diet, but in the bad air, defi- 
cient exercise, want of bght, or similar causes, 
that have reduced the power of assimilation below 
par. As I have advanced so far, I may as well at 
once separate for ever Vegetarianism and Con- " 
sumption, which the doctor has so sillily and ig- 
norantly conjoined, certainly, for no other rea- 
son but that he may make diet another of the 
uncertainties of the miserable, unscientific empi- 
ricism of old physic, that the doctor may have a 
larger field to prey on the hopes, and fears, and 
calamities of mankind. For what connection 
can there be between the sixty thousand annual 
deaths from consumption, and the one thousand 
members of the Vegetarian Society ? About one 
in every sixth death from consumption, and about 
one Vegetarian death to every thirty thousand 
deaths. At a moment, from figures alone, 
must be seen the absurdity of connecting things 
so unequal. Without referring to theories or 
facts, it is easily seen that something more gene- 
ral and universal than the thousand Vegetarians 
must be at the base of the sixty thousand annual 
deaths from consumption. Particularly when it 
is remembered, that this annual slaughter is not 
from the peasantry of our country, who are par- 
tial Vegetarians, or from the oatmeal-eating 
labourers of Scotland, but principally from our 
town artizans, our middle and upper classes, who 



are emphatically the flesh-eaters of the com- 

It may not be of much importance to notice 
that scrofula (of which consumption is but a 
phase, and a principal one) is named after a pig. 
For the Greeks and Romans saw some connec- 
tion between eating pork and the disease, 
named, in consequence, scrofula. And although 
this is true to our day, there is no doubt a still 
more efficient cause in impure air. M. Ban- 
DELOcauE in his Etudes sur la Maladie Scrofu- 
leiix, says,* 

" Invariably it will be found, on examination, 
that a truly scrofulous disease is caiised by a 
vitiated air, and it is not always necessary that 
there should be a prolonged stay in suoh an at- 
, mosphere. Often a few hours each day is suffi- 
cient, and it is thus they may live in the 
most healthy country, pass the greater part of 
the day in the open air, and yet become scrofu- 
lous, because of sleeping in a confined place, 
where the air has not been renewed." 

He gives the following remarkable instances : 

" At three leagues from Amiens lies the village 
of Oresmeaux ; it is situated in a vast plain, 
open on every side, and elevated more than on^ 
hundred feet above the neighbouring villages. 
About sixty years ago, most of the houses were 
built with clay, and had no windows ; they were 
lighted by one or two panes of glass fixed in the 
wall ; none of the floors, sometimes many feet 
below the level of the street, were paved. The 
ceilings were low ; the greater part of the in- 
habitants engaged in weaving. A few holes in 
the wall, and which were closed at will by means 
of a plank, scarcely permitted the light and air 
to penetrate into the workshop. Humidity was 
thought necessary to keep the threads fresh. 
Nearly all the inhabitants were seized with 
scrofula, and many families continually ravaged 
by that malady became extinct ; their last mem- 
bers, as they write me, died rotten with scrofula. 

" A fire destroyed nearly a third of the village ; 
the houses were re-built in a more salubrious 
manner, and by degrees scrofula became less 
common, and disappeared from that part. 
Twenty years later, another third of the village 
was also consumed ; the same amelioration in 
building, with a like efl'ect as to scrofula. The 
disease is now confined to the inhabitants of the 
older houses, which retain the same causes of 

Again, M. Lombard, of Geneva, who has 
been long occupied in searching out the secret 
causes, and the influences of trades on pulmonary 
phthisis, arrives at the following conclusions : t 

1st. "The circumstances which multiply 
phthisis, are misery, sedentary life, and absence 
of muscular exercise, shocks sustained in work- 
shops, a curved posture, the impure air of shops, 
the inhalation of certain mineral or vegetable 
vapours, and lastly, air loaded with thick or im- 
palpable dust, or light, elastic, filamentous 

2nd. "The circumstances which exercise a 

• Quoted in Sanitary Economy, Edinburgh, 1850. 
+ An. d'Hygiene, tome xi, pm-tie 1, Jan., 1831. 
Quoted by Quetelet. 

preservative, are riches, active life and fresh air, 
regular exercise of all parts of the body, inhala- 
tion of animal or vegetable emanations." 

So far, then, from consumption being origi- 
nated or developed by vegetable food, the great- 
est inquirers impute not the slightest cause to 
food of any sort, so long as it got in sufficient 
quantity or quality short of misery. And, 
therefore, when Dr. Balbirnie threw consump- 
tion into contact with Vegetarianism, he did it 
ignorantly knowing little of the matter, or moved 
by a more despicable motive, the getting of pelf 
out of the fears and ignorance of the public. 

Balbirnie tells us there can be "no universal 
diet, no more than there can be a standard size 
and cut and quality of cloth ! " Perhaps not. 
The vegetable world is so extensive and varied, 
from articles of costly price to others cheap as 
air or water, that we do not explct rich and poor 
Vegetarians will agree to subsist on one standard 
and universal diet. Neither is it necessary. Let 
each cut their cloth to the standard of their 
means and necessities. 

" Far too much stress is laid on the renuncia- 
tion of flesh-eating," says the doctor, although 
he knows very well that " flesh-eating " is the 
corner-stone of wrong dietetic habits, and that 
the man who is a Vegetarian, is something vastly 
more than a mere abstainer from flesh. He is 
necessarily a thinking man ; a reasonable man 
willing to sacrifice his appetite for future good ; 
an abstainer from " wine and strong drink," so 
that with the slaughter-house closed, and the gin 
and ale-shop gone, he may do something to pro- 
duce a millennium without a drunkard, without a 
blood-stained brute, and without a quack. 

We are next told by the doctor that " moderate 
flesh-eating would be infinitely less mischievous 
than the diversified mixtures and dainties by 
which many Vegetarians compound for flesh." 
I can answer for myself and for many of my ac- 
quaintances, that our "compounds" and "dain- 
ties " are far less than when we were moderate 
flesh-eaters. Simplicity and plainness are our 
rule and practice. But I confess I heard with 
some degree of horror that when Balbirnie 
was a Vegetarian (for the public should know he 
is a renegade from truth and simplicity), he com- 
pelled his poor children to eat a rice mess, with 
cheese sauce ! So it may be the memory of these 
follies that inspired his charge. 

Dr. Balbirnie, full blown with vanity, ven- 
tures on a new revelation : " Man is neither a 
carnivorous, frugivorous, granivorous, herbivo- 
rous, nor omnivorous animal. Man is a cooking 
animal. He is a denizen of every clime." And 
so are roses. " There is, in truth, no country with- 
out roses ; from Sweden to the coasts of Africa, 
from Kamschatka to Bengal, or on the mountains 
of Mexico, the rose flourishes in all climates and 
in all soils." And they need not to be watered 
with brandy or manured with beef in one coun- 
try, while in another they are left to a sterile 
soil, and the mere influence of heat and seasons. 
And the dog and the horse have been the con- 
stant companions of man in his migrations, and 
they have not departed from their natural food. 
And surely, if climatic considerations do not 

influence and reverse the food of man's companions, 
they cannot necessarily do this for him. As to 
man having no " analogues in the brutes beneath 
him," possessing no anatomical or physiological 
characteristics that may be classed with other 
animals, it is sufficient to say, that Linn^us, 
CuviER, Daubenton, Gassendi, Lawrence, 
RoGET, cum multis aliis, declare he has, and that 
Doctor Balbirnie contradicts them ! 

But, after all, diet, regimen, diet, are Balbir- 
nie's means of curing all diseases 1 Indeed, if 
man possesses no natural characteristics to in- 
dicate his natural food, upon what rule does Dr. 
Balbirnie proceed? Of course — prescribes 
according to his judgment, is the sapient answer ! 
In short, his teaching is to perplex the public, 
lead them from a simple and natural rule of life, 
to rely on his judgment ! Our pubhc teaching 
he would make the private property of the doctor, 
and then call upon the public — 

" Buy my specific ! 
Taken as a liquid it awakens ; 
Taken as a powder it promotes sleep." 

And now, sir, if you or the readers of this 
letter, think I have pilloried the doctor too long, 
— pelted him without mercy, I would call your 
attention to the proud insolence with which he 
commenced this correspondence, to the air of 
contemptuous superiority with which he at- 
tempted to carry it on, to the Russian trick he 
is fond of displaying, acting the coward, running 
away, and singing a Te Deum to his victory, and 
then I trust you will confess that I, having 

" To brand pretension's quackery with scorn ; " 
that I, having to show up the Barnum of doc- 
tors, who, like his prototype, when he has made 
his fortune, may publish his own history, adver- 
tised as " humbug," and fling world-wide a loud 
laugh at the bare contemplation of how he has 
lived and fattened on the credulity of the public : 
I say, when all this is contemplated, it will be 
admitted that, considering the nature of the 
work, I have shattered this " whited wall " with 
as little dust and dirt as possible. 

I am, dear Sir, yours obediently, 

W. G. Ward. 
Monmow House, Handsworth, Staffordshire, 
Jan. 9th, 1855. 


Dear Sir — In reading the long letter of Dr. 
Balbirnie, in your last number, I was amused 
to find a striking illustration of how little value 
attaches to the dictum of a medical man, as to 
the suitability or otherwise of the Vegetarian 
practice of diet to particular individuals, although 
the doctor maintains that this is a matter for 
professional guidance. 

Your correspondent, H. S., mentions * that 
whilst under the care of Dr. Balbirnie at 
Malvern, he was advised by the doctor "to a 
trial of a little flesh-diet," which, however, he 
declined. In his last letter,t Dr. Balbirnie 
admits that H. S. "throve upon Vegetarian diet," 
and accounts for this by saying "his was just the 
sort of constitution it was fitted for " ; then why 

* Controversialist and Correspondent, vol. v., p. 96. 
t Controversialist and Correspondent, p. 5. 

display his ignorance of the fact by advising 
him to try anything else ? The discovery of the 
doctor is therefore somewhat late, and by no 
means complimentary to his professional skill, 
since it appears to have been made only after a 
successful experiment by H. S., of nine years' 
Vegetarian practice, persevered in contrary to 
Dr. Balbirnie's own advice. Leaving the 
doctor to reconcile the discrepancy between his 
former advice and present statements, 

I am, dear Sir, respectfully yours. 
Church. H. W. 


Sir — I do not know whether you will be able 
to make any use of this communication, but I 
can assure you that the popular objection to 
Vegetarianism, drawn from the supposed fact, that 
by the "locusts and wild-honey"on which St. John 
the Baptist subsisted in the wilderness, is meant 
the insect locust, is considered a very strong 
argument against Vegetarianism by some of my 

I never knew of the existence of a vegetable 
locust or honey-locust until a few months ago, 
when I saw some legumes exposed for sale in 
some of the grocer's shops here, ticketed " Lo- 
custs from the Holy Land," They well merit 
the name of honey locust, for they are exceed- 
ingly sweet and cloying, but I suspect these were 
not a fair sample, being probably deteriorated 
with keeping. I afterwards met with the enclosed 
extract,* and as the locusts sold in the shops here 
exactly tally with the description in the extract, 
I have no doubt but that those consumed by St. 
John were from the vegetable kingdom. There 
is another argument in favour of this supposition, 
in the fact tliat the insect locust is only to be 
met with at rare and uncertain periods (if it were 
otherwise the country would not be habitable), 
which would render it impossible for any one to 
derive subsistence from them for any lengthened 

You may, perhaps, be already acquainted with 
these facts, but I assure you I made the discovery 
with much pleasure, since it destroys one sup- 
posed objection in relation to Scripture, thought 
to be based on fact. 

Seeing that there was an appointment of food 
in the beginning, and that this has never been 
revoked (indeed it could not be, for God is un- 
changeable), I regard all instances of flesh-eating 
recorded afterwards only as evidences of permis- 
sion, and there is a great difference with God 
between appointment and permission. People 
usually look to the letter more than to the spirit 
of the Word, and I am always glad to find any- 
thing that removes objections drawn from sup- 
posed fact. 

Hoping that on some suitable occasion you 
may, through the pages of the Messenger, correct 
the impression (which, I believe, generally pre- 
vails) that St. John the Baptist subsisted on 
animal substances in the wilderness, and deeply 
feeling your zeal and exertions in the cause of 
Dietetic Reform, 

I am. Sir, yours very respectfully, 

Liverpool. S. J. 

* Treasury, p. 20. 



The locust tree is common in Palestine, in 
several countries bordering the Mediterra- 
nean, and in America, but in much greater 
abundance in certain parts of the East 
Indies, from which the vegetable locust is an 
article of export to this country, and has been 
more or less so for many years. 

"We are aware that some persons, even 
with a knowledge of the history of the 
vegetable locust fruit, have still inclined to 
the opinion that St. John fed upon such an 
improbable food as that of the animal locust, 
the destroyer of vegetation. It would seem 
that such express the sentiment of the old 
German proverb, " Better a flea in the cab- 
bage than no meat at all ; " and that it is 
possible for "meat" to get into the under- 
standing. The class, however, in modern 
intelligence, are thinly scattered, and should 
reflect that if John the Baptist had had to 
feed upon the animal locust, his whole time 
would have been absorbed in following it, in 
its migratory and destructive course, to the 
sacrifice of his divine mission, as the great 
preacher of repentance. 


Dear Sir — In a former number of your 
periodical,* you have spoken of the advantage 
likely to arise from the publication of Vegetarian 
experience, and as I ara fully impressed with the 
importance of this, will you allow me to com- 
municate some particulars as to my own experi- 
ence. In 1844, my eldest brother, who from 
moral reasons, had already abstained from flesh 
many years, directed my attention to a German 
book — the Ber Weg Zum Parodies (The Way to 
Paradise), by Dr. Zimmerman — which defended 
abstinence from the use of flesh-meat, intoxi- 
cating liquids, tea, and cofl'ee, with great zeal. 
The author, with whom I corresponded after 
reading his book, was in England in 1840, when 
he made the acquaintance of Dr. Alcott of 
America, who was living at the time at Ham 
Common, near Richmond. He took up the 
principles of this uncommon man with much 
zeal, and the result of his embracing these was 
the above book, which through the force of its 
evidence acquired many adherents, but the 
greater part of whom for want of firmness 
have returned to the old regimen. 

In that year I went over to the standard of 
Vegetarianism, and the advantages I have 
gained by its adoption, leads me to look back 
with the deepest regret upon my continuing so 
long in my former practice of diet. The magni- 
ficent work of Gleizes, Thalysie, ou la Nouvelle 
Existence, has tended to strengthen me in my 
already complete conviction of the immorality of 
slaughtering animals, and using their flesh as 
food, and my acquaintance and connection with 
the Vegetarian Society of Great Britain, has 
given me the force of a giant oak in a vehement 
hurricane. Its excellent President is so kind 
as to send me every month a copy of your 

* Controversialist and Correspondent, vol. v., p. 70. 

periodical, which is a great treasury of instruc- 

In my earlier years, I suffered from asthma, 
feebleness of memory, idleness of spirit, and 
other not praiseworthy qualities. From all 
these evils I have now been delivered for years, 
and I feel a force of living in myself, which I 
might regard as indestructible, were not all 
earthly life limited. In the exercise of my 
muscles, fcr physical strength and quickness, I 
do not fear to compete with any flesh-eater who 
is similarly constituted with me. 

Some years ago, I made an essay to settle 
in Texas, and I spent the hottest portion of the 
year in a settlement of that country, and in Ha- 
vanna, but I can assure you that a little heat 
is nothing to a Vegetarian, though the heat in 
these countries is not slight. Heat and cold are 
as nothing to the Vegetarian ; he can endure 
either without much inconvenience ; it is diflScult, 
however, for a Vegetarian to travel in the flesh- 
eating countries of America. 

I regard the Vegetarian principle as a high and 
holy principle, which forms the base of all other 
reforms calculated to benefit mankind. But 
when I observe its slow progress in Germany, I 
can only attribute this to the want of acquaint- 
ance with its merits. If Germany had such 
works as Graham's Science of Human Life, 
and Smith's Fruits and Farinacea, the know- 
ledge of Vegetarian principles, as well as their 
practical adoption, would be greatly extended. 
Public speakers in this cause, such as Mr. J. 
Simpson, Mr. J. Smith, Mr. J. Bormond, 
and other zealous members of the Vegetarian 
Society, would surely gain for it many adherents ; 
but we have no Vegetarian advocates, and, till this 
moment, the number of German Vegetarians 
known to me has been very small. Perhaps it 
may interest you to know that Professor 
Daumer of Nurnberg, the foster-father of 
Caspar Hauser ; Gustave Struve, a man in 
the noblest meaning of the word, and Professor 
Gottfried Kinkel, who is now living in Eng- 
land, and other political fugitives, are practical 
Vegetarians. The excellent Alex de Herled, 
professor of chemistry in Berlin, assured my 
brother, in reply to an inquiry as to his dietetic 
habits, that he eats " very little flesh," and that 
some of his scientificfriendswere eating "noflesh." 

The Vegetarian system has already had its 
martyrs. I read to-day in a book, bearing the 
title of Geschrehte der Religion (History of Reli- 
gion), by Dr. Ranch, that in the year 1052, at 
Goslar, in the Hartz Mountains, some men were 
hanged, because they would not eat flesh. Thank 
Heaven, the time for such persecution is past ! 
otherwise the Vegetarians of to-day might be 
hanged by thousands. 

A young Vegetarian, as I am, has his difficul- 
ties in this country, for it is no easy matter to 
find a wife who will adopt the Vegetarian system. 
But not yet, for all that, have I lost hope on 
this subject. 

With the most zealous wishes for the success 
of our cause — I am. Sir, 

With the greatest respect, yours truly, 

Oppeln, Silesia. G. W. 




Sir — Having received a few Vegetarian tracts 
from a Vegetarian of Bath, and being very 
much in favour of the movement, I propose 
making a trial for three months, to see how it 
acts upon ray constitution, not that I consider, 
for one instant, that it will impair it, for I 
hardly ever touch flesh-meat, but at the same 
time I know I am not partaking of a proper 
vegetable diet. I shall, therefore, feel greatly 
obliged by your sending me information, in- 
structions, and recipes how to proceed each 
day. Whatever expense you may incur in 

doing this, shall be remitted you by return 
of post. 

I remain. Sir, yours very truly, 

Edinburgh. Y. C. J. 

Till the publication of the small work on 
Cookery on Chemical and Physiological Prin- 
ciples, some time since promised to the public, 
we cannot do better than address our corres- 
pondent to the Vegetarian Cookery, or such 
smaller works as the Fenny Vegetarian 
Cookery, which will be found guides to infor- 
mation of the kind sought, as well as certain 
parts of the volumes of the Messenger, to which 
the headings will readily direct attention. 


INNOVATION. j the drawer to pay himself; a very singular 

plan to our apprehension ; but, as Mr. 
"Wilkinson remarks, " clairvoyant people 
know with whom they have to deal." — 
Swedenhorg : a Biography and an Exposition. 

Time is the great innovator. He gradu- 
ally undermines and upsets everything, but 
excites no alarm because he effects what 
he brings to pass gradually. All friends 
of mankind will imitate time — carry much 
when they can, and little when no more 
is to be gained ; but always keep progress- 
ing ; for, like fruit, the institutions of one 
age grow stale and useless by the next. — 
Fhonetic Journal. 


The narrative of the first missionary voyage 
to the South Sea Islands, informs us, 
that until the Europeans visited the Ota- 
heitans, they had few disorders amongst 
them. Their temperate and regular mode 
of life, the great use of vegetables, little 
animal food, and absence of all noxious 
distilled spirits and wines, preserved them 
in health. — Temperance Cyclopcedia, 


The simplicity of his life was remarkable ; 
he affected no singularity, made no display ; 
in dress he conformed pretty much to the 
fashion, though rather an older one than 
the period of wearing. He was above five 
feet nine inches in height, rather thin, and 
of a brown complexion ; his eyes nearly 
hazel and rather small ; thin, pale, and 
retaining to old age the appearance of erect 
dignity ; venerable, mildly expressive, and 
beautiful countenance, lightened always by 
uncommon animation, and ever appearing 
to smile. He dressed in velvet, with a full 
bottomed wig, with, a hilted sword, 
and gold headed cane. Do our readers 
realize him ? He was a self-helper, needed 
none to wait upon him : he lived for many 
of the later years of his life nearly a Vege- 
tarian, yet taking coffee but no liquors, 
though conforming to a glass of wine in 
company. He gave away the greater num- 
ber of his books, and when his landlord 
presented his bills, he sent him usually to 


The Rev. Wm. Clarkson, a missionary in 
Western India, in a little work entitled 
Missionary Encouragements in India, after 
describing the influence of caste as one of the 
hindrances to the spread of the Gospel in 
that country, mentions the following strik- 
ing fact, showing that the slaughter of 
animals, and the use of their flesh as food 
by the missionaries, was another obstacle 
to the reception of their teaching by the 
people among whom they laboured. 

"The Jains or Buddhists increased the 
popular prejudice, by describing us as eaters 
of animal flesh. One of them said to the 
native teacher, — ' Your teacher tells us to 
repent of our sins. Go and tell him to 
repent of his own; for he causes animals 
to be slain, and eats them ! ' " 

In the journal of Mr. Smylie, a mission- 
ary who has passed thirty-seven years in 
India, the following anecdote is given : 

" Passing ditches, dusty roads, and puddy 
fields, we arrived at Sakargunge ; we were 
led into the mandel's house, where we found 
seats prepared for us. As I was taking my 
seat, I saw Kan-Mahomed (Mahomed's 
ear), seated in an out-of-the-way corner 
inside. This told us we were likely to have 
something unpleasant to do. Although 
there were about thirty or forty Moslems 
gathered together here, Kan-Mahomed 
asked us for a Bible, I was sorry we had 
none to give ; however, we promised to give 
him one as soon as we could get them. 
Rising from the great pillow on which he 
was reclining, he said, ' I would with plea- 
sure take you by the hand, if you Christians 
would not eat swines' flesh, and drink 
liquor.' Had Mahomed seen the answer 



to this, he would not have allowed it to 
leave his heart ; for a greater set of drunk- 
ards never existed than the Musselmans ; if 
they do not drink English rum, they smoke 
gunga to a very great extent ; they drink, 
too, but our friend had never thought on 
the many ways Mussulmans get intoxicated 
without being known, simply because it 
does not set them raving like fools and 

No doubt the Koran is violated both in 
the letter and spirit, but numerous facts 
show the importance of missionaries laying 
aside all habits which may prevent inquiry 
and confirm prejudice. All experience, 
especially in hot countries, shows the import- 
ance of abstaining from all kinds of flesh as 
food and alcoholic liquors, on personal and 
social grounds, that is, for the sake of health 
and for example's sake. 


As we drew nearer to the trees I saw that 
they were not pine trees, but very different 
indeed. Both trunk and branches had long 
thorny spikes upon them, like porcupine 
quills, and the leaves were of a bright shin- 
ing green, pinnate, with small oval leaflets. 
But what was most singular was the long 
bean-shaped pods, that hung down thickly 
from the branches. These were about an 
inch and a half in breadth, and some of 
them not less than twelve inches in length. 
They were of a reddish-brown, nearly a 
claret colour. Except in the colour, they 
looked exactly like large bean-pods filled 
with beans. 

I was not ignorant of what species of tree 
was before us : I had seen it before. I 
knew it was the honey-locust or thorny- 
acacia — the " carob tree" of the East, and 
the famed " algarabo " of the Spaniards. 
I was not ignorant of its uses either, for I 
knew this to be the tree upon which (as 
many suppose) St. John the Baptist sus- 
tained himself in the desert, where it is 
said "his meat was locusts and wild honey." 
Hence it is sometimes called " St. John's 
bread." — Captain Reid's Desert Home. 


The Russian soldier is certainly neither 
weak nor famished. Our correspondent 
reported, apparently with some little surprise, 
that the men taken or left upon the field 
of battle were almost uniformly strong and 
muscular, in the prime of youthful life, well 
fed, and sufficiently clothed. There were 
no traces of any such physical incapacity 
as was, perhaps, expected. Possibly the food 
described as forming their daily rations 
might seem indifl'erent to those who lived 

upon sound beef and pork, but it was clearly 
nutritious enough to keep the consumer in 
good working order. The equipment of the 
men was good, serviceable, and devised with 
a proper appreciation of a soldier's real 
wants. Every man had his warm trousers, 
worn inside a pair of strong well-made boots, 
while his outer clothing consisted of a long 
loose great-coat, which might, we should 
think, prove rather cumbersome in any rapid 
evolutions, but which clearly left easy room 
for the play of the muscles. Most of the 
arms taken were found to be excellent of 
their kind, and the workmanship of the guns 
in particular excited general admiration. 
In one respect the most desirable arrange- 
ments had been adopted. The uniform of 
the officers was scarcely distinguishable from 
that of the men, so that their lives were not 
exposed to any extraordinary risk. Alto- 
gether, the individual Russian soldier proved 
to be rather above the standard at which he 
had been rated. — Times^ Oct. 15, 1854. 


A few months since, in conversation with 
a neighbour on the subject of dietetics, he 
told me that he had Jewish authority for 
saying that no Jew or Mahometan, who 
lived strictly according to the rules of their 
faith, was ever known to have the scrofula. 
On the first opportunity, after hearing this 
statement, I called on Dr. J. V. C. Smith 
of Boston, who has travelled extensively in 
the East, to inquire if his observation con- 
firmed this statement. In reply, the Dr. 
stated that he did not see a case of scrofula 
nor a hog in all Egypt or Palestine. And 
he added, that he had no doubt that the 
use of pork greatly aggravated scrofula. — 
E. A. American Vegetarian. 


The habit of excessive sleep, beyond the 
actual wants of the system, is often formed 
by sheer sloth, or by the wish to prolong 
unconsciousness of sorrow and cares of life. 
This sort of sleep enervates the bodily func- 
tions and unstrings the spirits ; and the 
last eff'ect is due quite as much to the phy- 
sical torpor and relaxation induced, as to 
the sense of dissatisfaction with one's-self 
which the indulgence entails. — Leisure Hour. 


"Oh, what a world of beauty 

A loving heart might plan, 
If man but did his duty. 

And helped his brother man ! 
Then angel guests would brighten 

The threshold with their wings, 
And love divine enlighten 

The old forgotten strings." 




The careful observer must readily discover 
how much sooner the world gives its assent 
to abstract principles of truth, than to those 
which have a practical bearing. This is 
manifest in religion, morals, and the whole 
social history of mankind. The Vegetarian 
system being pre-eminently a practical one, 
and associated with the daily business of 
life, is, therefore, in its very outset, sub- 
jected to a difficulty as great or greater than 
nearly any other practical reform, the 
application of its principles having incon- 
venient relation to personal considerations, 
and the purification of the daily habits of 
life, usually left to accident and the more 
" convenient season." 

Want of information in regard to the 
adoption of our principles, is, however, the 
first impediment to progress with which the 
organization professedly promulgating its 
principles has to contend. With one class, 
and this the most intelligent and liberally 
educated, there is, to begin with, nothing 
more than a smile bestowed upon the bene- 
volent enthusiasm, which, in the stirring 
activities of life, finds time to commiserate 
the condition of the animal creation, or 
ventures to apply "self-sacrificing principles 
of diet" at the risk of " injury to health." 
With others, there is a proud and indignant 
scorn of all consideration upon the subject, 
custom and prevailing taste being considered 
to be amply condemnatory of our system, 
without staying to reason for a moment 
upon it. 

The merits of our system, and its claims 
upon popular attention, however, but re- 
quire to be presented on a single occasion, 
in their varied and important aspects, singu- 
larly to change the previous impressions 
upon the subject. It is seen that the 
soundest principles of feeding the body (the 
temple of the soul, by which all outward 
manifestations of mind have to be deve- 
loped), are worthy of the highest considera- 
tion, and that man, like the inferior animal 
creation, is directed to a food which is best 
suited to his intended development, and 
that, though error and custom may have led 
him into various habits opposed to his origi- 
nal constitution, obedience to the charac- 
teristics enstamped upon him must certainly 
be most likely to secure the normal and 
happiest development. And then, following 
the consecutive reasoning from man's nature, 
in the corroborative evidence of his original 
condition, the facts of science, and the 
harmony observable between the charac- 
teristics of man and " subsistence upon the 
fruits and vegetable products of the earth, 
and the antagonism identified with the 
different processes connected with a system 
of preying upon animals, the primary 
impressions produced, even upon a popular 
inquiry upon the subject, are such as assent 
to the principles for which we contend, in the 
more intelligent classes, and at least give 
freedom on the part of others who did not 
expect that we had got so much to say 
for ourselves." 


Fle-h-eating renders the body much more 
liable to sickness. How can persons be 
healthy who are every day, and at every 
meal, swallowing the seeds of disease ? 
Nearly all our domestic animals are more 
or less diseased, nor is this to be wondered 
at, considering the improper and unnatural 
manner in which they are kept and fed. 
They are often shut up in dark, ill-ventilated 
sties and stables, fed on highly nutritious 
food, and kept without exercise, breathing 
an atmosphere polluted with filth, and des- 
titute of any means of cleansing their dirty 

Sylvester Graham says : " It is a noto- 
rious fact, that almost every animal which 
is fatted and killed for human food is actu- 
ally in a state of disease when butchered. 
It is extremely difficult, indeed nearly im- 
possible, to find in the butchers' markets of 
any of our cities or towns, a perfect healthy 
liver from a fatted animal ; and it is by no 
means an uncommon thing for fatted hogs to 
die of disease when just about to be killed 
for the market." 

As far as my own observation goes, the 
above is a literal fact. I have seen hogs 
killed that had been fattened at the distillery, 

their teeth were black and rotten, their livers 
and lungs ulcerated in every case more or 
less ; and, still worse, I have seen the diseased 
livers and lungs chopped up and eaten with 
gusto by those who knew that they were 

I know a distillery, not a hundred miles 
from Dayton, and I know a man who goes 
to that distillery every week to buy up the 
sick hogs, and kill them for Dayton mar- 
ket. I know not whom to blame most, the 
death-dealing distiller, who poisons the 
people with his whisky and his hogs, or the 
mean wretch of a butcher, who deals out 
diseases by the pound, for filthy lucre. I 
have been told by butchers, that they have 
killed animals for food repeatedly, that they 
knew could not have lived many days if they 
had not been killed. The number of animals, 
thus " killed to save their lives," flesh-eaters 
generally have no idea of. The inhabitants 
of our large cities drink the milk of diseased 
animals in their infancy, eat their flesh in 
youth, and die themselves the victims of 
disease in man and womanhood. When 
shall our cities be the abode of purity, health, 
beauty, and intelligence .►• Never while the 
people are such riotous eaters of flesh. 

Hogs, it is well known, often kill and eat 
their young. I have seen them feasting 
upon the carcass of a horse— in fact, there is 
nothing too filthy for a hog to eat ; if it ever 
had any sense of cleanliness, it has lost it in 
these degenerate days, and where eating is 
concerned, seems to know no difi'erence be- 
tween the clean ^nd the unclean. 

In New York hogs are regularly fattened 
on the bodies of dead horses ; the tottering 
masses of corruption are boiled down, run 
out in troughs, and greedily devoured by the 
waiting porkers, who, in turn, are to be de- 
voured by the genteel and gay, the lady in 
cotton and the lady in satin, in the shape of 
sandwiches at a pic-nic, and of " splendid 
ham" at an alderman's dinner. If it only 
bore a true label, "concentrated essence of 
diseased dead horse," in conspicuous charac- 
ters upon it, perhaps even hog-eaters might 
pause before they built up the soul's temple 
with such material. 

" But the pure, innocent lamb that skips 
over our hills, drinks of the clear brooks, 
and nibbles the green herb : surely the flesh 
of such an animal cannot be injurious." 
Well, let us hear what is the evidence on 

that subject. " Lambs, from the unnatural 
condition of the sheep, premature weaning, 
and various diseases to which they are sub- 
ject, frequently die in great numbers before 
they are fattened for slaughter. During the 
fattening process, the lambs, in many parts 
of the country, are taken from their natural 
haunts in the fields and on the hills, con- 
fined in the fold or shed, fed on a more 
nutritious diet, and taking little exercise, 
many of them die of disease." 

There are no less than twenty-six diseases 
to which sheep are subject; the small-pox, 
rot, and other epidemics often take off great 
numbers, and not a few of these find their 
way into the markets of our cities and the 
stomachs of our flesh- eaters. 

Some years ago, much discussion took 
place in the English House of Commons 
respecting the small-pox, which it was said 
had been brought into England by the sheep 
which had been imported. " The sheep had 
been slaughtered and exhibited in the sham- 
bles, the mutton bought and eaten, the 
sraall-pox taken in with it, and thus spread 
through the country by wholesale." There 
is little doubt that many diseases have ori- 
ginated and the virulence of others been 
increased in this way. 

Even wild animals, though generally free 
from disease, are not always so. In the 
Western States they are often found with 
diseased livers, caused, no doubt, by the 
malaria existing in the atmosphere, which, 
when breathed by man, produces the fever 
and ague. 

In short, those who eat flesh can never be 
certain they are not planting the seeds of 
disease in the system, for, even if they kill 
the animals upon which they feed themselves, 
they cannot always tell whether the animal 
was healthy or not. If a vegetable is 
diseased, it is in almost every case evident 
to the senses, and the judgment of the 
possessor leads him at once to throw it away. 
There is but little danger of any one palming 
off" upon us rotten apples or potatoes for 
sound ones. 

Thus Vegetarians, abstaining from dead 
cows, sheep, hogs, and worse things, and 
living upon the fruits of the earth, run less 
risk of disease and its accompanying evils, 
and have, therefore, a much better chance 
to be healthy and happy. — W. Denton, 
from the Type of the Times. 


We extract the following highly interesting 
case from the pages of a contemporary,* 
as one of many others proving not merely 
the safety, but the great advantage, of abjur- 
* The Journal of Health and Progressionist. 

ing the flesh of animals, and returning to 
a diet in accordance with the primitive 
history of man. 

" Until very recently I was not aware 
there existed an enrolled Society of Yege- 



tarians, else I should have, ere this, become 
a member, and have stated my case to you. 
More forcible evidence in favour of Vege- 
tarian diet can scarcely, I presume, be pro- 
duced on your records. It is now forty- 
three years since I commenced abstaining 
from animal food, and I have unremittingly 
persevered ever since, for the strongest 
reasons, showing themselves in results most 
beneficial and wonderful. In adverting to 
my motives for adopting the Vegetarian 
system, allow me to state my whole case 
from infancy, as it will furnish a powerful 
example in favour of the cause. My father 
and mother were the offspring of parents 
far advanced in life, extremely weak and 
degenerated in their physical structure, 
remarkably diminutive, and afflicted during 
the whole of their lives with diseases which 
terminated their career at an early period. 
My father died at forty of an internal 
scrofula, and my mother before she attained 
sixty, of a chronic asthma. They left a 
progeny of thirteen, but only myself and 
one other have survived to the present time, 
the other eleven having been carried off by 
hereditary scrofula, to which I should have 
fallen a victim, had I not adopted the 
Vegetarian system, Avhich I commenced at 
the age of twenty -seven. Before I was 
seven years old, I began to be afflicted with 
ulcers in my neck and throat, which were of 
so virulent a nature that it was pronounced 
to be the " King's evil," and considered 
incurable. I was daily under the surgeon's 
hands for many years, subject to fre- 
quent attacks of vertigo, accompanied by 
sick headaches. Later in life I was afflicted 
with severe bilious attacks, said to arise 
from a diseased liver. I was also frequently 
afflicted with tic doloureux, the pain of which 
would render me at times delirious. Such 
a combination of complaints reduced me to 
a state so weak and nervous, that it was 
with the utmost difficulty I could pursue 
my professional avocations ; even at intervals 
of convalescence, I was attended by several 
medical men of eminence, all of whom 
recommended stimulating food, which evi- 
dently only increased my maladies. I was 
at length pronounced incurable, and left 
to my fate. 

" I was declining when chance threw in 
my way the writings of Dr. Lambe, and a 
work of Mr. Newton's on natural diet; 
although it occurred to me, that by adopting 

their system it might possibly create a 
diversion in my favour, I spoke of it to my 
medical advisers ; one and all declared that 
a vegetable diet Avould rapidly hasten my 
departure to the other world. Although 
under no conviction of the efficacy of Vege- 
tarianism, I adopted it as a forlorn hope or 
last effort of despair, which, at any rate, 
could scarcely render my condition worse. 
Very soon, however, after commencing, to 
my utter amazement, all my complaints left 
me, and from a very weak and decrepid 
person, I became healthy and strong : and 
now, for the long period of forty years, have 
had no return of those, said to he, incurable 
diseases. For more than twenty years, I 
practised my profession of a portrait painter, 
scarcely even allowing myseff country air 
or exercise, yet suffered no inconvenience 
except from intense application* and from 
working too much by lamp-lighx. A pre- 
mature decay of sight came on, which 
compelled me to change my occupation to 
that of gardener, which I have followed 
ever since, working most laboriously with the 
same uninterrupted health, until within the 
last three years. During the winter months, I 
have had several attacks of my old liver 
complaint, causing indigestion. This I 
attributed to old age, but have since had 
reason to think it arose from living too 
much on white bread, with an insufficiency 
of fruit ; for having, for the last sixteen 
months, changed my diet to brown bread 
with a much larger proportion of fruit, I 
seem to have gained an accession of strength, 
and no return whatever of indigestion. 

" Before I commenced the vegetable 
regimen, the slightest draught or wetting 
would produce a severe cold. Now, although 
exposed to all weathers, and never changing 
my wet clothes, I never take cold; and 
though, when a young man, my hand shook 
as if palsied, now, at seventy, it is per- 
fectly steady, even after the hardest day's 

" I have the fullest conviction that a 
pure vegetable diet would be the means of 
subduing almost every disease — that it 
would promote longevity, and regenerate 
mankind, both physically, morally, and 

" Hoping this plain statement may have 
some weight in gaining converts to your 
rational and much desired cause, I con- 



"VVe insert the following letter pertaining to 
the discussion between Dr. Balbirnie and 
Mr. "Ward. 

Sir — I have read with considerable interest the 
letters which have lately appeared in the Messen- 
ger, in reference to Vegetarianism and its ten- 
dency to cause consumption, and I should like to 



make a few remarks myself, but I am not going 
to write "a very long letter" nor yet enter into 
the dispute, but shall confine myself, in what I 
have to say, to the spirit it has been carried on 
in, and not to what it was about. 

Mr. Ward is not the only champion of Vege- 
tarianism who is doing the cause a vast deal 
more injury than any of its professed enemies, 
and in the late correspondence between him and 
Dr. Balbirnie, the overhearing style of his 
letters makes a more vivid impression on the 
mind than his arguments, weakened as they are 
by so much clap-trap and useless flourish ; and 
it struck me, and I dare say has struck others, 
that it was very like " pot " calling " kettle," 
when Mr. Ward complained of the doctor for 
bringing forth such an array of kettle-drums, 

But I am sorfy to have to complain of graver 
faults, namely, quibbling and downright unfair- 
ness, and to substantiate this charge I need only 
refer to a glaring instance of this, as displayed in 
the way he has supported his assertion about the 
bran of brown bread. Let any one just read 
what has been said by both parties in this part of 
the discussion, and the verdict will be at once 
given against Mr. Ward, i. e. against his way of 
defending himself — besides the bran and flour, 
there are intermediate substances between these 
two. Again, how much like spite and anger is 
the way he " lets out," that the doctor has been 
a Vegetarian. " It may be well to inform your 
readers," says Mr. Ward, "that Dr. Bal- 
birnie is a renegade." Did it never strike Mr. 
Ward that he is a renegade ? a seceder from old 
estabhshed customs which he has been bred, 
born, and reared in? If we are to look at change 
of opinion and practice in the light ]\Ir. Ward 
does, we are all of us renegades in some way or 
other. But the worst of it is, Mr. Ward is not an 
exception among the Vegetarians in this respect, 
for the "staunch Vegetarians," the "pioneer 
Vegetarians," as they call themselves, are all 
chargeable with the same want of charity, and 
in many instances do not refrain from attri- 
buting any cause but the right one to any 
secession which takes place, and they will even 
place seceders among the list of insane, for 
returning to darkness after having seen the light, 
as they say, and as I firmly believe they 


Another Renegade. 


Dear Sir — I was extremely pleased to notice 
a communication from Edinburgh in your last 
month's Messenger. Perhaps it may not be 
known to your correspondent that there have 
been two meetings held here, since the visit of 
Mr. Simpson and Mr. Griffin in October last, 
by a few parties desirous of getting up a spirit of 
inquiry in favour of Vegetarianism. From the 
number who presented themselves being thought 
insufficient to go into the matter thoroughly, the 
meeting was again adjourned to an indefinite 
period, though it was hoped that each one who 
felt an interest in the subject would do his 
utmost to . spread the Vegetarian principle. I 

am persuaded that Edinburgh could do some- 
thing, if there were a few decided Vegetarians 
forming themselves into a body for advocating 
and propagating their views. 

I may state that I have now been four months 
a total abstainer from the flesh of animals, and, 
like your correspondent, I found some difficulty 
in getting on with the cookery for the first 
month, but I got a Penny Vegetarian Cookery, 
and since then the practice has been easy ; and 
experience enables me now to go on in a great 
measure without reference to Cookery books 
at all. Yours truly, 

Edinburgh. R. J. 

Information bearing upon the formation 
of Vegetarian Associations will be found in 
the back numbers of the Messenger^ in the 
department of Local Operations, where the 
instructions and rules for such organizations 
are given. Literally, wherever "two or three" 
are congregated, and call attention to the 
question, Vegetarianism is found to progress. 
Order and organization are however required, 
and added to the suggestions referred to, we 
would suggest the calling in the aid of the 
Secretary of the nearest Vegetarian Associa- 
tion, if " assurance " amongst our northern 
friends requires to be made " doubly sure." 
After the marked success which recently at- 
tended the exposition of the Vegetarian 
system, in the hands of the President of the 
Society, it seems nothing less than a matter 
of surprise that organization, and a steadily 
progressing Association, have not already 
been secured in the capital of Scotland. 
Why not .^ we ask. 


Dear Sir — I think much useful and encou- 
raging matter is lost to your pages, by each one 
not systematically communicating the more 
valuable portions of his correspondence bearing 
on the Vegetarian question. I have been accusing 
myself of neglecting the interests of our movement 
in this way, on many past occasions, and as 1 
intend to amend my practice, I send the enclosed 
as a beginning. 

I am, yours truly, 

J. N. J. 

Dear Sir — I find that you are a member of 
a society of which I am a great lover, that is the 
Vegetarian Society, for I carry out its principle 
and practice and find that temperance and Vege- 
tarianism work well together, I should like to 
have been at the lecture and heard Mr. Simp- 
son, for I want all the information on the 
subject I can get. I have a great deal to contend 
with in this pig-eating and beer-drinking county, 
in carrying out my two principles ; nay, I need 
not say two, for I think they are only one. 

I thank you for the bills you sent me. 
Although I am the only one that holds these 
principles about here, I am not afraid to carry 
them out, for I believe that lam acting according 
to the laws of nature, for I find that I have 
better health, and am stronger than I ever was 



before. If you can send me anything to supply 
me with arguments, please to do so. 

Yours, in the cause of Temperance and 
Vegetarianism combined, 

Wrawhy, Lincolnshire, W. G. 

As already stated, we are at all times 
obliged by communications such as can 
either communicate information, or even 
encourage any in their first steps in adopt- 
ing the Vegetarian practice. 


Sir — I am going to remove from this country 
at the end of this month, and I think my next 
place will be Philadelphia, or some other part of 

I cannot leave without tendering my siucere 
thanks for the benefit and advantages I have de- 
rived, both mentally, physically, and pecuniarily, 
from your invaluable periodical . It is now more 
than seven years since I partook of the carcass 

of any living thing ; it is not a matter of choice 
with me now, for I think that I could not, if I 
was wishing to do so, partake of such food again. 

I have had some fear that my present practice 
of diet would be a disadvantage to me on board 
ship; but that fear is now gone, and its place 
taken by a strong feeling, tliat I shall have a 
great advantage over my fellow passengers. If 
time permits, I will give you my experience of a 
Vegetarian sea voyage. 

Wishing success to the Messenger, and the 
Vegetarian cause, 

I remain, yours respectfully, 

Glasgow. R. J. 

"We are happy to receive and acknowledge 
this simple and honest tribute of thanks 
on the part of our friend about to emigrate, 
and shall be happy both to receive his pro- 
mised communication, and to transmit the 
Messenger to him, as to many of our other 
friends in America. 



It is an exquisite and beautiful thing in our 
nature, that when the heart is touched and 
softened by some tranquil happiness or 
affectionate feeling, the memory of the dead 
comes over it most powerfully and irresistibly. 
It would seem almost as though our better 
thoughts and sympathies were charms, in 
virtue of which the soul is enabled to hold 
some vague and mysterious intercourse with 
the spirits of those whom we loved in life. 
Alas ! how often and how long may those 
patient angels hover around us, watching for 
the spell which is so seldom uttered, and so 
soon forgotten ! — Dickens. 


The French appear to withstand cold and 
privations better than the Scotch and 
English, but yet not so well as the Irish. 
The doctors assign a reason for this endurance, 
by the greater amount of bread which they 
consume, and a more moderate share of meat 
than the British; "for meat," say they, 
"only partially invigorates, while bread, 
being the stafi" of life, gives a hardy vigour 
and solidity to the frame, which we find 
particularly in French troopers, who, al- 
though small in stature, support on their 
square shoulders and ample chest an amount 
of objects, stowed away in their knapsacks, 
which English soldiers of corresponding 
stature would find most inconvenient on a 
day's march." — Correspondent of the Morning 


Our way led through the city of Trevandrum, 
which is a remarkably picturesque one, being 
so thickly planted with all kinds of trees, 


the most remarkable of which is the Erica 
Palm, whose slender stems were festooned 
with the pepper plants : cucumbers and 
creeping gourds of many varieties, covered 
the walls and low mud buildings which serve 
as dwellings for the poorer classes. The 
inhabitants are of a rich brown colour, and 
the men are a fine race. They shave their 
heads, excepting one lock on the forehead, 
which they allow to grow long, and it is kept 
tied in a peculiar knot, and hangs down 
between the eyes. Their only clothing is a 
very thin and white cloth round their middle, 
and a small piece of fine muslin laid across 
the forehead, and tied at the back of the 
head, the long ends floating on their shoulders, 
the bare shining skulls being exposed to the 
sun. The women wear nothing on the head 
but their own hair gathered into a knot, and 
their only garment consists of a very scanty 
petticoat. I was informed by a native of 
high rank that they eat no meat, being 
Brahmins, but delight in having a great 
variety of curries served at their meals, even 
as many as thirty and forty. These curries 
are formed of difi'erent vegetables, and fruits, 
and various preparations of milk : rice, 
plainly boiled and spiced, is in high request. 
They make a point of tasting every dish, if 
it is ever such a little bit. Much butter is 
used in their cookery. I had once the 
honour of tasting some of these dishes from 
a prince's table : but cannot say they were 
palatable to a European — they were sour and 
greasy. These people never taste spirituous 
liquors ; and my informant expressed great 
disgust at the idea of eating meat. They 
chew a great deal of the betel nut, and the 
aromatic paun leaf, which is cultivated in 
large fields, similar to the hop-fields of Kent. 



They bathe everj' evening, and change their 
clothes ; they then pray, and must keep 
themselves from defilements, amongst which 
they are pleased to class the touch of a 
European. One of their customs is to set 
apart three weeks once a year (just after the 
extreme hot weather) for the performance 
of violent exercises^ which are taken in high- 
walled courts. Young men of good families 
usually meet in them for this purpose. The 
games consist of lifting heavy weights and 
throwing them to a distance, leaping, 
running, and stretching their limbs. These 
exercises are varied and continued for three 
weeks, after which they take baths, and are 
shampooed by their attendants. This custom, 
they say, preserves their health for the year, 
and circulates the blood, and expels obnoxious 
humours from the system. They usually 
appear thinner after their probation, and in 
high spirits. — -Extract from the Manuscript 
Journal of a Lady, from Journal of Healthy 
Vol. 3, No. 41. 


It is observed that, of all the material in- 
terests influencing humanity, there is none 
which so completely and so tyrannically 
fetters the individual as the care for his daily 
bread ; and though this great feature is 
evinced by different pursuits in life, yet these, 
like so many tributary streams and rivulets, 
are continually meandering till they terminate 
in the all-absorbing ocean of agriculture, 
which is the soul of all the other branches 
of industry invented in modern ages ; with- 
out it none other can stand. It is that art 
on which a thousand millions of men are 
dependent for their very life ; in the pro- 
secution of which about nine-tenths of the 
fixed capital of civilized nations are em- 
barked ; and upon which more than two 
hundred millions of human beings expend 
their diurnal labour ; the parent and fore- 
runner of all the other arts. — Professor 
Muspratt's Chemistry. 


A man named Mathieu was, on Saturday, 
tried by the Tribunal of Correctional Police 
for attempting to sell some corrupt flesh as 
food. He was arrested as he went one day 
to a public-house, kept by a man named 
Collin, with some of the flesh in his posses- 
sion. He declared that he lived at Romain- 
ville, and his residence was visited. This 
account was given of it in the proces verbal 
of a commissary of police : — "I found, in a 
badly closed shed, almost in ruins, a con- 
siderable quantity of horse-flesh, in a com- 
plete state of decomposition, and the putrid 
smell from which was so strong, that I and 
my men Avere obliged to take precautions 

before entering. Three of the police agents 
who accompanied me were, nevertheless, 
aff'ected by the exhalations, and began vomit- 
ing. Having entered the shed, the most 
hideous spectacle presented itself. A sort of 
bed, composed of dung and pieces of linen, 
was in the centre. Near it was an elderly 
woman, whose sickly appearance showed that 
she had been subjected to the noxious in- 
fluence of the atmosphere ; she held a child 
on her knees who Avas in a dying state. A 
young girl of sixteen, Avho was also ill, but 
more robust, occupied herself with house- 
hold afi'airs. Along the wall were hung 
pieces of flesh, which were already teeming 
with worms ; in the corner were the entrails 
of a horse ; they were completely putrified, 
but were, I was told, destined to be made up 
into sausages. In a chamber near I dis- 
covered three enormous tubs, full of some- 
thing of a greenish colour, mixed up with 
corrupted blood. This was destined for food. 
I found, in another part of the building, the 
bones and head of a horse ; the animal must 
have been at least 15 years old. I ordered 
all these horrible things to be buried, and to 
be covered with essence of turpentine." The 
public-house keeper, in . whose house the 
man was arrested, said that he had brought 
some sausages made from his rotten horse- 
flesh to him for sale, but that he had refused 
to take them. The man had earnestly re- 
presented to him that they were very good, 
and, to convince him, boiled one and ate it ; 
but it smelt horribly. In his defence the 
accused said that he liked horse-flesh, and 
that he had purchased a horse to serve him 
for food until the spring. He also said that 
his wife was ill, and that he had thought 
horse-flesh would strengthen her. But he 
denied that he had sold any of it, either in 
sausages or otherwise. The tribunal con- 
demned him to three months' imprisonment, 
and 50 f. fine. — Galignani. 


Professor Gregory, in a letter to a friend, 
observes : " As I suppose you keep poultry, 
I may tell you that, it has been ascertained 
that if you mix with their food a sufficient 
quantity of egg-shells or chalk, which they 
eat greedily, they will lay twice or thrice 
as many eggs as before. A well-fed fowl is 
disposed to lay a large number of eggs, but 
cannot do so without the materials of shells, 
however nourishing in other respects her 
food may be ; indeed, a fowl fed on food and 
water, free from carbonate of lime, and not 
finding any in the soil, or in the shape of 
mortar, which they often eat on the walls, 
would lay no eggs at all with the best will in 
the world." — Family Herald., No. 568. 




The common result of a fair inquiry into 
the arguments and practice of Vegetarian- 
ism, is to produce a desire for an experiment, 
something which will practically test the 
new views and theories arrived at. There 
is here, however, great difficulty to be en- 
countered, in endeavouring to break through 
the social customs of society, even after a 
conviction has been produced that the system 
to be entered upon, is established in truth. 
The presumptive evidence that what prevails 
is best (sufficient as this is for the many), 
may have been overcome, but only to intro- 
duce the inquirers to this further impedi- 

Good principles, we all know, are pro- 
verbially difficult to be reduced to practice, 
and with the most moral of society, even 
taking into account the greater ease experi- 
enced in following out conviction in one 
case than another, there is always danger of 
sacrificing conviction to expediency, and 
protracting to a period of greater ease and 
convenience, the adoption of the practice 
which ought to be vitalized in act at the 
time. We swim with the stream, and do 
not feel its power till we seek to stay our 

course, and leave its current ; and in this 
aspect of morals, the history of the adopters 
of Vegetarianism is highly interesting, as 
showing how powerful are the trammels in 
which most are held by the prevailing habit 
of the social circle. 

The family influence, so powerfully ar- 
ranged in opposition to any attempt to 
depart from its influence and teaching, is 
often miscalculated ; and it is this passage 
in the history of the experimenter in Vege- 
tarianism, which serves at once to try the 
moral courage. Here commonly arises the 
opposition of those most intimately asssoci- 
ated with domestic ties, who, naturally 
enough, object to the impropriety and danger 
of following " absurdities '' ; and even though 
the notions leading to this opposition, in 
judicious conduct on the part of the indivi- 
dual, may ultimately be shown to be ground- 
less, the impediments they present are seri. 
ously inconvenient when encountered, even 
where not continued, in spite of the most 
striking evidences of beneflt produced, a 
further disadvantage under which many 

* Continued from p. 21. 


In our miscellaneous reading, we are fre- 
quently struck with the numerous and varied 
facts to be met with, illustrating and cor- 
roborating the Vegetarian Philosophy. Col- 
lateral testimony, of the character to which 
we refer, appears to us particularly valuable, 
and worthy of being noted; as, coming 
from a neutral or possibly an adverse source, 
it ought to have greater weight with the 
inquirer, to whom the same facts, adduced 
by a partisan of our system, might probably 
assume the phase of special pleading. The 
Rev. W. Metcalfe, of Philadelphia, informs 
us, that when in the year 1817, the religious 
society, of which he is the head, adopted the 
principle of abstinence from the flesh of 
animals as food, they did so solely from a 
religious conviction of the impropriety of 
taking animal life for the purpose of satis- 
fying appetite. When they took this step, 
they were comparatively ignorant of the laws 
of physiology, and totally unacquainted with 
the multifarious scientific evidence in favour 
of their new practice, which the subsequent 


researches of chemists have only recently 
brought to light. In the dietetic management 
of their bodies, and in the regulation of their 
conduct towards the inferior creation, this 
religious body was guided solely by the 
" light within "; — by a strong moral sense — 
and it must now be matter of great satisfac- 
tion to them, to find their obedience to 
religious conviction justified by the strongest 
testimony both of science and experience. 
In like manner, the secular Vegetarian, 
who adopts the practice, probably from 
some single consideration, such as a regard 
to health or economy, must be agreeably 
surprised, as well as strengthened in his 
conviction, when he finds the motives and 
inducements to adhere to the system mul- 
tiplied from other and unexpected sources, 
in the course of his reading and experience. 

In a work published some time ago by. 
Professor J. W. F. Johnstone,* we meet 
with a mass of facts and information con- 

* Catechism of Agricultural Cliemistry and 



firmatory of the truth of the Vegetarian 
system, although such is the force of pre- 
judice, that the same author assumes an 
antagonistic position, when he comes to 
••write more popularly and directly on the 
subject of diet.* The especial object of 
our remarks, however, is to direct attention 
to some statements of a work on the late 
war with the Kaffirs, f which aflford a strik- 
ing illustration of the intimate connection 
between the use of flesh as food, and the 
unholy passion for war, and, at the same 
time, corroborate the general principle of 
Vegetarianism. After the revolt had been 
concerted among the native Chiefs, we are 
informed, " Their fanatical prophet, Um- 
LANJENi, now issued the command to ' slay 
and eat,' which, as the usual food of the 
Kaffirs in time of peace is corn, roots, and 
sour milk, is the conventional mode with 
them of commencing a war, the stimulus of 
animal food being only resorted to, to excite 
their energies on such occasions ; their 
warlike passions fairly aroused, farms were 
attacked in every direction, houses plun- 
dered and burned, and the police efi'ectually 
resisted in their attempts to enforce the 
restitution of stolen cattle." 

Again, after describing the disgusting 
way in which some of the natives, while 
engaged in the war, fed on even the roasted 
entrails of their cattle, our author remarks, 
" The fondness of the Fingo for animal food 
is extraordinary, and, when in the field, he will 
do almost anything to obtain it ; the daily 
ration is a mere trifle to him, serving only to 
whet his appetite, and in spite of the conse- 
quent severe self-punishment of being two 
days without, he cannot resist devouring the 
whole issue of * three days rations ' at one 
glorious meal. . . . ' Notwithstanding 
this propensity for flesh, the Fingo, like the 
Kaffir, seldom touches it in time of peace, 
but keeps his cattle to look at and admire, 
living entirely on pumpkins, maize, Kaffir- 
corn, roots, and milk." 

Both these races are described as of great 
strength, tall, muscular, well made, brave, 
and indomitable, and, as will be seen from 
the preceding extracts, they are practical 
Vegetarians^ being reared and sustained on 
vegetable productions and milk, except when 
engaged in war, when they resort to the 
use of a flesh-diet, apparently for the express 
purpose of fostering the war spirit, as a 
stimulus to the destructive propensities which 
that unholy passion rouses into activity. -In 
this matter, then, untutored savages exhibit 

* Chemistry of Common Life. 
t Campaigning in Kaffirland, or Scenes and 
Adventures in the Kaffir War of 1851-2 : by 
Captain W. R. King, 74th Highlanders. 

a profounder philosophy than the Christian 
nations, who plume themselves on the advan- 
tages of a high civilization, as, in times of 
peace, when it is their interest to promote 
concord and amity, and to foster and encou- 
rage the growth of the milder virtues, they 
wisely order their diet and habits of life in 
accordance with these objects; but, in time 
of war, when it is their object to rouse into 
action the fierce and destructive susceptibi- 
lities of their nature, they resort to the use 
of the flesh of animals as food, recognising 
the relation of this species of nourishment 
and the habits necessary to procure it, with 
the lowest and worst qualities of human 

•* In peace there's nothing' so becomes a man 
As modest stillness and humility ; 
But when the blast of war blows in our ears, 
Then imitate the action of the tiger." 

"The Kaffirs," the same author informs 
us, " are, undoubtedly, one of the finest races 
of savages in existence, and of a physical 
type very diff'erent from, and superior to, all 
other South African races. . . . Although 
their flocks and herds constitute their chief 
wealth, and cattle hold the highest place in 
their estimation, being supposed to have 
been created superior to man at first, and 
none but the grown-up males are allowed 
the honour of milking them, or even enter- 
ing the kraal, etc. ; yet, in time of peace 
they never touch flesh, unless it be game, 
living almost entirely on milk, fruit, and 
vegetables, with berries, leaves, and roots 
of various kinds." 

The foregoing quotations show that the 
possession of flocks and herds does not neces- 
sarily lead to the use of them as food, and 
may thus tend to remove the misconceptions 
of certain objectors, who regard the accounts 
of the possession of flocks and herds, by the 
patriarchs mentioned in Holy Writ, as a 
proof that the use of flesh-meat was quite 
customary in those primitive times, never 
considering that the fleece and the milk 
might be a sufficient inducement to possess 
such property. In the case of the Kaffirs, 
moreover, we are told that the cattle are kept 
"to be looked at and admired," and that 
they only resort to the slaughter of these 
peaceful creatures, when their minds, having 
become excited by the foul passions of hate 
and revenge, demand corresponding aliment, 
that their bodies, being thus stimulated by 
an unnatural diet, may become the more 
ready instruments of the fierce and warlike 
dispositions, the return of mental sanity and 
peace being again distinguished by their re- 
sorting to the use of the simple products of the 
soil as their chief subsistence — the analogies 
of nature being thus evet complete. 





The following letter will be found to con- 
tain an important and interesting review of 
the leading statements which led to the 
recent discussion between Mr. Ward and 
Dr. Balbiknie. 

Dear Sir — On perusing the discussiou upon 
this question, no one can fail to observe that the 
disputants spend labour and time in the attempt 
to depreciate each other in the eyes of the public, 
which ought to have been employed in the inves- 
tigation of truth ; in fact, that the discussion, as 
a whole, is the very opposite of that which should 
characterize a patient and close inquiry into 

Casting aside, therefore, all personalities, and 
the useless warfare upon minor points, I propose 
to examine, in detail, the assertions of Dr. Bal- 
BiRNiE, in the extract from his work in which 
he attempts to connect Vegetarianism with con- 
sumption, together with all the evidence he has 
adduced in support of his assertions. 

In doing this, I shall keep Mr. Ward's state- 
ments and arguments almost entirely out of 
view, because, generally speaking, he opposes 
only assertion to assertion, and his ipse dixit to 
that of Dr. Balbirnie's, thus continually 
introducing fresh issues, each of which, if called 
upon, he would be bound to support by proof, 
but which, standing thus unsupported, appear 
only as Mr. Ward's opinions, and of no value 
as part of the record of evidence. 

I may here remark, that mere assertion or 
opinion, cannot be admitted as evidence upon a 
disputed question. I mention this here, because 
Dr. Balbirnie seems to imagine that his asser- 
tion or opinion, is evidence, until overthrown by 
opposing evidence. Thus, he says : "It is time 
enough to come to the rescue of my opinion 
when it is in danger of being overthrown. I 
have yet seen neither facts nor figures to invali- 
date it." Dr. Balbirnie must, on the slightest 
reconsideration, see that it is Ms opinion, when 
questioned, which requires the support of facts 
and figures, because, if it cannot be thus sup- 
ported, it can never be shown to be correct. 
But to show how necessary it is to reject mere 
assertions or opinions, advanced even by talented 
and learned men, take the following illustration, 
which is drawn from the discussion itself. Dr. 
BuCHAN gives it as his opinion, " that consMm/)- 
tions, so common in England, are in part owing 
to the great use of animal food." Dr. Bal- 
birnie, however, informs us that, "the class of 
the community who consume most animal food, 
are the butchers, who are of all others the least 
subject to consumption ! " It is plain that if any 
persons make a great use of flesh, it must be 
those who consume most animal food ; so that, 
according to Dr. Buchan, the great use of flesh 
produces part of the consumptions, and accord- 
ing to Dr. Balbirnie, it is a preservative from 
consumptions ! This difference of opinion, how- 
ever, is only what may be expected, where general 
facts are only glanced at, and not thoroughly 

examined, and to me it appears no more surprising 
that doctors, under such circumstances, should 
differ, than that any other men should differ. Dr. 
Balbirnie must, therefore, be contented to 
have his assertions, even though reiterated, set 
aside, and a call made upon him to table his 

The point at issue is. Whether Vegetarianism 
produces consumption? or whether it tends to 
produce a condition of body favourable to the 
development of that disease? Dr. Balbirnie 
has said, that " the use of no particular food has 
been found uniformly to correspond with its 
development." It is clear, then, that Vege- 
tarianism is not uniformly the cause of con- 
sumption, nor is it invariably the cause of its 
development. " But," adds the Doctor, " herbiv- 
orous animals are certainly more affected with 
tubercular diseases than carnivorous," and this 
" comparison refers, of course, to animals placed 
in similar circumstances." Tliis assertion, Mr. 
Editor, I would call your particular attention to, 
because the Doctor evidently chuckles over it as 
a staggerer for Mr. Ward, as well as for the 
whole batch of Vegetarians. I have heard a hen 
chuckling over rotten eggs before now, but never 
knew a chick produced from them for all that. 
But to the point, and listen to the Doctor's 
evidence. He says, " the genuine specimen of 
the domesticated herbivorous animal is the town- 
fed cow. Of these, nine in ten die with tuber- 
culated lungs ! " This, to me, is a satisfactory 
statement, because it is straightforward and 
open, challenging inquiry by actual figures, and 
refers to a well-known fact. To complete the 
comparison, however, we require a reference to 
the genuine specimen of a domesticated carnivorous 
animal, placed in similar circumstances, to the 
town-fed cow. Here an important link of the 
chain is wanting. True, we are informed that 
there are crowds of carnivorous animals " which 
are quite as much crammed, 'cribbed, cabined, 
and confined' as the phthisical cow of town 
stables "; but the similarity of their circumstances 
does not appear very striking. A glance at the 
circumstances in which the town-fed cow is 
placed, will be here appropriate. She is gene- 
rally confined in badly-ventilated, and often 
most filthy places, and, whether well or ill- 
situated in this respect, she rarely gets out of 
her stable — she is tied to a stake, so as to make 
exercise impossible, and her food is, to a large 
extent, the refuse of breweries. In these dis- 
advantageous circumstances she is milked twice 
a-day at least ; and though this demand upon 
her strength, in more favourable conditions, is 
not generally found very injurious, what must 
the effect be in the circumstances described ? It 
would not be difiicult to enlarge these remarks, 
but sufficient has been said to show that the 
circumstances of the town-fed cow are peculiar 
to herself, and there is no other animal, herbiv- 
orous or carnivorous, with which I am acquainted, 
placed in circumstances so trying to the 
animal constitution. With the exception of the 
confinement, therefore, it does not appear that 



the carnivorous animal is placed in circumstances 
at all similar to the town-fed cow ; and even in 
this particular of the confinement, the advantage 
is in favour of the confined carnivora. In the 
various menageries, or public gardens, where they 
are to be found, their health and comfort is 
scrupulously attended to ; they have always suffi- 
cient room to take exercise ; and, instead of 
being fed on any artificial food (whether the 
refuse of breweries or any thing else), they have 
their natural food provided them ; and as to any 
drain upon their constitutions aualagous to milk 
taken from a cow, of course no such thing exists. 
Until, then. Dr. Balbirnie produces his sin- 
gular carnivorous animals, nay, crowds of them, 
placed in similar circumstances to the town-fed 
cow, I, for one, shall not be staggered by his 

I cannot help remarking, that if the Doctor 
could establish his assertion, that a cow deprived 
of exercise, of its natural food, etc., is more 
liable to a certain disease than a carnivorous 
animal under the same circumstances, still he is 
a long way off proving that therefore, man, eating 
vegetable food of an entirely different description, 
and placed in entirely different circumstances, 
should be liable to the same disease ! But, 
although so far from the point to be established, 
still the impression of such a statement, as this 
under discussion, upon ignorant persons, and upon 
those who give ready credence to the opinion of 
a learned and talented man, would undoubtedly 
be equivalent to telling them, that they risk an 
attack of consumption by making a trial of 
Vegetarian diet, and this is no doubt the impres- 
sion the doctor wishes to fix on their minds. If 
he means, however, that the human subject, only 
under similar circumstances to the coio, will thus 
be endangered, we need find no fault with his 

The Doctor next asserts, " that butchers who 
use much animal food, are seldom consumptive " ; 
which is repeated afterwards in stronger language, 
thus : " If meat-eating were a real cause of con- 
sumption, butchers — the class of the community 
who consume most animal food — would be pre- 
cisely those the most obnoxious to consumption. 
But the fact is quite the reverse ; butchers are, 
of all others, the least subject to consumption ! " 
To assert that they are least subject to consump- 
tion, is as much as to say that they are less 
subject to the disease than the members of the 
Vegetarian Society itself, and when the Doctor 
has produced his facts and figures to prove this, 
I shall believe him, and not till then. I would 
not, however, be understood as questioning the 
fact, that butchers are seldom consumptive; but 
that this is owing to their eating much animal 
food, or because they eat most animal food, there 
is no evidence to show. Indeed, opinions to the 
contrary can be produced from anti -Vegetarians. 
Dr. Buchan's opinion has already been noticed, 
but the following quotation from Lowne's 
Lectures on Animal Physiology, contains not only 
an opinion, but such grounds for the opinion as 
Dr. Balbirnie will find it difficult to dispose of: 
" It is commonly supposed that largely partaking 
of animal food is a protection to the consumptive 

patient, and the pretty general exemption from 
this disease which butchers enjoy, has been 
attributed to their eating largely of their trading 
commodity. If flesh eating, however, would save 
us from consumption, then heef-eating England, 
instead of being the principal sufferer, ought to be 
the last nation in the world to suffer. I should 
rather attribute the health of the butcher to his 
active habits and outdoor employment, than to 
the imagined protection, which is as commonly 
partaken by thousands who suffer from this disease 
as by the butchers themselves." The italics are 
mine. I leave you, Mr. Editor, and your readers, 
to judge between Doctors Balbirnie and 
LowNE, conceiving, that the opinion and fads 
of the latter, so eclipse the mere dictum of the 
former, that the conclusion to be arrived at can- 
not for a moment be doubted. 

Dr. Balbirnie further says, in a "few cases 
I could distinctly connect the development of 
consumption with a prolonged experiment of 
Vegetarian diet." If by this is meant, that in 
the cases referred to. Vegetarianism produced 
consumption, then it ought to have been so ex- 
pressed, for the words used do not by any means 
warrant such a meaning. It is distinctly said, 
that the development, not the prodiiction, of con- 
sumption was connected with a prolonged experi- 
ment in Vegetarian diet, and Mr. Ward was 
perfectly correct in stating, that it was the Vege- 
tarian experiment which developed the disease, 
the seeds of which had been sown previous to 
the experiment. By what they were sown does 
not appear, but as there are various causes of 
consumption besides diet, it was incorrect for 
Mr. Ward to assume that it had been originated 
by the previous diet. Let us inquire, however, 
what is meant by the connection of consurnption 
with Vegetarian diet. If I had had the favour 
of a word with Dr. Balbirnie, I should have 
asked him, if he merely means that, in the cases 
referred to, the individuals commenced the prac- 
tice of Vegetarianism, with the diseased tendency 
then existing, and that, after giving up the use 
of flesh, the disease became developed ? If this 
is all, I should then ask, whether, if Vegetarian- 
ism had not been adopted, the disease would have 
been developed at all, and, if so, whether it would 
have been developed sooner or later than uiuler 
the practice of Vegetarianism? I should ask 
these questions, not to get the Doctor's opinion 
upon the cases, but for the purpose of being 
directed to such facts and figures as would, by 
taking an average of cases, show decidedly whe- 
ther the disease would have been developed 
sooner under the one practice or the other. For 
example, if Dr. Balbirnie has a list of say 
100 patients, all of whom had a tendency to 
consumption, and suppose 50 of them gave up 
flesh-meat, and in 40 of these cases the disease 
became developed, and the patients died ; whereas 
out of the 50 who kept to flesh-eating only 10 
cases of consumption occurred, then the Doctor 
can prove his case — the connection of consump- 
tion with Vegetarianism will arise out of the 
mists of uncertainty, and there will be no longer 
opinions required upon the subject, for the 
facts will annihilate the opinions. But if Dr. 



Balbirnie has no such facts and figures, then his 
statement becomes reduced to a mere opinion, 
which every one may follow or not, just as he 
pleases. But, again, if Dr. Balbirnie can 
connect a few cases of Vegetarianism with con- 
sumption, how many might be connected with 
flesh-eating upon the same kind of evidence ? 
If a Vegetarian were to die of consumption, 
every body who knew him, doctor, minister, and 
layman, would all agree in saying that it was his 
Vegetarianism which killed him : whereas, any 
flesh-eater who dies of this disease, is buried 
without remark as to the cause. But, if the fact 
of his having eaten flesh is put to the fact of his 
having died of consumption, how easy it would 
be to say, it was Ms flesh-eating that killed him. 
The naked fact of the two circumstances being 
coincident, proves nothing on the one side or 
the other ; and to produce conviction there must 
be statistics embracing many cases, in place of 
vague surmises respecting individual ones. 

The remainder of Dr, Balbirnie's assertions 
it is almost impossible to reply to, except by 
denying them. It is no easy matter for a Vege- 
tarian to believe statements which contradict his 
every-day experience, nor would it be profitable 
to waste much time in refuting them. "Unless 
well managed," says the Doctor, " Vegetarianism 
tends to produce an excess of the albuminous 
element of the blood, and a deficiency of its 
fibrine, iron and red particles, imparting a pale- 
ness and flabbiness to the tissues, a general 
delicacy of looks, and a want of stamina and 
power of energetic endurance. This is a state 
of matters assuredly verging on to the patho- 
logical condition of the fluids characterizing the 
scrofulous constitution. Hence the necessity 
for caution in Vegetarian experiments." This 
reminds me of the old stories about pale teeto- 
tallers, and may prove an excellent scare-crow 
to people who know nothing of Vegetarianism. 
But how does the Doctor know that Vegetari- 
anism will do all this ? I am anxious to learn 
something of the experiments by which he 
arrived at such conclusions, because Vegetarians 
who take particular observation of their own 
bodies, find, by experience, just the reverse of 
what the Doctor says. He, himself, has experi- 
mented with Vegetarian diet for two years, and 
considers himself qualified to give counsel upon 
the subject : so have I experimented with flesh 
diet, and Vegetarian diet too — my first experi- 
ment of Vegetarianism extending to six weeks, 
and ray last to nearly eight years, and I consider 
myself, so far as experiment and experience goes, 
far better qualified to give counsel upon such 
a subject, than Dr. Balbirnie himself. 

In conclusion, the Doctor says : " But there is 
a lime to eat animal food ! The grand questions 
are the measure and proportions of it — when to 
stop, and when to recommence, and how far to 
go." Suppose for a moment any public lecturer 
were to go about the country, teaching that 
" there is a time to eat bread, the grand questions 
are the measures and proportions of it," etc., it 
would take people rather by surprise. Would 
not the universal voice of the people reply, "We 
eat bread when we are hungry, and leave off 

when we are full, and that is the measure, these 
are the proportions, the time to stop, and recom- 
mence, and the length to go." Would not they 
argue, that bread was a wholesome article of 
diet, and that hunger and fulness indicated with 
suflicient accuracy all they required to know 
about it ? And would they not argue correctly, 
even according to Doctors who do not argue 
about the measure and proportions of bread, but 
are extremely anxious to ascertain for themselves 
and the public the measure and proportions of 
flesh to be consumed? If flesh is a natural diet, 
how is it that the problem as to the quantity 
should not be solved as easily as that of bread ? 
Doctors in their writings speak continually about 
the proper proportions of flesh to be taken, con- 
sequently there are improper, or injurious pro- 
portions, and every-day experience confirms this. 
One man says he cannot eat animal food above 
two or three times a day, another man only 
once, a third only two or three times a week, 
and so on ; every one who has made observations 
on this matter, is on the hunt for his proper 
proportion : disclosing the fact that each has 
found he may eat, not too much merely, for one 
may eat too much of any thing, but too great a 
proportion for his health and comfort. The 
fact, then, that this too great a proportion is 
found hurtful and injurious, is one which ought 
never to be lost sight of. No doubt, individual 
cases might be referred to, in which a proper 
proportion of other articles of diet was found 
necessary, but to go into an inquiry about such 
cases, would only be leading us from the more 
important inquiry as to the effects of flesh. 
Dr. Balbirnie distinctly informs us, that "the 
grand questions are the measure and proportions 
of it — when to stop, and when to recommence, 
and how far to go." He does not give us the 
answers to these grand questions, and so far as 
I have discovered, no answers are given in any 
physiological or dietetic work yet published, the 
grand truth being that no general answer can 
be given — each man must reply to the grand 
questions from his own experience — each must 
ascertain for himself the measure and propor- 
tion which is injurious to him. Now, if it is 
true, Mr. Editor, and Dr. Balbirnie himself 
propounds the fact, that the measure and pro- 
portion of flesh to be consumed, are grand and 
important questions ; is it not likewise true, 
that few persons are able to discover the proper 
proportions ; or if they are, are not able to resist 
the temptations of the table, and so eat (not 
merely too much) but too often of that which 
they know does them injury? Vast multitudes 
can lay down no rule for themselves, and if 
they could, have not faith enough to follow 
it ; and so, from one cause or another, this 
mysterious proportion is exceeded. And what is 
the result ? I will not dogmatize, but I appeal 
to the common sense of every one, whether 
disease of some kind must not be the con- 
sequence. If no such consequence follows, then 
what makes the questions of the measure and 
proportion so important? But if disease does 
follow, what is the disease ? or if diseases, what 
are they? These are questions, which, if the 



flesh-eating physiologist or physician overlooks, 
the Vegetarian will not. 

Upon a calm review of the whole question, 
then, it cannot be said that Dr. Balbirnie has 
established his assertions. On the contrary, his 
few facts have been weighed in the balances and 
found wanting, and, instead of triumphantly 
proving that Vegetarianism produces or develops 
consumption, his own statements have been 
shown to create a grave suspicion, almost 
amounting to certainty, that flesh itself is a very 
general agent in the production of disease, 
whether consumption itself, or not, does not yet 

Having already occupied too much space, I 
subscribe myself, Yours respectfully, 



*' RoGXJE, — I am a soldier, and have learnt some- 
what in the wars. 

TocHO. — Aye, marvy, — I would fain know what 'tis. 

Rogue. — 'Tis when I see a knave thrust his nose 
into the business of another, to tweak it very 
lustily." Mountaineer Sy act 2. 

Dear Sir — A petty driveller, who has reason 
to feel ashamed of his character and position, has 
ventured, under the nom de guerre of " Another 
Renegade," to find fault with my public advo- 
cacy and defence of Vegetarianism. And he 
boldly assures us, that not only am I doing a 
serious wrong to the Society, but each and all of 
the " staunch Vegetarians " are doing the same. 
Really, Sir, if this be the truth, we are greatly 
indebted to this person. The Society must call 
in this sapient scribe, and give him the office of 
Commandant General. But not too fast. Sup- 
pose we examine our censor, and see who and 
what he is — for this is easily done. The anony- 
mous does not conceal him. A full length 
survey, and a moment's consideration, leads to 
the conclusion, if it does not reveal, that our 
censor is a poor fellow halting between a hospital 
and a lunatic asylum. 

" There is no boldness like the impudence 
That's locked in a fool's blood. " 

But I am not going to create an ocean to 
drown a fly. Let him go. He is surely quite 
incurable. Infinite Wisdom teaches us, in a Book 
this meddler may not reverence, " that though 
you bray a fool in a mortar, yet will not his 
foolishness depart from him." 

If any reasonable person wants to know any- 
thing about "the bran, and flour, and intermediate 
substances," and asks in a teachable disposition, 
I will do all I can to explain in an easy and kind 
manner all about them. But for the Birming- 
ham " renegade," I can only prescribe cold water 
bandages to the head. 

I am. Sir, yours respectfully, 

W. G. WARD. 

Sandsworthy Staff., March 3, 1855. 


Sir — In the last month's Messenger, I see a 
communication from Edinburgh, signed R. J._. 
stating that there have been two Vegetarian 
Meetings in this city since the visit of Mr. 

Simpson and Mr. Griffin, and that there were 
very few persons present. At this I am not 
much surprised, for, though I am a constant re- 
sident hero, and not totally unacquainted with 
the advertising columns of the newspaper press, 
as well as being in a public business (I do not 
mean an intoxicating liquor establishment), and 
frequently about town, yet I never heard of, or 
saw, any notification of either of the meetings to 
which R. J. refers. I beg, therefore, to suggest, 
that a little more publicity should be given to 
the announcement when the next meeting is 
proposed, as I dare say there are several Vege- 
tarians in Edinburgh, who, like myself, are not 
members of the Society. I am, Sir, respectfully 

Udinbtn'ffJi. G. C. J. 


Dear Sir — On looking over the new list of 
members, I am concerned to find how few of the 
Vegetarians in this locality have attended to 
registration in the General Society. This is a 
serious delinquency, and as, very probably, it 
may prevail in other localities, I deem it im- 
portant to bring the matter thus publicly under 
the notice of our friends. 

In a body like ours, numerically so insignificant, 
and which has, besides, so much to contend with 
in the ignorance, prejudices, and false appetites 
of society, the closest union is of the utmost 
importance. Some may suppose it sufficient to 
give in their adhesion to a local Association. 
But this is a mistake. The local Associations are, 
no doubt, essential to progress, but our influence 
on public opinion, and the estimate which will 
be formed of us as a " party," will depend on the 
front we can present as a national organization. 
The necessity for joining the General Society can- 
not, therefore, be too forcibly impressed on our 
adherents ; and, in connection with this subject, 
I may take the liberty of suggesting to our 
friends the propriety of attending to their sub- 
scriptions. Hitherto, the " sinews of war " have 
been drawn too exclusively from one source, 
which is not creditable to us. Let us, therefore, 
attend to this part of our duties likewise. Let 
" each give according to his means " ; but, above 
all, let us not entirely overlook our obligations on 
this score, which, I fear, may be too much the 

I may also take notice of what has struck me 
rather luipleasantly in perusing the list, namely, 
the absence of the names of the " better halves " 
of many of our friends. Where this occurs from 
mere neglect, the fault is unpardonable ; and, 
with respect to those cases where the good lady 
is still among the "flesh-pots," I must say it reflects 
small credit on the husband, who must either be 
gravely remiss in his duty to his wife in this 
important concern, or there must be sad " poverty 
of genius," if, with all the elements of attraction 
and conviction which the Vegetarian system pre- 
sents, he yet fail to bring her "within the fold." 
I fear I have trenched too much on your valuable 
space, and shall conclude with best wishes for 
the cause. 






Now a public dinner is a thorouglily English 
mode of celebrating an event, or of commenc- 
ing an undertaking— there can be no doubt 
of that. Whether the " custom is more 
honoured i' th' breach than the observance," 
some folk are inclined to question. We 
frankly confess that we are not of the number. 
We believe that men have bodies as well as 
souls — that the two are very intimately 
associated — and that the reflex influence of 
the one upon the other is far more powerful 
than superficial observers are apt to imagine. 
We lay no great stress upon the satisfaction 
of the stomach — though that is not to be 
despised as a thing of no consequence, as 
every one will admit who closely watches and 
contrasts the play of his own temper an hour 
before, and an hour after, dinner. Much 
less do we set store on any artificial stimulus 
to the nervous energies. Meat and drink 
are but the conditions to something far better. 
The liberation of social sympathies, the inter- 
change of courteous acts and expressions, the 
general commingling of good will, and the 
thaw of individual reserves, which invariably 
accompany a public repast, make up alto- 
gether a genial atmosphere for the budding 
forth of whatever kindliness and generosity a 
man may possess, and greatly aids the process 
of moral amalgamation. Accordingly, per- 
sonal prejudices, antipathies, and shyness, 
originating frequently in nothing but want 
of acquaintance, or foolish fancies, never 
stand so good a chance of being routed as 
when marched up to the festive board. They 
must be uncommonly sturdy veterans to stand 
their ground there. They seldom do, how- 
ever. More frequently, like ghosts of cock- 
crow, they " haste away," and leave the 
ground clear for the more amiable sentiments 
of our nature. The thing is liable to abuse, 
undoubtedly, as all good things are — but 
Christian gentlemen are usually supposed to 
be under some self-control when the occasion 
calls for it. — Nonconformist. 


Straw, except when new, is not a very nutri- 
tious food, for we find a great part of it 
unchanged in the fceces of the animal fed 
upon it. Its principal use is to give a bulk 
to the food taken. Even in the case of 
turnips, a food of considerable balk, straw is 
necessary, because they contain nearly 90 per 
cent, of water, which becomes soon separated. 
Thus it is that cattle fed upon turnips volun- 
tarily take 2 or 3 lbs. of straw daily, or as 
much as will serve to give the necessary bulk 
to the food. The digestive process of herb- 

ivorous animals is very complicated. The 
food is primarily taken into the first stomach 
or rumen, which is analogous to the crop in 
birds. Here it is moistened with a secre- 
tion from the stomach. The coarse unraas- 
ticated food is from thence transmitted into 
the second stomach, or reticulum, where it is 
rolled up into little balls, one of which from 
time to time is returned to the mouth to be 
further comminuted and insalivated. After 
this reduction, it is sent into the manyplus, 
or third stomach, where it is further reduced 
to a pulpy mass, and in this state enters the 
fourth stomach, where true digestion com- 
mences. The object of the three first sto- 
machs being merely to obtain a proper com- 
minution of the food, it is necessary to have 
that food of sufficient bulk, otherwise the 
peristaltic motion of the stomach would be 
impeded. This would .appear to be the 
reason for giving straw with turnips and 
other kinds of succulent food. — Dr. Lyox 

JOHN "Wesley's endurance and unin- 


Alas ! Few, we doubt, would have envied the 
condition in whichr he was placed. The 
inconveniences and dangers which he em- 
braced, that he might preach the Gospel, and 
do good of every kind to all that would 
receive it at his hands : the exposing of him- 
self to every change of season, and incle- 
mency of weather, in the prosecution of his 
work, were conditions which few but him- 
self would have submitted to. He frequently 
slept on the ground, as he journeyed through 
the woods, covered with the nightly dews, 
and with his clothes and hair frozen by the 
morning to the earth. He would wade 
through swamps, or swim over rivers, and 
then travel till his clothes were dry. His 
health in the meantime, strange as it may 
seem, was almost uninterrupted. Much may 
be laid to the account of his "iron body," 
as his brother Samuel terms it, but we think 
every pious mind will rather impute both his 
health and preservation to Him who mint' 
hers the hairs of our head, and whose 
guardian care is especially over those, who 
aim to walk worthy of him unto all pleasing. 
* * In sixteen years he was only once sus- 
pended from his labour by sickness, though 
he dared all weathers, upon the bleak moun- 
tains, and used his body with less compassion, 
than a merciful man would use his beast. — 
Life of Wesley, pp. 112, 331. 

Without questioning the influence of the 
causes here assigned for Mr. Wesley's 
freedom from disease under disadvantageous 



circumstances, we would remark, that another 
great cause of this may be found in the 
practice of early rising, and his simple habits 
of diet, it being an undoubted fact, that, for 
a considerable portion of his life, he was an 
abstainer from the use of " flesh and wine."* 


"While I cannot go the lengths of some who 
have panegyrized the Kaffirs as the finest 
race of men ever beheld, I may, without 
fear of contradiction, state that there are 
many remarkably fine and well-made men 
amongst them. Many of them are tall, 
robust, and very muscular, etc. In stature 
they vary from five to six feet ten inches ; 
and a cripple or deformed person is seldom 
seen amongst them. The particular causes 
to which they are indebted for their fine 
forms and athletic strength of body, I do 
not pretend to develop ; but it may be 
observed that they are exempt from many 
of those causes that, in more civilized socie- 
ties, contribute to impede and cramp the 
growth of the body. Their diet is exceed- 
ingly simple, their exercise that of the most 
salutary nature ; their limbs are not en- 
cumbered with clothing ; the air they 
breathe is pure; their frame is not shaken 
or enervated by the use of intoxicating 
liquors, for they are not acquainted with 
them ; they eat when they are hungry, and 
sleep when nature demands it. — Barrow's 
Travels, p. 109. 


Under the present high price of wheat and 
prospect of scarcity^ before the next harvest, 
it is of the utmost importance to every one 
that the best possible application should be 
made of the cereals which are used for family 
consumption. Every experienced family 
housekeeper knows that a much larger 
amount of material for the table arises from 
wheat simply ground into bread-meal (that 
is, the full produce of whatever grain, 
previous to the bran being extracted there- 
from) than from finely dressed flour arising 
from the same quantity of grain ; and there 
are many of our intelligent people who know 
that, for the promotion of the health of a 
family, the loaf made from bread-meal is a 
better and more healthy diet than the loaf 
made from flour ; and also that the fermented 
loaf, made either from flour or bread-meal, is 
a decidedly more economical and digestible 
article of domestic consumption, than the cake 
so common in the cottages of the labouring 
population of our country. By the term 
*' cake," I mean the produce of flour kneaded 
in milk or water with a little butter, and 

* Vol. iv. Treasury, pp. 1, 23. 

without fermentation. B. 


■The Agricultural 


I have been much pained during the late 
severe weather at the wholesale destruction 
of small birds, such as larks, consequent 
upon the frost and snow having cut off their 
usual supplies of food, and thus leading 
them to approach the dwellings of man in 
quest of subsistence. Large numbers have 
thus fallen a prey to the arch destroyer, hav- 
ing been snared, shot, or otherwise killed, and 
then off'ered for sale as supplies for the 
table. A Liverpool paper mentions that 
large numbers of larks — that beautiful bird 
by whose minstrelsy we have so often been 
charmed in our country rambles — have been 
caught in the neighbourhood of Southport, 
" one man having taken sixty dozen, in pan- 
tiles, in one day, during the frost," and at 
Blackpool, during the past week, numbers of 
these birds were off'ered for sale at sixpence 
the dozen. At this low price, doubtless 
many of them will have been entombed 
in the stomachs of those who regard almost 
every creature that walks, swims, or flies, 
as lawful food for man. I cannot but regard 
this taking advantage of the necessities, and 
turning these " harmless tenants of the air " 
to account in this way, as something trea- 
cherous and inhuman. Let all who hold our 
principles labour diligently to extend them, 
and thus hasten, whilst they pray for, the 
advent of that day, when man shall no 
longer "hurt or destroy" not merely in- 
off'ensive animals, but even those to which 
he is indebted for their ministrations to his 
happiness, in contributing, by their hymns 
of praise and melody, to the beauty and 
attractiveness of rural scenes. — D. A. 


The idle should not be classed among the 
living; they are a sort of dead men that 
cannot be buried. 


There is a limit to toil set by God. He who 
has given bounds to the ocean — who has 
placed the duration of light and darkness 
under rule — who has put all things under 
law — whose universe is an embodiment of 
order, has made it impossible to continue 
toil beyond a certain limit, without detri- 
ment. And if that limit be passed, injury 
succeeds. The man made rich by the long 
hour system may be a murderer of men — 
the destroyer of morals and happiness — the 
adversary of souls ; and may hold riches as 
Judas held the thirty pieces of silver — his 
gains may be the price of blood ! — Rev. S. 




Want of knowledge is, doubtless, the lead- 
ing cause of the opposition to the progress 
of Vegetarianism in the social circle, as 
with the public. Erroneous training for 
generations, unquestionably begets tenden- 
cies to error in observation and judgement, 
when new questions are brought before the 
attention. Especially is this likely to occur 
where the will and affections, rather than 
the understanding, have to do with the deci- 
sion, as is commonly the case in domestic 
life. It would thus be unreasonable to look 
for less than strong opposition here, even 
though such opposition be mixed up with, or 
suggested by, the sincerest affection or regard. 
All this, then, having to be met, is ex- 
cusable enough, where it gives way to fact 
and practical observation ; and this is 
generally the case where intelligence is 
brought to bear in the experiment of 

Vegetarian practice. The intelligence best 
calculated to secure this satisfactory result, 
is of two kinds. First, a knowledge of 
the principles and arguments of the system 
should be attained, and, this secured, there 
is always enough discernible in the system 
to procure a measure of respect for it, if not 
to silence anything but pure dogmatic op- 
position, which ultimately has to give way 
to an intelligent adherence to principle. It 
is both curious and interesting to witness 
such a conflict in a family. A more or less 
isolated member has been attracted by the 
teaching and practice of Vegetarianism, and 
avows his practical conviction of its cor- 
rectness, and this mere announcement is 
received with far more alarm than would 
have been that of a resolution to emigrate 
to the gold-fields of Australia or California. 
* Continued from p. 27. 


In quoting the following remarks from " As my own discoveries in this important 

the experience of the pedestrian Stewart, subject may be of some use to mankind, I 
whose work * presents some remarkable in- 
stances showing the effects of simplicity of 
diet in preserving the human constitution, 
interesting evidence is afforded, in reply to 
the doubts so commonly felt as to the practi- 
cability of Vegetarianism in certain climates. 

''Upon a comparative view of constitutions 
and climates," says he, " I find them reci- 
procally adapted, and offering no difference of 
good and evil. I then consider the aliment, 
and though, upon a superficial observation, 
the difference might be supposed wisely 
adapted to the difference of climate; yet 
upon more critical investigation, I am dis- 
posed to believe the aliment of flesh and 
fermented liquors to be heterogeneous to the 
nature of man in every climate. 

" I have observed, among nations whose 
aliment is vegetables and water, that disease 
and medicine are equally unknown, while 
these whose aliment is flesh and fermented 
liquor, are constantly afflicted with disease, 
and medicine more dangerous than disease 
itself; and not only those guilty of excess, 
but others who lead lives of temperance. 
These observations show the great import- 
ance of the congeniality of aliment, in the 
discovery and continuance of which depends 
the inestimable blessing of health, or basis 
of well-being or happiness. 

* Stewart's Travels. 

shall relate the state of my own health and 
aliment. At a very early period I left my 
native climate, before excess, debauchery, or 
diet had done the least injury to my body. 
I found many of my countrymen in the 
region of India, suffering under a variety of 
distempers; for though they had changed 
their country, they would by no means 
change their aliment ; and to this ignorant 
obstinacy I attributed the cause of their 
disorders. To prove this by my own expe- 
rience, I followed the diet of the natives, 
and found no change in my health effected 
by the greatest contrariety of climate, to 
which I exposed myself more than any of 
my countrymen dared to do. * * 

" As I possess, from care and nature, a 
perfect constitution, my body may serve as an 
example which may generalize the effect of 
aliment upon most other bodies. I observed in 
travelling, if my body was wet, and must 
continue any time in that state, I abstained 
from all nourishment till it was dry, and 
always escaped the usual disorders of cold, 
rheumatism, and fever. When I was in the 
frigid zone, I lived upon a nutritious aliment, 
and ate much butter, with beans, peas, and 
other pulse. In the torrid zone, I dimin- 
ished the nutritious quality of my food, and 
ate but little butter, and even then found 
it necessary to eat spices to absorb the 



humours, whose redundancy is caused by heat, 
and are noxious in hot climates. In cold 

climates nature seems to demand that redun- 
dancy, as necessary to health and strength." 



The following correspondence, arising out of 
some remarks made at a recent meeting of 
the Fleshers, or butchers, of Glasgow, will 
be read with interest. The report of the 
proceedings of the evening, after a tea- 
party in the City Hall, is accompanied by 
some strongly sympathetic comments on the 
part of the Editor of the Glasgow Examiner^ 
which, taken with all due consideration, as 
out of the ''abundance of the heart," still 
call for a moment's comment. 

The fleshers (we give them their own 
designation, as less repugnant to them than 
our own term, butchers), says the Examiner, 
'' Do not occupy a mean status in society when 
they cau furnish such a §jrand spectacle as the 
City Hall afforded on Tuesday night. The 
fleshers are, indeed, a very industrious and use- 
ful class of tradesmen. They are most useful to 
the farmer and the beef-eater, which means 
nearly everybody. * * * Mr. Temple's 
clever speech sadly cut up our old friends, the 
Vegetarians; but the fleshers need never fear 
them so long as Scripture and reason are strong 
in favour of beef-eating; and the practice, we 
guess, will continue to the end of the w^orld. ♦ * 
It has been said that the slaughtering business 
must blunt the sensibility of the feelings ; but 
this cannot apply to the fleshers of Glasgow, for 
they have a fund for assisting their unfortunate 
brethren. Has human sympathy manifested 
itself so strong as to do so in other trades ? * * 
" Such social meetings are not only entertaining, 
but tend much to cultivate and strengthen the 
friendly feelings and sympathies of the heart, 
and seem to be in harmony with the whole con- 
stitution of human nature." 

The confusing of success in business, or 
the result of demand for the flesh of ani- 
mals (however mistaken and disadvantageous) , 
with the reference to a status of society 
which bespeaks moral influence, will at once 
be open to the discernment of our readers. 
The butchers may be useful to society in 
meeting the unhealthy demand set up for 
flesh-meat, much as the spirit-seller, in cer- 
tain aspects, can be said (though certainly in 
a less degree) to have his business called 
into existence by demand ; but the butchers, 
like the spirit-sellers, we apprehend, can 
never be expected to hold an influential 
status in society, and this from the very 
nature of their avocations — antagonistic as 
we hold these to be to the physical and 
moral progress of society. As to the beef- 
eaters meaning "nearly every body," we not 
only remark that this is a very broad compli- 
ment to flesh-eating, but that it is not true. 
After thousands of years of erroneous practice 


since man's original departure from his ap- 
pointed diet, the great majority of the people 
of all countries of the earth are, practically, 
exceptions to meat -eating, not one in three 
of the whole inhabitants of the earth being 
habitual consumers of flesh. 

As to the "blunting of the sensibilities" 
not being incident to the " slaughtering 
business," as shown from the fact of the 
fleshers of Glasgow having " a fund for 
assisting tlceir unfortunate brethren," the 
fallacy is at once seen, and society will 
hardly do more than laugh at the claim 
here set up, till a little more consideration 
has been shown for the anbnals submitted to 
their hands. We deplore the mistakes which 
have set up such a calling as that of the 
butcher, and the butcher's disadvantages in 
it, but cannot altogether resist the conclu- 
sions of Richerand, on this subject, in his 
work on physiology. * 

" ' A purely vegetable diet conveys iuto the 
blood,' says Pythagoras, ' mild and bland 
principles.' This fluid excites the organs in a 
moderate degree, and this check over the phy- 
sical excitement facilitates the observance of the 
laws of temperance, the original source of all 
virtues. The carnivorous, or flesh-eating species, 
are marked by their strength, their courage, and 
their ferocity. Savages who live by hunting, 
and who feed on raw, bloody, and palpitating 
flesh (like the tiger), are the most /erocioMS of 
men ; and in our country (France) in the midst 
of those scenes of horror, called ' the reign of 
terror,' which we have suffered, it was observed 
that Butchers t(;ere/ore/rtosf in the massacres 
and in all the acts of atrocity and barbarity. It 
would seem, 1st, that the habit of slaying ani- 
mals had familiarized them to shed h^man 
blood ; 2nd, that the daily use of animal food 
made them ferocious." 

Mr. Temple's speech we leave to our 
correspondents, here simply presenting the 
remarks in question. 

"Mr. Temple next addressed the meeting. 
He said there was a Society in the city whose 
object was to extinguish their trade. He alluded 
to the Vegetarian Society, of whose principles he 
had been requested to make a short review. If 
the Vegetarians had the right on their side, their 
principles would suffer nothing by scrutinising, 
for the more the torch of truth was shaken, the 
more it shined, and if wrong, the sooner their 
fallacies were exposed the better. Vegetarians 
were those who lived entirely on vegetable sub- 
stances, because, as they said, food of any other 
description was not suited to man's nature. 
Now, he might say that those in this hall used 
as much of that objectionable food as any of the 
community, and he was sure they could all say 

* p. 137. 



that flesh-meat was pleasant to the taste, good 
for the stomach, and good for building up their 
bodies. And he could say, without the least 
fear of contradiction, that those bright lamps 
never shone over fairer women and better look- 
ing men. (Cheers.) The spirit of independence 
existed largely in the breasts of those who 
used flesh-meat, whereas those who sub- 
sisted entirely on vegetable diet were of quite 
an opposite character, as illustrated by the 
negroes, who submitted to the greatest injustice 
ever perpetrated on mortal man." 

On the reference of the Editor of tlie Ex- 
aminer, however, to " Scripture and reason 
being strong in favour of beef-eating," we 
beg to suggest a little amended reading of 
Scripture, from whicli it will be seen that 
flesh- eating formed no part of the original 
and natural diet of man, but is incident 
only to his fallen condition, and that, if 
quoted from Scripture, it ranks with other 
permissive systems — slavery amongst the 
rest. As to the "guess" that such a 
practice as flesh-eating " will continue to 
the end of time," we find here, too, that the 
"abundance of the heart" overwhelms the 
prophecies of Scripture, which declare it 
shall not. (Isa. Ixv. 25.) 

In conclusion, we are happy to agree with 
the Examiner, in his commendation of the 
beneficial results of social tea-parties, and 
merely wish our brethren, the fleshers, as 
early a change in the special nature of their 
vocation as may be — one such as shall give 
them callings not opposed to, but traly " in 
harmony with, the whole constitution of 
human nature." 


"To the Editor of the Glasgow Examiner." 
"Sir — I observe from your report of the 
Fleshers' Soiree, held the other night in the 
City Hall, that one of the speakers who adverted 
to the existence of the Vegetarian Society, 
appears to labour under the misapprehension 
that the object of that Society is one of mere 
hostility to a class — in short, ' to put down the 
flesher trade.' I deem it proper, therefore, in 
order to set ourselves right with the members of 
the flesher trade, and all whom it may concern, 
to extract the following quotation from the pub- 
lished constitution of the Vegetarian Society, 
from which it will appear that we have no such 
narrow and unfriendly object in view; but that 
the Vegetarians, in promulgating their opinions, 
are actuated by wider considerations, and of an 
entirely humane and philanthropic character: — 
" ' The objects of the Association are, to induce 
habits of abstinence from the flesh of animals as 
food, by the dissemination of information upon 
the subject, by means of tracts, essays, and lec- 
tures, proving the many advantages of a physical, 
intellectual, and moral character, resulting from 
Vegetarian habits of diet ; and thus, to secure, 
through the association, example, and efforts of 
its members, the adoption of a principle which 

will tend essentially to true civilization, to uni- 
versal brotherhood, and to the increase of human 
happiness generally.' 

" While, however, the design of the Vegetarian 
Society is conceived in no hostile or unfriendly 
spirit to the parties engaged in meeting the 
demand for animal food, and while we recognise 
the utility of their profession whilst such demand 
exists, yet, it is obvious that, on the general 
adoption of the dietetic habits inculcated by 
Vegetarians, the trade would find their ' occu- 
pation gone ' ; but we need hardly remind them 
that this is an event of which the present genera- 
tion of fleshers can be under no apprehension. 
The Vegetarians are neither so vain nor so san- 
guine as to imagine that their peculiar views are 
going to be adopted by society at a bound. The 
history of all similar movements, which have to 
encounter the ignorance, prejudices, and false 
appetites of human nature, shows how tardy is 
the progress of truth, and I daresay the trade 
will have ample time to ' set their house in 
order ' during the transition, which, though 
slow, is sure to follow from a mode of living at 
once barbarous, repulsive, wasteful, unwholesome, 
and inconsistent with the highest conditions of 
civilization. The Vegetarians contend, then, that 
man is constitutionally adapted to subsist on a 
vegetable diet, comprising the various grains, 
roots, fruits, etc., and, consequently, that the use 
of the inferior animals for food is an invention of 
man, and not an ordinance of Nature. They do 
not assert this on mere assumption ; but base 
their arguments both on science and experience. 
The facts of anatomy and physiology confirm the 
position we take up as to the dietetic character of 
man, and experience shows that he thrives best, 
is sufficiently nourished, and can best sustain 
the wear and tear of life, on a diet composed of 
vegetable substances. The modern researches of 
chemistry^ as well, confirm the propriety and 
economy of Vegetarian diet, while they expose 
the wasteful and roundabout way of obtaining 
nourishment by means of animal food. Did 
space permit, I should be happy to go into details 
on these various aspects of the question, and I 
regret that the gentleman who professed to 
review the principles of Vegetarianism, at the 
late trade soiree, did not deal with the numerous 
facts and arguments on which our principles are 
usually defended, and from which we object to 
the use of animal food. 

" Beyond the statement that the company then 
assembled were large consumers of flesh — ergo, 
fine specimens of humanity — and the allusion to 
the depressed condition of the Negro race, as a 
result of vegetable diet, we have nothing what- 
ever to grapple with. We suspect that the 
Negro, like his brother of paler complexion, has 
wandered from the path of nature in seeking 
his supplies of food, and that other causes must 
be sought for, to account for the abject con- 
dition of the race. On the other hand, we 
might refer to some of the most miserable and 
ill-conditioned of our species, such as the Esqui- 
maux, and other northern tribes, who yet use 
very large quantities of animal food. We admit 
that the enslaved portion of the human race is 



mainly confined to Vegetable diet, and their 
known capacities for labour would argue that it 
agrees with them. We must, however, demur to 
the Corporation of Fleshers being considered as 
the heau ideal of humanity. We fear it is a 
trade which is barren of great names, and that 
the occupation is not friendly to the high devel- 
opment of human nature. We have said nothing 
as to the oflfensiveuess and repugnance to the 
sentiments of the means necessai*y to procure the 
supplies of animal food. The atrocities of the 
slaughtering system have been graphically de- 
scribed by Dickens in his Household Words. 
But a recent publication by Mr. Lewis, revealing 
the deplorable state of matters in connection 
with the slaughter-house in our own city, con- 
strains us to think that the adoption of a system 
of living can neither be too rapid nor too general, 
which, while it would confer great sanitary 
advantages on the community, would, at the same 
time, remove a numerous class of our fellow 
creatures from scenes and circumstances of the 
lowest and most depraving character. 



" To the Editor of the Glasgow Examiner." 
" Si r — I observe a letter from ' A Vegetarian ' in 
last week's Examiner, in which he states, when I 
was addressing the Flesher's Soiree, I appeared 
'to labour under the misapprehension that the 
object of the Vegetarian Society was one of mere 
hostility to a class, in short, to put down the 
Flesher Trade.' Now, I never either thought or 
said that Vegetarians had an ill-feeling to Fleshers 
as individuals ; and, I believe, that they are 
actuated alone by what they conceive to be 
humane and philanthropic principles ; but, I con- 
tend that I was right when I said that the object 
of their Society was to put down the Flesher 
Trade, and your correspondent proves I was 
correct by the extract he makes from the con- 
stitution of the Vegetarian Society, and he, in 
his own words, says it is obvious that on the 
general adoption of his principles the trade would 
find their ' occupation gone.' Your correspondent 
appears very reluctant to admit that that is their 
object, and to keep us from being alarmed at 
being starved out, he tells us, that the present 
generation of Fleshers have nothing to fear from 
Vegetarianism ; but this consolation of his goes 
for nothing, as it would be easy to prove that the 
consumption of animal food is yearly increasing. 
Your correspondent also says that I did not take 
up the numerous facts and arguments on which 
his principles are founded. Now, I admit that I 
have not seen any facts on which Vegetarianism 
is founded ; but I did take up those arguments 
which are foremost in the mouths of Vegetarians. 
Again, ' Vegetarian,' in alluding to the corporeal 
frame of Fleshers, says, sarcastically, ' fine speci- 
mens of humanity.' He appears to be labouring 
under the erroneous notion that Fleshers are 
overgrown monsters; and, then, he says, he fears 
it is a trade barren of great names, and that the 
trade is not favourable for the development of 
human nature. Now, I know Fleshers' sons who 
have risen to be ministers, and I know two who 

have" wrought at the trade who are attending the 
University with an eye to the ministry. The 
most of master Fleshers, and a large number of 
journeymen, are connected with our churches, 
and not a few are elders and deacons; and I 
know some of my brethren in the trade who take 
an active part in these movements which purify 
and elevate man ; and, as an indication of our 
character, look to the number of shops that were 
open in Glasgow on Sabbath, 11th Feb. Capt. 
Smart reports that there were 335 fruit and 
confection shops open, 31 vegetable shops open, 
and only one Flesher. Thus it would appear that 
those who deal in Vegetarians' food are 366 
times more given to open Sabbath profanation 
than those who deal in flesh. But Fleshers are 
not the only persons who use flesh-meat. The 
holiest, the wisest, the greatest, and the best of 
Beings that ever trod earth's surface has used 
flesh, and it amounts to blasphemy to say that it 
had a barbarous and uncivilizing influence on 
Him ; and nearly the whole of the people of 
Christendom use flesh. Yet, in face of that, 
' Vegetarian' has the hardihood to assert that it is 
a barbarous custom. 

" Again, ' Vegetarian ' thinks that because 
Dickens and Lewis have shown that there are 
cruel and depraved men connected with our trade, 
that that is a sufficient reason for the speedy 
suppression of our trade deing desirable. Let 
him apply the same test to other trades, and 
then say how many have stood the same ordeal. 
So much, then, for the personalities ; now for a 
glance at one or two of the principles he lays down. 

" ' Vegetarian ' says, his principles will tend 
essentially to true civilization, to universal 
brotherhood, and to the increase of human hap- 
piness generally." Now, it will be admitted that 
results are the true test of principles. Now, 
there are countries, such as all the natious of 
Africa and India, who subsist on the Vegetarian 
diet, as the western and northern nations of 
Europe, who use flesh ; the former (the Vege- 
tarian) nations are in the midnight of heathen 
darkness ; the latter are in the foreground of art, 
science, literature, and Christianity. 

" ' Vegetarian ' says that flesh is wasteful and 
unwholesome. Now, there is not a part of the 
animal that is not of use to man : but perhaps he 
refers to the production of the animal. Did 
space permit, I could show that Scotland could 
produce more grain and roots for man by keeping 
cattle than it can do without them. Did we give 
over eating flesh and fish, the hills and the glens, 
the rivers, and the lakes of old Caledonia would 
cease to do anything for the support of her hardy 
sons; and, as regards unwholesomeness, those 
persons who endure the greatest amount of 
bodily labour, such as ploughmen and miners, 
use flesh-meat to a large extent, not because it is 
a luxury, but because experience has taught them 
that it renews their strength, and replaces the 
tear and wear of their bodies; and another very 
strong argument for the strength-giving property 
of beef is, a few thousands of beef-eating British 
have conquered and subdued 150 millions of 
Vegetarian Indians. 'Vegetarian' talks of the 
repugnance to the sentiments of killing cattle. 



Now, the ox being an animal of instinct, and 
having no account to give at death, it is all the 
same to it whether death comes early or late, 
and the death that man gives it is much less 
painful than dying from disease. But Vege- 
tarians kill far more than we do. The cabbage, 
for instance, contains numerous animalculae, and 
all these have to be killed before a Vegetarian 
can make a meal of it. As regards the number 
of deaths, we may say Vegetarians strain at a 
gnat, and swallow a camel. Without taking up 
any more Vegetarian arguments, I may say that 
any practice which is commended and sanctioned 
by the Word of God, is a safe one. God said to 
Noah, ' Every living creature that moveth shall 
be meat for you.' For 4000 years killing of 
cattle was necessary to the worshipping of God, 
and the holy men who ministered at the altar 
received part of the flesh for their food. Again, 
when the Lord of Glory, with two celestial com- 
panions, visited Abraham, the patriarch killed 
and dressed a fatted calf, of which the heavenly 
guests partook. Again, when Elijah was in a 
solitary ravine, he was hungry, and God put 
forth a miraculous influence on the ravens, and 
caused them to carry bread and flesh morning 
and evening to his servant. When Jesus was 
in the world, he chose his disciples from amongst 
fishers, which is a trade akin to ours, and he went 
with them on their fishing expeditions, and 
pointed where they might catch the greatest 
number ; and the fact that the Bible approves 
of flesh eating is another evidence that the 
Author of Nature, the Author of Man, and the 
Author of that Book, is one and the same Being. 

" 37, Oxford Street Glasgow, 28th Feb., 1855." 

" To the Editor of the Glasgow Examiner." 
"Sir — In your paper of the 24th February, 
a Vegetarian says, that ' the Vegetarians contend 
that man is constitutionally adapted to subsist 
on a vegetable diet, comprising the various grains, 
roots, fruits, etc., and, consequently, that the 
use of the inferior animals for food is an inven- 
tion of man, and not an ordinance of Nature.* 
This is certainly bold enough. If the Vegeta- 
rians would read the Bible, they would find that 
our authority for eating flesh is the highest of 
all authority, and that, instead of animal food 
being an invention of man, it is an arrangement 
of the Divine Being. We wonder what they 
would make of Gen. ix, 3 : 'Every moving thing 
that liveth shall be meat for you, even as the 
green herb have I given you all things ' ; and 
Deut. xii, 15: 'Thou mayest kill and eat flesh 
in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, 
according to the blessing of the Lord thy God 
which he hath given thee ' Sacred History shows 
us that the people availed themselves of the 
privilege of eating flesh thus granted them by 
the Great Creator. But, lest the Vegetarians 
should say that this privilege was abolished in 
the Gospel dispensation, we shall see what the 
New Testament saith, 1 Cor.x, 25 : 'Whatsoever 
is sold in the shambles that eat, asking no ques- 
tions for conscience sake; ' and in 1 Tim. iv, 1 : 
' In the latter times some shall depart from the 
faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doc- 

trines of devils, etc., and commanding to abstain 
from meats which God hath created to be re- 
ceived with thanksgiving, etc. For every crea- 
ture of God is good, and nothing to be refused, 
if it be received with thanksgiving.' After such 
Scripture authority, we think it would be impugn- 
ing the wisdom of the Creator to seek proof of 
the adaptation of the constitution of man to be 
nourished by the flesh of animals ; we could 
judge of this, a priori ; but to satisfy the Vege- 
tarians we may mention, that daily experience 
has proved, in all ages, that the palate of man 
relishes flesh — his teeth easily masticate it — his 
stomach rapidly digests it — and it nourishes his 
body well, and even animates his spirits. We do 
not deny that it would be possible for man to 
exist on vegetables, his constitution being wisely 
adapted to accommodate itself to a variety of 
circumstances ; but we affirm that he would 
thrive better if part of his food were flesh also. 
We would ask the Vegetarians, how a sufficiency 
of food could be obtained according to their sys- 
tem ? If they say, Grow more grain and vege- 
tables, we reply. That if animals were not fed for 
slaughter, they would not be reared, and without 
animals, we could scarcely grow any grain or 
vegetables at all. For did they know the laws 
of agricultural chemistry, they would see that, 
in the wise arrangements of our beneficent Crea- 
tor, the refuse of animals is the food of plants, 
or, in other words, the carbonic acid gas exhaled 
from the lungs of animals, but especially their 
excrements, are absolutely necessary to the 
growth of grain crops and vegetables. So, the 
more cattle we can feed for the shambles, we can 
grow proportionately more grain and vegetables 
too. If the Vegetarians lament the destruction 
of animal life, it does not require a great stretch 
of intellect to perceive, that if their theory were 
attempted, there would soon be little life to enjoy 
of any kind ; for farmers would not feed cattle 
for the mere purpose of looking at them ; and, 
without cattle, grains and roots would not grow 
— and without crops, how could the Vegetarians 
themselves live ? Instead of progress, we would 
retrograde ; vegetable life would fade, and ani- 
mal life would become dwarfish, and even univer- 
sal death would soon spread over our fair earth, 
and leave it a barren desolation. 
*' Yours etc 

"P.S.— Hurrah! for the 'Roast Beef of Old 

" To the Editor of the Glasgow SentineV 
"Mr. Editor — The enclosed reply to certain 
letters from correspondents, opposed to the 
Vegetarian system, which appeared in the 
columns of the Glasgow Examiner, was addressed 
to the editor of that paper, but declined on the 
allegation of 'want of space.' Under these 
circumstances, your insertion of the vindication 
will oblige yours respectfully, 

"A Vegetarian." 

" To the Editor of the Glasgow Examiner." 
" Sir — I proceed to reply to the letters of 
your correspondents on the subject of Vegeta- 
rianism, and, at the outset, must use the liberty 



of reminding^ our friends that the suhject to be 
discussed relates to dietetics, and not to theology. 
I will further take the liberty of saying that if 
it were a religious question, which it is not, an 
assembly of divines, rather than a jury of 
butchers, would be the appropriate tribunal to 
which to submit it. As a practical and physio- 
logical question, then, Vegetarianism must be 
settled by scientific evidence and experience. 
We know it is common, on the part of the adver- 
saries of new views who lack argument, and when 
reason fails, to run to the armoury of the Bible 
for isolated passages with which to assail them. 
Astronomy, geology, etc., have each been so 
treated ; and while, by the dexterous application 
of texts of Scripture, an unfavourable impression 
may be made on minds of a certain class, yet 
such tactics must in the end signally fail, as, we 
believe, they will assuredly fail in the case of 

" In pursuance of the same ignoble system of 
tactics, we are, therefore, not surprised to find 
the infamous upholders of Negro slavery en- 
deavouring to shut the mouths of the friends of 
human freedom, with such passages as the fol- 
lowing: 'Both thy bondmen and thy bond- 
maids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the 
heathen that are round about you ; of them shall 
ye buy bondmen and bondmaids. Moreover, 
of the children of the strangers that do sojourn 
among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their 
families that are with you, which they begat in 
your land ; and they shall be your possession. 
And ye shall take them as an inheritance for 
your children after you, to inherit them for a pos- 
session ; they shall be your bondsmen for ever ; 
but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye 
shall not rule one over another with rigour.' 
Lev. XXV. 44 — 46 

" We would, therefore, caution our friends as 
to the use they make of their quotations from 
Scripture, and cannot but regard as a rash and 
irreverent proceeding the endeavour to show 
that the Saviour of the world was addicted to 
flesh-eating, and, therefore, that Vegetarianism 
is anti-scriptural. We know that attempts have 
been made to prove that the same august Exem- 
plar used intoxicating drinks, and that at the 
marriage of Cana of Galilee, he supplied the 
guests with a large quantity of intoxicating 
liquor, after they had already 'well drunk.' But 
we need hardly protest against such a use of the 
Scriptures — its shocking impropriety must be 
apparent to every serious mind. Your corres- 
pondents having ransacked the Bible for authority 
to show, that ' every living creature shall be 
meat for us,' appear also to have discovered, that 
of whatsoever is sold in the shambles, we are 
bound to eat, asking no questions. Should 
either of these gentlemen patronise the Great 
Exhibition of Paris, during the ensuing summer, 
and find himself seated at dinner in one of those 
splendid restaurant establishments, for which the 
French raetropohs is famed, he may possibly 
find, in the bill of fare, a dish composed of 
certain little animals that, in Scotland, frequent 
the bottoms of our walls, or probably a delicate 
morsel of certain creeping things that infest our 

gardens, and which, on the continent, have 
lately risen into great favour with the gour- 
mands ; will our friend, in such a case, feel 
bound to eat, ' asking no questions ' ? 

" But we are curious to know why your corres- 
pondents, in their intimate acquaintance with 
Scripture, and professed regard for its. authority, 
have thought proper to pass over the very first 
chapter in the Bible, and which, we observe, 
contains the following passage : 'And God said. 
Behold, I have given you every herb bearing 
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree 
yielding seed ; to you it shall be for meat.' 
(Gen. i. 29.) What will your correspondents 
say as to this, the original appointment of man's 
food, while yet he was in his highest state — 
before he had forfeited his innocence by the in- 
fraction of the laws of his Creator? Is it 
unreasonable to suppose that, in such circum- 
stances, the Allwise Creator would direct his 
children to that species of nourishment best cal- 
culated to sustain their frames, and to subserve 
most effectually their various requirements ? We 
should also like to inquire why it is that in 
quoting the passage, ' Every moving thing that 
liveth shall be meat for you," our friends should 
stop short there. Why not give us the benefit 
of the succeeding and connected verse : "But 
flesh, with the life thereof, which is the blood 
thereof, shall ye not eat ' ? (Gen. ix. 4.) How 
do your correspondents dispose of the blood ? 
Do they not apply it to dietetic use, in defiance 
of this very passage? I must say our friends 
have a convenient, if not a very consistent way 
of dealing with Sacred Writ. They talk glibly of 
the practice of flesh-eating being "commended" 
and " sanctioned " by the authority of the Scrip- 
tures. Have they forgotten the history of the 
Jews? When Jehovah guided them in their 
long, and dreary, and difficult passage through 
the wilderness, upon what did He sustain them? 
On manna. And when this ungrateful people 
murmured at the fare, and lusted for the flesh- 
pots of Egypt, we are told, " He granted them 
their request, but sent leanness into their souls." 
Let our friends read the 11th chapter of Numbers 
for the result: 'And while the flesh was yet 
between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath 
of the Lord was kindled against the people, and 
the Lord smote the people with a very great 
plague.' Let us now turn to the Book of 
Daniel. Will our friends dare to question the 
wisdom and inspiration of the prophet, when he 
refused to defile himself with the meat from the 
king's table? 'Then said Daniel to MelZar, 
whom the prince of the eunuchs had set over 
Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 
Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days, and 
let them give us pulse to eat and water to drink. 
Then let our countenances be looked upon by 
thee, and the countenances of the children that 
eat of the portion of the king's meat; and as 
thou seest deal with thy servants. So he con- 
sented to them in this matter, and proved them 
ten days. And at the end of ten days their 
countenances appeared fairer, and fatter in flesh, 
than all the children which did eat the portion of 



the king's meat.' (Dan. i. 11 — 15.) So much, 
then, for the ' argument from Scripture,' which, 
we fear, will prove a two-edged weapon in the 
hands of your correspondents. It must not, 
however, be supposed that the Vegetarians regard 
it as sinful, on scriptural grounds, to partake of 
animal food. They admit the permission to use 
it. But they cannot shut their eyes to distinc- 
tions, or to the consequences of an inferior mode 
of living, where such is preferred. Neither is it 
safest or wisest to regulate our conduct by the 
permissions. We see the enormities into which 
the Mormons of America have been led, by taking 
this course with respect to polygamy. 

" Having stated the real objects of the Ve- 
getarian Society, I am content to pass over the 
remarks of your correspondent on that head. 
We have no quarrel with the fleshers, and are 
glad to hear of their sons being drafted into 
more agreeable employments. But it does ap- 
pear to us rather a singular application which 
your correspondent has made of Captain 
Smart's statistics, in his attempt to establish 
the religious respectability of his brethren in 
trade, which, however, has not been assailed. 
In stating that 366 vegetable, fruit, and confec- 
tion shops were found to have been open on Sun- 
day, he surely does not mean to draw the loose 
and absurd conclusion, that Sabbath profanation 
has any relation to abstinence from flesh, or 
that the shops in question were opened by, and 
for the exchisive convenience of, the Vegetarian 
portion of the community. Your correspondent 
objects to the use of animal food being con- 
sidered barlarous. The whole process of pro- 
viding it is highly offensive to a mind claiming 
any degree of refinement. Our best feelings 
shrink from contemplating the process. Our 
slaughter-houses are therefore kept out of sight, 
and the very carcasses are not allowed to be con- 
veyed through our streets uncovered, in deference 
to this universal repugnance to blood and 
slaughter. Society, therefore, endorses the judg- 
ment we have pronounced on this point. How 
very different in the case of vegetable diet ! We 
pluck the apple from the tree, or the grain from 
the stalk, with feelings of pleasure and desire — 
a proof of the harmony subsisting between that 
species of food and the nature of man. Your 
correspondent demurs to the claim of the Vege- 
tarian Society, that its principles tend to * true 
civilisation, to universal brotherhood, and to the 
increase of human happiness generally.' The 
refining influence of a vegetable diet will appear 
from what has just been stated, and the mere 
fact of a merciful regard for the inferior creation 
prc-supposes a corresponding concern for the 
interests of their fellow-men, unless, indeed, the 
Vegetarians be grossly inconsistent. While, if 
we can establish the superior healthfulness and 
economy of the Vegetarian system of living to 
those of a mixed diet, and, by so doing, can 
induce society to adopt our views, we conceive 
we shall be contributing to the increase of 
human happiness in no mean degree. Our friend 
is not quite precise in his classification of the 
natives of India and Africa as subsisting on a 
vegetable diet. The people of these immense 

continents exhibit a variety of modes of living, 
and even in those cases where vegetable diet ob- 
tains, it is too generally associated with other 
inferior habits and conditions, which go far to 
neutralise the good effects of abstinence from 
flesh. To speak of beef-eating as the handmaid 
of 'art, science, literature, and Christianity,' 
sounds somewhat strangely. Many of our 
highest intellects have acknowledged the ad- 
vantage of abstaining from it. 

" Sir Isaac Newton, when engaged in his 
great work, confined himself to vegetable diet. 
While other great names, such as Milton, 
Shelley, Franklin, Wesley, Howard, 
owed much of the clearness of their minds, and 
the excellence of their productions, to the same 
salutary practice. But, while we claim the 
tendency of the Vegetarian principle to promote 
civilization, we do not assert that it does so ex- 
clusively, or even chiefly. The elements of pro- 
gress are numerous and varied, and there are 
many circumstances that go to determine the 
condition of a nation irrespective of matters of 
diet. We believe it would be diflScult to account 
satisfactorily for the striking diversities of race 
existing in the human family. Much, no doubt, 
may be traceable to climate, diet, mental culture, 
and the peculiar, social, and religious institu- 
tions, while much would still remain obscure. 
It will not do, therefore, to select a feeble and 
enervated race, the victim of ages of the most 
unfavourable and depressing conditions, such as 
the natives of India, that have been subjected to 
British sway, for comparison with their con- 
querors of the great Anglo-Saxon stock, who, 
besides the circumstance of an invigorating 
climate, have enjoyed for centuries the over- 
whelming advantages of free institutions ; un- 
less, indeed, your correspondent will undertake 
to trace the superiority of the latter to the 
modicum of animal food that enters into their 
diet. But the absurdity of such an attempt 
will appear from the fact that some of the 
greatest consumers of animal food rank the 
lowest, physically as well as intellectually, among 
all the nations of the earth. Besides, history 
tells us, that animal food is not necessary to the 
possession of the highest military qualities. 
The Persians, under Cyrus, were fed on the 
simplest vegetable fare ; and their exploits are 
perhaps unequalled in the annals of war. The 
Greek and Roman armies in their best days were 
reared on vegetable food. The Polish soldiers 
under Bonaparte, reared almost entirely on oat- 
meal bread and potatoes, would march forty 
miles in a day, and fight a pitched battle, and the 
next morning be fresh and vigorous for further 
duties. The peasantry of Scotland and Ireland 
live mainly, many of them exclusively, on vege- 
table diet, and their indomitable qualities in the 
field cannot be surpassed. The Kaffirs of South 
Africa are, perhaps, the finest and bravest race of 
savages in existence. In the late war, their 
daring and physical strength astonished the 
British soldiers, whom they frequently dragged 
from their ranks into the bush by main force. 
The Kaffirs, although possessed of numerous 
cattle, confine themselves almost entirely to 



vegetable food. Your correspondent challenges 
our statement — that the use of flesh is wasteful 
and unwholesome. That it is unwholesome, none 
can have better opportunities of knowing than 
those engaged in the trade. Few of the animals 
slaughtered can be declared entirely free from dis- 
ease ; and the prevalence of consumption, measles, 
dropsy, liver complaints, and other disorders, is 
notorious in the trade, and out of it. The use of 
food so affected cannot, we submit, be considered 
as wholesome. That it is wasteful will appear 
presently, and the following facts will at once 
serve as an illustration : — It has been ascertained 
in America that, to fatten a pig so as to produce 
200 lb. of pork, requires 15 bushels of corn. It 
has, at the same time, been found that this quan- 
tity of pork will sustain a man, at 2 lb. a-day, 
for 100 days. But the same quantity of corn, 
used directly by the man, will sustain him for 
480 days, at the liberal allowance of a quart 
a-day. But we are told that more grain is pro- 
duced by keeping cattle than without them. To 
feed cattle with a view to the manure would, we 
fear, be bad economy ; more especially while we 
allow to go to waste great resources — which our 
cities afford — of the most valuable materials for 
agricultural purposes. But then 'the hills and 
the glens,' on the pastures of which we rear our 
cattle, could be turned to no other account ! It 
is not for us — in view of what has been done 
during the last fifty years to make the ' waste 
places ' of Scotland ' blossom like the rose ' — to 
set limits to science and agricultural enterprise. 

"But we are referred to the laws of agricultural 
chemistry, and we are told that, if farmers ceased 
to feed cattle for the shambles, the sources of 
carbonic acid gas would be interfered with, that 
thus vegetable life would decay, and ' chaos come 

" A better acquaintance with agricultural 
chemistry would have assured your correspon- 
dent that there are other sources of carbonic acid 
gas than those to which he refers, such as the 
decay of vegetables in the air, of roots in the soil, 
of the remains of animals, as well as the com- 
bustion of wood and coal, and, especially in 
volcanic countries, the very craeks and fissures of 
the earth. We may, therefore, safely leave the 
balance of vegetable and animal life to the 
ordinary operation of the laws of nature. Your 
correspondents claim for animal food a greater 
capacity to sustain bodily labour and the wear 
and tear of life. Neither science nor experience 
warrants the assertion. Did space permit, nu- 
merous facts might be cited to establish the 

"Brindley, the celebrated canal engineer, 
informs us that, in the various works in which he 
was engaged, the workmen being paid by the 
piece, and each exerting himself to earn as much 
as possible, the men from Lancashire and York- 
shire, who adhered to their customary diet of 
oatmeal porridge and bread, with water for their 
drink, sustained more labour, and made greater 
wages, than others who lived on a more expensive 
diet, comprising bacon and beer. An analysis 
of the two kinds of food will at once show the 

superiority of vegetable food, both with respect 
to nutriment and economy. Such articles as 
wheat, rice, peas, and beans contain from 82 to 
92 per cent, of solid nutritious matter, while 
beef and mutton only contain 36 per cent., the 
rest being water. Chemists have shown that, 
to supply the material of the flesh of our bodies 
from beef and mutton is five times more expen- 
sive than from such articles as beans, peas, 
barley, and wheat. The presence of three kinds 
of principles — carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and 
inorganic — are requisite in all food. The first, 
for the purposes of respiration, and to sustain 
animal heat ; the second, to repair the waste of 
the muscular and nervous tissues ; and the third, 
for the requirements of the bones. ' Grain and 
other nutritious vegetables,' says Leibig, 'yield 
us, not only (in starch, sugar, and gum) the 
carbon which protects our organs from the action 
of oxygen, and produces in the organism the 
heat which is essential to life, but also (in the 
form of fibrin, albumen, and casein) our blood, 
from which the other parts of our body are 
developed.' 'Good wheaten bread,' says Dr. 
Carpenter, 'contains more nearly than any 
other substance in ordinary use the proportion 
of azotised (nitrogenous) and non-azotized (car- 
bonaceous) matter, which is adapted to repair 
the system, and to supply the wants of com- 
bustible material, under the ordinary conditions 
of civilised life in temperate climates ; and we find 
that health and strength can be more perfectly sus- 
tained upon that substance than upon any other, 
taken alone.' But flesh, while it contains materials 
to supply the muscular an^ nervous systems, is 
almost entirely deficient of the heart-producing 
element, or the material for the bones. It is 
true that animal food is more stimulating than 
vegetable food, and we are apt to mistake the 
stimulation for strength ; but the febrile excite- 
ment (for it is nothing else) of animal food is a 
disadvantage, and wears out the constitution 
more rapidly than the unstimulating and tranquil 
action of vegetable diet. Your correspondent's 
plea for depriving the ox of its life is not satis- 
factory. No doubt man, being ' made a little 
lower than the angels,' has dominion over the 
inferior creation. But a question arises, how far 
he is entitled to exercise his authority in an 
arbitrary manner, and from mere selfish con- 

"With regard to the 'numerous aniraalculae' 
which our friend fancies he has discovered in the 
cabbage, it is no doubt a fact, that such will appear 
in decaying vegetable matter, and for wise and 
useful purposes, but we entirely deny their exis- 
tence in sound fruits and farinacea. The cab- 
bage, and other crude vegetables, the Vegetarians 
generally leave for the use of the cattle, and 
their consumers. But we must conclude. In 
our anxiety to meet fully the various objections 
of your correspondents, we have taken up much 
space, but trust your readers will derive advan- 
tage from the opportunity aO'orded them of as- 
certaining the truth or error in the subject under 
discussion. " A VEGETARIAN." 

— Glasgoui Sentinel, March 24. 




It will be seen from our advertising pages, 
that a Vegetarian Conference is proposed, 
as an additional feature of interest, at the 
time of the Annual Meeting. 

Everybody of calm observation must see, 
and be ready to admit, the unfavourable 
eflFects produced upon everything vrhatever 
which has an elevating and improving ten- 
dency, as one of the earliest and most certain 
fruits of a state of war. All good things 
do, in truth, languish and decline, while the 
antagonistic evils assailing humanity are 
rapidly fostered into rank growth. Vege- 
tarians, thus, do well to meet with the 
avowed purpose of conferring with each 
other ; and, doubtless, by renewed efforts, 
and the extension of their labours to meet 
the demand for a more sufficient and deeper- 
felt advocacy of their system, they will best 
discharge the duties of their position. 

On the outset, it is easy to see how broad 
is the peace-principle involved in the practice 
of ceasing to prey upon the animal creation. 
Accepting the teeming stores of Nature's 
garden, we live in accordance with the earliest 
prescription of man's food, and that which, 
to-day, as in all intermediate time, is alone 
in harmony with reason. With this happy 
and more complete system prevailing in 
the practices of men, war could have no 
place, at least in civilized communities ; for, 
with the development of morals and in- 
tellect in a degree corresponding to the phy- 
sical obedience contended for, man could 
not withdraw himself from the slaughter of 
animals, without at the same time recog- 
nizing, to a far greater extent than is now 
practised, the principle of love for his 
fellow-man, the extinguisher of the spirit 
of human strife and bloodshed everywhere. 
This philosophy of our system, however, 
may seem too visionary and far off to be 
more than smiled at. The same has been 
remarked of all good things in their 

earliest history, and stands as no valid 
objection to the practical claims of Vege- 
tarianism now, since, as far as our num- 
bers and influence extend, the adherents 
of the system put a more effective veto upon 
war, with its untold curses, than the most 
prominent of other philanthropists have 
ever yet done, from the fact that they do 
not overlook the errors and false training 
which necessarily lead to war. 

AVe thus trust that the obligations of the 
times will be fully recognized by our Vege- 
tarian friends far and wide, and that the 
meeting in Manchester will be such as not 
merely to enable the Society to hold its own 
progress secure, but to exercise a further 
special effect in realizing steps to the ultimate 
conviction that the common social dietetic 
practices are amongst the evils at the root of 
our political mistakes and wrong-doings. 

The occasion of the Conference will, also, 
most probably, be accompanied by some pub- 
lic teaching of the principles of our system, 
on a large scale; and this, it may be ex- 
pected, apart from the proposed Vegetarian 
Festivals in the months following July to 
the close of the year, will still further increase 
the usefulness of the plan laid down for the 
approaching Annual Meeting. The Con- 
ference will be of interest and importance to 
Vegetarians, but some Public Meeting will 
doubtless be brought to bear, to give some 
assembled at these deliberations an oppor- 
tunity of making their visit to Manchester 
as useful as well may be. 

As regards the place fixed for the Annual 
Meeting, it may be remarked that it is as 
central as possible, and offers more facilities 
for the greatest numbers assembling than 
any other ; and is thus a very important 
feature in the objects sought to be secured. 
We trust the arrangements to be promul- 
gated will still further develop the goodness 
of the plan laid down. 


itself, at best stand still and can make no 
progress ; when even sustained attention 


a time when morals are oppressed, and 
things, including Christianisra 





sufficient to make wise social laws cannot 
be secured, — when all breathes war, or 
shrinks and fades before its breath — it is in 
a measure encouraging to see that the germ 
of all this evil, is, at least, dimly perceived, 
and that the truth as old as man's history, 
and always knoAvu to the few, will come to 
be popularly understood. 

The best efforts of philanthropy com- 
monly overleap some external social con- 
dition or other, the neglect of Avhich is fatal 
to the realization of the object professed 
and sought to be attained. This is so with 
the great majority of the professors of 
Christianity, who bold a theoretical ex- 
position of its principles, and by erroneous 
habits make this difficult, or almost im- 
possible, to be reduced to practice. It is, 
again, pre-eminently so with our brethren 
of the Peace Society, who, whilst they 
denounce war on the one hand, sanction, in 
the great majority of their practice, the 
slaughter and preying upon the animal crea- 
tion, Avhich is the great trainer for war, and 
overleaping the consideration of which, they 
now, and must ever, have but a compara- 
tively feeble influence for the attainment of 
their benevolent object. 

It is thus happy to perceive, here and 
there, in the writing of a recent period (if 
the voice be somewhat lower, or even un- 
heard, under the noise of other and worse 
interests, now), that much that the facts of the 
past and present prove, — what nature in the 
great laws enstamped upon her shows — 
what the poets have sung, and what mercy 
and reason combined dictate, is felt and 
acknowledged in its educational importance 
on society, and the results on a future gene- 
ration clearly apprehended. 

We extract the followino^ matter, shoAving- 
how cruelty to animals is the forerunner of 
aggression and war, Avith its thousand curses 
upon the human species, from Social Stafics,* 
as amply illustrating a measure of the prin- 
ciple for Avhich we contend— that man must be 
consistent to be happy, and live in harmony 
Avith his whole moral, intellectual, and phy- 
sical nature, Avhich forbids the slaughtering 
and preying upon the brute creation, as 
grounded in error, a remnant of fallen and 
acquired savage nature, and ultimately to 
disappear before the progress of a real and 
enlightened civilization. 

" Whoever thinks that a thoroughly- 
civilized community could be formed out of 
men qualified to wage Avar Avith the pre- 
existing occupants of the earth — that is, 
Avhoever thinks that men might behave 
sympathetically to their I'ellows, whilst be- 
having unsympathetically to inferior crea- 
tures, will discover his error on looking 
♦ pp. 411, 412, by H. Spknckr, 

at the facts. He will find that hvmian 
beings are cruel to one another in proportion 
as their habits are predatoiy. Tlie Indian, 
whose life is spent in the chase, delights in 
torturing his brother man as much as in 
killing game. His sons are schooled into 
fortitude by long days of torment, and his 
squaw made prematurely old by hard treat- 
ment. The treachery and vindictiveness 
which Bushmen, or Australians, show to one 
another, and to Europeans, are accompani- 
ments of that never-ceasing enmity existing 
between them and the denizens of the Avil- 
derness. Amongst partially-civilized nations 
the two characteristics have ever borne the 
same relationship. Thus the spectators in 
the Roman amphitheatres were as much 
delighted by the slaying of gladiators as by 
the death-struggles of Avild beasts. The 
ages during Avhich Europe was thinly 
peopled, and hunting a chief occupation, 
Avere also the ages of feudal A'iolence, 
universal brigandage, dungeons, tortures. 
Here in England, a whole province depopu- 
lated to make game preserA-^es, and a law 
sentencing to death the serf who killed a 
stag, shoAV how great activity of the preda- 
tory instinct, and utter indifi'erence to human 
happiness, co existed. In later days, when 
bull-baiting and cock-fighting Avere common 
pastimes, the penal code Avas far more severe 
than now ; prisons Avere full of horrors ; 
men put in the pillory Avere maltreated by 
the populace ; and the inmates of lunatic 
asylums, chained naked to the wall, Avere 
exhibited for money, and tormented- for the 
amusement of visitors. Conversely, amongst 
ourselves a desire to diminish human misery 
is accompanied by a desire to ameliorate the 
couflition of inferior creatures. Whilst the 
kindlier feeling of man is seen in all varie- 
. tics of philanthropic effort: in charitable 
societies, in associations for iraproA-ing the 
dAvellings of the labouring classes, in anxiety 
for popular education, in attempts to abolish 
capital punishments, in zeal for temperance 
reformation, in ragged schools, in endeavours 
to protect climbing boys, in inquiries con- 
cerning ' labour and the poor,' in emigration 
funds, in the milder treatment of children, 
and so on ; it also shows itself in societies 
for the prevention of cruelty to animals, in 
acts of parliament to put down the use of 
dogs for purpose of draught, in the condem- 
nation of steeple-chases and baltuet, in the 
late inquiry Avhy the pursuers of a stag 
should not be punished as much as the carter 
who maltreats his horse ? and, lastly, in 

It will be perceived that the writer here 
merely approaches the subject of Vege- 
tarianism, arriving at it last, and refer- 
rin"- to it as one of the humanizing influences 



of the times. In this aspect, however, 
carrying the inquiry no further than that' of 
philosophical observation and investigation, 
it is at least interesting to contemplate how 
much deeper and comprehensive the claims 
of this reform are, seeing that they begin 
with the early, personal, and social training 
of its adherents — a training most power- 
fully recommended to the attention, as 
beginning at the beginning, and working its 
way in the subsequent experience of life, 
ever combining and harmonizing with all 
that is lastingly good. 

A further valuable article we notice from 
a number of the North British Review : * 

"We cannot close these observations 
without referring to those causes which 
create and foster in man that love of adven- 
ture, and those habits of cruelty, which 
throw a halo around the red target of war, 
inciting the young to its bloody mysteries, 
and hardening the old in their military 
frenzy. When we witness, for the first time, 
the cruel experiments which science some- 
times demands from her votaries, the heart 
sickens at the sight, and the head turns 
instinctively away from the living agonies 
before it. Soon, however, does the heart 
resume its normal tranquillity, and as soon 
does the eye return to the sight of pain. 
Need Ave wonder, then, that the child, acois- 
tomed, almost from his birth, to the infliction 
of pain, and deriving his earliest pleasure 
from the extinction of life, should in his 
riper jea^ boast of the number and magni- 
tude of his cruelties, and thus, by an easy 
transition, pass to the atrocities of war, as a 
step in advance, or as the climax, of his 
early achievements. 

" It is painful to remember how we first 
exercised our dominion over living nature, 
by the capture and destruction of the love- 
liest insects ; and how we arrested the 
industrious bee in its honest labours, and 
even when in our own service, by robbing it 
at once of its life and treasure. By the 
hazel wand, with its line of cord and its hook 
of steel, we committed havoc among the 
minnows, before the spring gun had intro- 
duced us to the more lethal tube which was 
guilty of the blood of sparrows. Though 
but a youthful spectator in the scene, we 
gaze with delight on the varied feats of the 
angler. We watch him in the stream and 
in the pool, impaling the writhing Avorm 
upon his line — sacrificing one life to take 
another ; and with the bright sun above 
him, and the dove-like sky around, and rock 
and woodland demanding his admiration of 
peaceful nature, he terminates his every act 
of pleasure by every variety of pain. The 
life Avhich he has caught is rudely dashed 
* November, 1851, pp. 44—47. 

out against the rock, or crushed by his living 
hand, or alloAved to pass away in the slow 
and fluttering agonies of pain. Thus, hard- 
ened lor the future, our river hero is soon 
introduced to a still higher sport, and still 
bloodier gambols. The companion of the 
licensed fisherman, or of the lawless poacher, 
he is invited to the romantic drama of the 
sunning of the water by day, and the burn- 
ing of it by night, in which the picturesque 
grandeur of rock and stream, and the sub- 
limity of AA^orlds in the canopy above, form a 
strange contrast with thcAvork of death below. 
Frightened by the ruddy blaze, the salmon 
seeks for shelter beneath the stones and clifi's, 
or lies stupified beside them, till the river 
Neptune, with his three-pronged trident, 
dashes it into the flesh of his glittering prey, 
and casts him in triumph to the shore. 

"Harrowing as is the sight itself, and 
painful as it is in all its details and 
accessories, we are yet disposed to regard our 
river sports as more humane in their cha- 
racter, and less cruel in their practice, than 
those of the gun and the chase. We cannot, 
indeed, afllrm, as some have done, that 
ichthyological life is less painfully surren- 
dered than that of the mammalia, though 
our early cruelties make us indulge in the 
belief that the amount of suffering is 
proportional to the magnitude of thesuflTerer. 
Yet, when Ave see the salmon stretched on 
the ground without a wound, and slain with- 
out the shedding of blood, our sympathy 
is immeasurably less than that which is 
called forth when we scan the stately hart, 
with its glazed eye and its quivering limb, 
or the comely roe-deer, perforated by the 
rifle, or torn by the ferocious hound. Our 
animal associations, too, have a powerful 
influence over our sympathies. Ourselves a 
genus in the mammiferous community, we 
naturally associate their sufl'erings with 
our own. The shrieks of the female orang- 
outang, so singularly human, are said to 
thrill through the very heart of her pur- 
suers ; and Ave would not envy the sports- 
man whose domestic sympathies are not 
aAvakened when he has slain the hart in 
the presence of his mate, or the tender hind 
in the act of caressing its ofl'spring. The 
death of a sportive fawn, killed by the 
random shot of the deer-stalker, will call 
forth a deeper feeling than the demise of 
3,000 salmon caught in one net by the arctic 
fisherman. But though we have thus ofl'ered 
a palliative of fly--flshing as less inhuman 
than some of our other amusements, we 
have no toleration for the doctrine that the 
nervous system of cold-blooded animals is 
but little sensitive, and that the hook pulls 
only against a piece of unfeeling carti- 
las^e. * * * * 



" From the river scene our apprentice 
soldier passes to the field and to the heath, 
to the rock and to the forest, to Avouud and 
to slay his victims. It is a question to which 
humanity invites us, but which we cannot 
here discuss. How far it is justifiable to con- 
sider animal life as entirely at our disposal. 
The dominion which has been assigned to 
us over the dumb creation may not involve 
a right over their lives. The flesh may be 
ours, but not the feelings and affections 
which it breathes. It is, doubtless, a crime 
to kill with unnecessary pain. It is a 
greater crime to kill for the pleasure of 
killing, or the vanity of having killed. It is 
a crime to kill when the victim is innocent, 
and the carcass useless. It may be a crime 
to kill when the feelings and affections of 
uncomplaining instinct are violated by the 
deed ; and when we consider in the abstract 
the value of life — our inability to restore it 
— the beauty and loveliness of the forms 
which clothe it, and the possibility that in 
its nobler aspects, and under its almost 
rational instincts, it may have a responsi- 
bility here, and a life hereafter, it would be 
well to pause before we strike, and to re- 
joice over the life which we may have spared. 

" Such is the education of the civilian and 
the soldier — of the man that purchases and 
whets the sword, and of him that delights 
in its blood spots, and anticipates glory from 
being its victim. It is an education, this, of 
easy acquirement — it is but the lesson of the 
eye and the limb. The mind hybernates 
under its teaching, and the heart ossifies 
under its training. It is the nursery of 
war — its school — its university — its ap- 
prenticeship. It has a government grant 
in its support. The Christian layman prac- 
tises at its ring, and the priest blesses it 
with his sanction. Let the friends of peace, 
then, counteract this early passion for ad- 
venture and cruelty. Let not the mother 
turn her milk into blood, nor the father his 

parental tenderness into cruelty. Time 
will soon soften natures which custom has 
not hardened ; and the stripling will hardly 
seek in his manhood for what have not been 
the amusements of his earlier days. The 
cruelty of youth diminishes as we advance 
in years, age replaces it with a nobler am- 
bition ; and it in is the final lustrum of our 
being that we truly feel. The infliction of 
pain and the shedding of blood become 
torture to our chastened and more sensitive 
nature— ephemeral life even is spared— and 
all other life stands sacred when we are 
about to draw the first breath of that better 
life which we can never lose." 

The graphic description of the progres- 
sive training here referred to, could hardly 
be exceeded in correctness, so far as it ex- 
tends ; but still, there is much that is still 
overlooked, or no more than glanced at, 
in the continuous, though possibly unseen, 
system of destruction carried out by proxy, 
to supply the ordinary demands of the 
table, and the ultimate effects of the flesh 
of animals, again, in inducing unfavourable 
physical conditions, to present difficulty, and 
be contended with, in more than the ways 
here pointed out. 

The inquiry, " How far it is justifiable to 
consider animal life entirely at our disposal," 
will, at least, produce no harm with the 
most opposed to the theory and practice 
of Vegetarianism, especially if the subject 
be divested of some of its palpable as- 
sumptions, which often involve the denial 
of the commonest facts. 

Many of the inquiries raised by this 
writer belong to the very genius of Vegeta- 
rianism, and if fairly followed out, must 
ultimately end there, rendering, when 
adopted, the results of education certain and 
happy, because guaranteeing society against 
many of the gross and glaring evils and 
anomalies which now produce its greatest 
sufferings and misery. 


We extract the following appeal for the 
birds, from an American publication* having 
merely exception to take to two brief pas- 
sages which we omit, and which seem, to us 
at least, to be at variance with the other- 
wise truthful and humane observations of 
the writer : — 

"Just now, on a bright March morning, 
as we heard the early bluebird and robin 
salute the rising sun with their glad songs 
of spring, we determined to make an appeal 
to our readers infavour of the horticulturist's 
best friends, and against the savage and 
senseless custom of bird killing. 
• Prairie Farmer. 

" Our Legislature, we see, has passed a law 
prohibiting the untimely destruction of 
game-birds ; but no one seems to have 
thought of preventing the wanton slaughter 
of our singing birds and insect eaters, or 
the more systematic killing of some species 
known, or suspected of doing the husband- 
man an occasional ill turn, while really 
acting as industrious and indispensable 

" This Game Law is doubtless a good enact- 
ment.* * * AVe trust, moreover, that the 
tendency of this law will not be to lead 
persons who will shoot something^ to exercise 
their skill on those lesser birds which are 



our chief protection against the appalling 
increase of insects injurious to vegetation. 

"It has been said, by one ot our most 
learned writers, that insects annually destroy 
crops, in these United States, of the value 
of at least twenty millions of dollars, and 
this estimate is believed to be far below the 
reality, and except our hope of relief through 
meteorological or elemental influences, we 
have scarce any dependence for checking the 
increase of the countless swarms of destructive 
insects save the birds, and the few predaceous 
insects themselves ; and these latter we are 
full as apt to sacrifice to our ignorance, as we 
are the birds in our mistaken prejudices. 

" That most of our small birds feed largely 
on insects is beyond dispute; and that just 
about in proportion to the decrease of birds 
has been the increase of our insect enemies, 
many have asserted, and those best informed 
fully believe. 

" In evidence of this let us watch a pair of 
our smallest and most sociable and confiding 
birds — the common wren — and see how 
often and how loaded with insect carcasses 
they arrive at the nest. See, too, the heavy 
burthen of worms which the blackbird, 
following the furrow, bears to his greedy 
oifspring. And yet, on some silly pretence, 
you suffer your boys to break up the nest of 
the little chatterer, and you remorsely shoot 
down the poor blackbird, because, forsooth, 
he helps himself to a little corn, when you 
have neglected turning up grubs for him ; 
and that, too, when he has preserved an 
hundred times the valne, and many more 
times the quantity his pressing wants have 
made him appropriate.* * * The red headed 
woodpecker, the blue jay, and even that 
gentle warbler, the robin, have occasionally 
vexed us beyond bearing by their petty 
thefts in the fruit garden and orchard, and 
we have been tempted to treat them unjustly. 
For, though these birds love small fruits, in 
their season and out, and the two former 
greatly delight in scooping out the inside of 
the tenderest apples, yet we have fully 
satisfied ourselves that these birds do earn 
their wages — ten times over. And we have 
not the least question, from actual experi- 
ence, that if the farmer will set the plough 
a-going, the moment his corn is up, the 
blackbird will follow the new furrow, and 
gather up heaps of noxious grubs, instead of 
following the corn row, to pull for the soft 
kernel at the base of the plant, and which is 

by no means so desirable a blackbird deli- 
cacy as would be a juicy cut- worm, or a large 
fat grub — the larvae of some dangerous insect. 

" It has been admitted by practical farmers 
that it will pay well to set a man at work to 
collect the cut-worms in the hills of corn ; 
and it will most certainly pay to employ men 
to destroy rose bugs, caterpillars, borers, 
curculios, etc., etc.. in the garden and 
orchard. In fact, if we dispense with birds, 
hand picking is our only alternative in most 
cases. And will any one venture to say that 
a few nests of birds will not prove more 
eflSicient than the labours of a man, and come 
much cheaper, too } Nature has given the 
bird perceptive faculties in connection with 
this insect-killing vocation, never equalled 
by man ; and then, the bird labours for his 
own and family's sustenance, and works with 
a will as well as an ' instinct.' 

" There is no mistake about it ; birds are 
the horticulturist's best friends, and he can 
better dispense with the labours of animals 
than he can spare the help of birds — and to 
the farmer they are equally necessary and 
much less annoying. 

" And yet birds are still wantonly destroy- 
ed, or are victims to our ignorance of their 
worth, and our prejudices against some of 
their venial acts. There have been even 
laws enacted for their destruction within our 
time ; and our Pilgrim Fathers, we believe, 
enacted a tax of so many birds, heads of every 
citizen. And to this day the most useful 
birds die, as did the Salem witches, the 
victims of a delusion, or a prejudice made 
powerful by time and old custom. 

"It is very easy to secure the service of 
birds ; plenty of low trees, thick shrubs, 
hedges, etc., but really the least objection- 
able will readily appear, only when you con- 
struct houses for them; such are the martins, 
swallows, bluebirds, wrens, etc., and these 
are among the most useful of our birds. 

" There is yet another aspect in which to 
view this subject — in connection with the 
grace and beauty of the feathered tribe — 
their social and confiding habits — conjugal 
fidelity and care for their young, and many 
more amiable traits, from which man might 
well take lessons, while enjoying their de- 
lightful society. 

" Spare the birds, good friends, and pro- 
vide fitting homes for them, and grudge 
them not a morsel of food from the stores 
they help to save from insect enemies." 



The following correspondence forms the 
fii'st part of a discussion recently commenced 
in the Barwen Examiner, 


" To the Editor of the Danoen Examiner." 

"Sir — Having given Vegetarianism a nine 
months' trial, upon the prniciple Experientia 
docet, and with the idea that there is no thing so 



bad, but has some good point or other, I hope 
you will find room in your excellent paper for a 
few retoarks on the system which many in Darwen 
are practising at the present time. A casual 
reader of the speeches of leading Vegetarians 
will nearly always find that they take Scripture 
as their starting point, but refuse to knock under 
to w|iat they call Scripture arguments. In an 
account of the Vegetarian Banquet at Leeds, on 
the 20th of July last, we read : ' Over the or- 
chestra was a circular tablet containing the words 
"Mercy and Truth"; below, the words of the 
orir/inal appointment of man's food — "Behold, I 
have given you every herb bearing seed, which is 
upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in 
the which is the fruit of a tree yieldmg seed; to 
you it shall be for meat." Gen. i, 29.' Is not this 
Scripture argument ? Let us examine this foun- 
dation of the Vegetarian fabric, and we shall soon 
have a reductio ad absurdum. Now in this verse 
we are told that every herb bearing seed should 
be for meat. Flesh is not forbidden because 
herbs are mentioned. Because vegetables are 
mentioned and nothing said about cooking them, 
is it not lawful to cook them ? Again, if the 
verse is to be taken as a literal commandment, 
would the hemlock berries and Ignatius beans, 
etc., etc., form exceptions. The verse says * every 
herb bearing seed.' It cauuot therefore be lite- 
rally a command. 

" Do the Vegetarians wish to live as Adam 
lived in Paradise, thinking that to be the most 
natural mode of living ? Then alter the name of 
the Association ; let it be called, ' Vegetarian and 
Go-Naked Society.' We know that our first pa- 
rents when in Paradise went naked ; v/e do not 
know, for a certainty, that they did not eat flesh 
— so the Go-Naked part of the Society would 
have the better argument. 

" Supposing our first parents to have been 
Vegetarians? Mr. Simpson said (in his Ban- 
quet speech) 'when you find man living otherwise 
(than as a Vegetarian), it is associated with the 
violence that covered the earth.' Adam, they 
say, was a Vegetarian, yet he fell, and ' through 
him sin entered into the world.' But what does 
Mr. N. Griffin say? 'They saw the aniraal- 
ized (!) man raised into all the dignity of his 
nature, and developing his varied powers, his 
soul being drawn into blessed communion with 
the God who made him, and constantly advancing 
to the highest and noblest purpose of his exist- 
ence ; and they thought, when tliis was done, they 
had accomplished their work.' With such ' soft 
sawder' as this would they make one believe that 
all Vegetarians are pious and holy men ; and that 
all pious men never do such a horrid tiling as eat 
mutton-chop. At last we have found the sine 
qua lion of religion, which is to do all sorts of 
wonderful things for every body — Vegetarianism ! 
which could not keep sin out of the world when 
it was out, but is now going to make man a dif- 
ferent being. I know this, it loas making me a 
very different being very fast, a skin-and-bone 
being, but I would rather keep my flesh on my 
bones as long as I can, and be a Vegetarian when 
flesh-meat is scarce. They say it is unnatural to 
eat flesh; is not that man a natural who does 

not ? Soon after Adam fell, when he had to eat 
his bread by the sweat of his brow, we find his 
son was a keeper of sheep, for what other than 
the unnatural purpose of eating them ? Tims 
early were animals sacrificed to God, ' and the 
Lord had respect unto Abel and to hisofferhifj' 

" I have noticed the argument which is the 
foundation (in sand) of the Vegetarian building ; 
but there is one thing more, which does indeed 
upset it, viz., in the verse following we find : 
'And to every beast of the earth and fowl of the 
air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the 
earth, wherein there is life, I have given every 
green herb for meat.' Here we have the very 
same words which are applied to man in the 
preceding verse. Do lions and tigers, bears and 
wolves, eagles and hawks, in their natural state, 
live upon herbs, etc. ? What is literal ni the one 
verse is literal in the other, and vice versa. So mueh 
for the original appointment of man's food. We 
read that the Lord approved of the sacrifices of 
Noah and Abel, etc. Mr. Simpson says that the 
slaughter of animals, especially of lambs, is brutal 
and cruel. Yet God commanded animals to be 
killed and offered in the Temple. We read of 
Peter's vision, of our Saviour by a miracle 
feeding the multitude with loaves and fishes, of 
his eating fish himself; and we are warned in 
1 Tiyn. iv, 3, that persons shall come in the 
latter times, 'commanding to abstain from meat, 
which God hath created to be received with 
thanksgiving of them which believe and know the 
truth. For every creature of God is good, and 
nothing to be refused, if it be received with 
thanksgiving. For it is sanctified by the Word 
of God and by prayer,' Mr. Simpson then 
supposes Talleyrand on the top of Primrose 
Hill, with his future dirmers grouped around him 
—30 oxen, 200 sheep, 100 calves, 200 lambs, 50 
pigs, etc., etc., etc. I suppose a Vegetarian boy 
would see a mountain of corn, cabbage, turnips, 
and potatoes. He would not, of course, see the 
butter, the milk, the cheese, the sheep-skins, and 
ox-skins, etc., etc. Vegetarians profess to live 
naturally like Adam. Eggs and milk do not 
grow in the field, butter and cheese are far from 
being herbs, and yet they talk about the original 
appointment of man's food. Mr. Simpson says 
that there is no poetry in beef-steaks, and he said 
this with a sheep-skin on his back. I am sure 
there is no poetry in that. He has made a great 
discovery — there is no poetry in beef — we don't 
want any, we always leave the poetry till after 
dinner. He tells us that the proportional length 
of the intestines of man approximating to that of 
the horse, the cow, and the sheep, the food of 
man should approximate too. Does he mean to 
turn his Vegetarian flock out to graze on the 
tender grass, the daisies, and the buttercups ? 

" Experience is a good school master ; I have 
tried Vegetarianism, and found that it is not 
what it pretends to be. I found, to my cost, 
that Mr. Simpson's poetical system would not 
act. "I remain, faiihfullv, 

«' W. G. B." 

" To the Editor of the Darwen Examiner." 
" Sir— In the last number of your valuable 



paper, I noticed a letter signed ' W. G. B.' pur- 
porting to be an attack on the Vegetarian system. 
*• The writer is evidently a tyro in controversy, 
and his claims to advise the public of Darwen 
rest on a very slight foundation, for it would seem 
that his command of our glorious mother tongue 
is so limited that he has been under the necessity 
of interlarding his letter with sundry Latin quo- 
tations, to the delight of admiring school boys. 
Like a child who exiubits a pugnacious disposition, 
ere his muscles have acquired sufficient voUinie 
and power to carry out the behests of his will, 
' W. G. B.' appears to have rushed into the field of 
controversy without the power to wield, or the 
skill to use, its keen and trenchant weapons. The 
production indeed is so boyish, that it might have 
been safely left unnoticed, but perhaps, sir, a few 
comments upon it may assist in dispelling certain 
misapprehensions which exist, or appear to exist, 
in the mind of the writer. 

" He has, it seems, given Vegetarianism a ' nine 
months' trial,' when, fearing that a lengthened 
experience would transform his body into a bagful 
of bones, he returned to the fleshpots of Egypt. 
With most men this would have been an end of 
the matter, but ' W. G. B.' resolved to improve the 
occasion by reading an homily to benighted Vege- 
tarians. He states as the basis of his reasoning, 
that Vegetarians 'take Scripture as their starting- 
point, but refuse to knock unSer to what they 
call Scripture argument.' 

" This is a great mistake, and one which a 
moderate acquaintance with Vegetarian literature 
would have prevented him from falling into. 
There are, I know, both Vegetarians and teetotal- 
ers able and willing to defend their practice on 
scriptural grounds, but the advocates of both 
systems generally seek to establish their princi- 
ples on the solid foundation of social economy, 
morality, and science, and only take up scriptural 
arguments against those, who regard eating herbs 
and drinking water as less acceptable to God, 
than bibbing wine and worrying lambs. 

" As the pro-scriptural assumption on which 
'W. G. B.' attempts to argue the question, is an 
error in fact, and that it is so an official connec- 
tion of several years with the Vegetarian Society 
enables me to state with something like authority, 
the clumsy superstructure of inapt quotations 
and narrow criticism falls to the ground. 

"The statement that Vegetarians refuse to 
'knock under to Scripture argument,' is rather 
cool, and being interpreted, means, that Vegeta- 
rians refuse to acknowledge as ' Scripture argu- 
ment,' the niuinble-jumble of such writers as 
'W. G. B.' How are the mighty fallen, when the 
writers of the Old and New Testaments are 
mangled by such interpreters ! 

" As a conclusion to these strictures, I will 
venture to offer a little advice to ' W. G .B.', which 
I recommend him to mark, learn, and inwardly 
digest. Should he ever again venture to grasp 
the weapons, and essay the part of a literary gla- 
diator, 1 hope he will be more careful of his 
reputation, and do battle in a better cause. 
Whatever he may think, society, as such, cares 
little for the confessions or experiences of youth, 
especially when obtruded without a cause. No- 

body knew, nobody cared, when ' W. G. B.' 
became a Vegetarian, and nobody would have 
heard of his declension, had he not been deter- 
mined to rise from a dull obscurity, by inflicting 
upon your readers a recital of his famous * nine 
months' trial.' 

" The practice of Vegetarianism originated 
thousands of years ago — has survived clianges 
which have swept away races, creeds, and lan- 
guages — and will not be affected by the Quixotic 
tilt of ' W. G. B.' And I may state that the 
Vegetarians of Darwen need not his advice about 
what they shall eat, drink, and avoid ; and that 
many of them are too advanced in years to value 
the disquisitions and experience of a boy. 
" I am, sir, yours truly, 

"W. T. A." 

" To the Editor of the Darwen Examiner." 

"Sir — It is only a few days since my atten- 
tion was directed to a letter on Vegetarianism by 
' W. G.B.,' in your March paper, and, with your 
permission, I shall now proceed to answer his 
assertions and assumptions on that question. 

" First of all, with regard to himself, ' W. G. B.' 
informs us, that he gave a nine months' trial to 
Vegetarianism on the principle that Experientia 
docet (experience teaches). As I am anxious all 
should understand what I say, you will please 
excuse me for translating any Latin words which 
may be used. In stating this, ' W. G. B.' does 
not tell the whole truth, which is as follows : He 
gave Vegetarianism a trial of one mouth at least, 
and then he changed his motto to Experientia 
docuit (experience has taught) — signed his name 
to a document, stating, that he was desirous of 
becoming a member of the Vegetarian Society, 
and to co-operate with that body m promulgating 
the knowedge of the advantages of a Vegetarian 
diet. So that, during the tirst part of his absti- 
nence from flesh, experience taught him the 
advantage of Vegetarianism, and during the latter 
part of it, it taught him (according to his own 
story) there was no adouniaye in Vegetarianism ! 
' W^. G. B.'s' experience therefore must have 
taught him a falsehood in the one case or the 
ather, and though it is thus convicted of an 
untruth, he would have people to trust it im- 
plicitly, as an oracle of veracity. 

"The appointment of man's food is first quoted, 
'Behold, i have given you every herb bearing 
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yielding 
seed, to you it shall be fjr meat.' On which 
'W. G. B.' remarks: 'Flesh is not forbidden 
because herbs are mentioned. Because vegetables 
are mentioned, and nothing said about cooking 
them, is it not lawful to cook them ? ' The folly 
of such reasoning is quite apparent. It is arguing 
from that which is not, to that which is, and can 
be applied in defence of anything, however wicked 
and aboininanle. Thus, the cannibal may argue, 
'Human Hesh is not forbidden because herbs are 
mentioned,' and his argument would be on a 
perfect par with ' VV. G. B's ' — if the one is right, 
so is the other. But, again, who says that flesh 
is forbidden, and that it is unlawful to eat it ? 
Vegetarians do not, and therefore the whole 



argumentation (if such a hodge podge mixture 
of senteuces deserve the name) falls to the 
ground. It is the old trick of setting up a man 
of straw and then knocking him down again. To 
assume that Vegetarians assert that Scripture 
forbids the eating of flesh, or that they teach it 
to be unlawful, or a sin to eat it, is assuming 
that which is false ; and if you like, Mr. Editor, 
I will just mark this assumption as Man of 
Straw, No. 1. 

" ' Again/ he asks, ' if the verse is to be taken 
as a literal commandment, would the hemlock 
berries and Ignatius beans, etc., etc, form excep- 
tions ? ' 'W. G. B.'here assumes that all the 
herbs which at present exist on the earth, grew 
likewise in paradise — that the hemlock and igna- 
tiana, as well as the myrtle and the rose, flourished 
there ! Perhaps, too, there *was a doctor's shop 
(and a boy in it) to prepare doses of the said 
herbs ! but then, all this is only a perhaps, for 
we know for certain that all the herbs now on 
the earth did not exist in paradise ; but that 
after the fall a new description of plants were 
originated. God said to Adam, ' Cursed is the 
ground for thy sake, in sorrow shalt thou eat of 
it all the days of thy life. Thorns also and 
thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou 
shalt eat the herbs of the field.' This second 
assumption, therefore, may be marked, Man of 
Stratv, No. 2. 

" 'W. G. B.' thinks that Vegetarians ought to 
go naked, and ought to append to the name of their 
Society, * Go-Naked Society,' and in such case 
thinks that the Go-Naked part of the Society 
would have the better argument. Now I do not 
think so, because before Adam and Eve were 
driven out of paradise it is related, ' Unto Adam 
also and to hs wife did the Lord God make coats 
of skin and clothed them ; ' so that the Go-Naked 
part of the Society would be as bare of argument 
as of clothing, if they were to try such an experi- 
ment. Jot down. Mail of Straw^ No. 3. 

'• It would take up too much space, and more of 
ray time, than the next paragraph of * W. G. B's.' 
letter deserves, to quote what he says and answer 
it. It is an attempt to show from certain Vege- 
tarian speeches, that Vegetarians pretend to be 
all pious and holy men ; * and that all pious men 
never do such a horrid thing as eat a mutton 
chop.' It is only necessary to say that all 
Vegetarians repudiate such sentiments, and that 
the attempt to attribute such tenets to them by 
one who has been a Vegetarian himself, and who 
of course knows that it is not a religious society, 
and that no such sentiments are held amongst 
them, is, to say the least of it, a course which ia 
unfair and unjust. 

" But Adam's sou was a keeper of sheep, and 
for what other purpose than that of eating them ? 
One of the purposes was that which ' W. G. B.' 
points out, namely, sacrifice — and I ask, If they 
were necessary for sacrifices, was it not a suffi- 
cient reason for keeping them, without assuming 
that they were likewise necessary for food ? 
There is no proof of their being used for food, 
but * W. G. B.' does not need a proof, and so 
triumphantly assumes that because Abel kept 
sheep, therefore he ate them ; whereas, according 

to the narrative, Abel kept sheep and sacrificed 
them, and we are therefore certain that he kept 
them for that purpose, however many his other 
p\irposes might be. 'W. G. B.' is just as far from 
proving that flesh was eaten at the time referred 
to, as that it was eaten in Paradise ; and these 
additional assumptions form Man of Straw, No. 4. 
" He next showed that every green herb was 
appointed to every beast and fowl, and asks, * Do 
lions and tigers, etc., live upon herbs ! ' He 
wants to show that this verse is incorrect, and 
wishes us to argue that therefore the first quoted 
one is incorrect too ! However, I won't admit 
the incorrectness of this verse, but just treat 
him to a very similar one, in which a similar 
difficulty occurs on his side of the question : 
' Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat 
for you,' etc. Does ' W. G. B.'eat every moving 
thing that liveth ? If he does, I shall then answer 
this question of his in full. 

" This letter is extending to such a length, 
Mr. Editor, that I am now making my remarks 
as brief as possible. 

"The argument of Christ eating flesh, and 
giving it to others, would be excellent, providing 
that Vegetarians held it to be a sin to eat flesh. 
We have seen, however, that they do not, and, 
therefore, the mere mention of this circumstance, 
without any attempt to shosv what it proves 
against Vegetarianism, goes for nothing. Bat 
let us see whether it opposes Vegetarian argu- 
ments or not. Vegetarians maintain that vege- 
table diet was the original food of man, and that 
flesh was not appointed with the vegetable food. 
Now, I ask, does the circumstance of Christ 
eating flesh disprove these statements? They 
argue that vegetable food is cheaper and more 
nutritious, and that Vegetarians are healthier and 
live longer than flesh-eaters ; but in what way 
are these facts disproved by Christ's eating fish ? 
I might here enumerate all the leading arguments 
of Vegetarianism to show that they stand or fall 
upon their own intrinsic merit, and are not in 
tiie least aff"ected by the practice of Christ, 
whether he was a Vegetarian or not; but space 
forbids this at present. 

"'W. G. B.' is fond of quoting Scripture, but 
he ought to show the connection of his quota- 
tions with the subject in hand. To suit his 
purpose he quotes part of a verse,' commanding 
to abstain from meat,' etc. Now the persons 
referred to in this passage (1 Tim. iv. 3) are said 
to have departed from the faith, giving heed to 
seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils ; speak- 
ing lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience 
seared with hot iron ; forbidding to marry, and 
commanding to abstain from meaf, etc., not meat 
as ' W. G. B.' has it. It is plain from the full 
quotation given, that the reference is to those 
who teach erroneous religious doctrines, and not 
to those who only point out the facts of economy, 
chemistry, and physiology, in relation to food. 
Let ' W. G. B.' combat those facts, if he can, in- 
stead of perverting Scripture for the purpose of 
having a fling at Vegetarians. The arena in 
which Vegetarians engage their opponents is 
science, and knowing his own inability to combat 
them on their own open ground, he attempts to 



drag them to Scripture, and pretends that they 
found their arj^uments upon it ; thus concealing^, 
at one and the sanae time, the scientific founda- 
tions of their faith, and his ignorance of any 
lever strong enousi;h to move or shake them. 
But even when taken to Scripture, Vegetarians 
can show it does not contradict the sciences — 
that it does not condemn their principles — that 
they have read it often more closely than their 
opponents — that even ' W. G B.'s ' ignorance of 
it is conspicuous, and his application of it erro- 
neous. I may farther remark, that the misappli- 
cation of the passage last quoted to Vegetarians 
will become obvious, when it is stated that the 
Vegetarians have no religious creed — that tliey 
teach neither doctrines of angels nor doctrines 
of devds — neither tell lies nor truths about reli- 
gious doctrines, and neither forbid to marry nor 
command to abstain from meat, as religious duties. 

" Lastly, ' W. G. B.' informs us that, ' eggs and 
milk do not grow in the fi.eld, and butter and 
cheese are far from being herbs.' This remark 
flows from ' W. G. B.'s ' constant desire for mis- 
representation. He would have people to believe 
that Vegetarians are inconsistent with the object 
of the Society, which is simply "to induce habits 
of abstinence from the flesh of animals as food,' 
and the only inconsistency may appear in the 
name 'Vegetarian,' which of course does not 
include animal productions. The whole incon- 
sistency then rests, not in the practice of Vegeta- 
rians, but between the name of the Society and 
its object — the former having reference to the 
principal food of Vegetarians, and the latter pre- 
scribing abstinence from flesh. But as every 
one is at liberty either to conform his habits 
strictly to the name of the Society, by abstaining 
from every thing animal, or 'only to follow out 
the object of the Society by abstinence from 
flesh only ; the reference made to eggs, milk, 
etc., proves nothing in favour of flesh-eating, and 
nothing against abstaining. Vegetarians gene- 
rally do not object to animal productions, and it 
is therefore not inconsistent to use them. 

'* I am aware that I am giving an importance 
to some remarks of ' W. G. B.'s,' by thus noticing 
them, which intrinsically they do not deserve ; 
but he having once been a member of the Vege- 
tarian Society, I have been anxious to show how 
completely he misrepresents it, while at the same 
time he must know he is doing so. 

" But, in conclusion, adds ' W. G B.,' ' Experi- 
ence is a good schoolmaster ; I have tried Vege- 
tarianism, and found that it is not what it 
pretends to be. I found, to my cost, that Mr. 
Simpson's poetical system would not act.' 
That is to say, the nine mouths' experience of 
' W. G. B.' is to set aside, say my own experience, 
which has extended over eight years ; and we are 
to credit the words of a young man who has 
written a letter against Vegetarianism, in which 
he coolly sets aside the real foundation and argu- 
ments for Vegetarianism, and introduces state- 
ments of his own, coined by him for the purpose of 
appearing like Vegetarian arguments ; and then as 
coolly tells us, that these abortions of his own 
brain, are the foundation of the Vegetarian fabric, 
and asks us to see how easily he can overset it ! 

" This young man's experience, moreover, 
seems to tell him, first one thing, then another, 
yet it is to be trusted as a good schoolmaster ! 
It is a kind one, at any rate, for it says any way 
he likes is best. It will testify in favour of 
Vegetarianism and flesh-eating by turns, just as 
appetite dictates. The fact is, having turned 
his back on Vegetarianism, he must say some- 
thing to justify himself, and it appears an excel- 
lent joke to assign as a reason that he was 
becoming a skin-and-bone being. One thing I 
can testify is, that his reasons and arguments do 
not even possess skin and bone, for they are so 
hollow, it is easy to see through them : and this 
last one is like the rest. I can give him statistics 
to show that those who eat least flesh are the 
tallest, the strongest and heaviest; but 'W.G. B's' 
single experience is of greater value than sta- 
tistics, no doubt. If he had told the truth of the 
matter he would have exclaimed, in the language 
of Scripture, ' I will eat flesh because my soul 
lonrjeth to eat it : ' and like the Israelites of old, 
perhaps he wept again, saying, ' Who will give 
me flesh to eat ? ' 

"I am, yours respectfully, 


We have great pleasure in inserting- the 
following letter, which, whilst correcting the 
mistake of " Scrutator " as to the writer 
being an " An ti- Vegetarian," * affords, at 
the same time, ample testimony as to the 
general importance of our movement, and 
the personal benefits derived from a length- 
ened practical adherence to it. We trust, 
ere long, to have the pleasure of welcoming 
our medical friend as a public advocate of 
the system he already privately recommends 
to the attention of his more restricted circle 
of personal acquaintance. 

Dear Sir — At page 30 of the Vegetarian 
Messenger for April, quoting from my Lectures on 
Animal Physiology, it is stated by "Scrutator," 
that I am an "Anti- Vegetarian." This I beg you 
will grant me the favour to contradict. 

I own that I deserve to be thus misrepresented, 
seeing I have so long enjoyed the blessings of 
Vegetarianism without making a greater effort 
than I have hitherto done to impart a knowledge 
of them to others. The ma!iy and serious duties 
of my past life must plead an excuse for me 
beyond my immediate sphere of action. I 
believe, however, that my Vegetarian principles 
are well known to all with whom I come in 
personal relation. 

Trusting that the time is not far distant, when 
I shall be able to work more extensively in the 
glorious field which it is your happiness to 
occupy, and wishing you every possible success 
in your righteous undertaking, which, I conceive, 
is alike conducive to the well-being of man and 
the true glory of God, 

I remain, dear sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

London. B. T. LOWNE, M.R.C.S , &c. 

* Controversialist and Correspondent, p. 30. 



punch's vegetarian eating house. 

S. I.^ — The article referred to will be found in- 
serted in our present number.* The wit is 
amusing, and depends, as Avit often does, 
upon the assumption of extreme conduct or 
behaviour in others, which may or may not 
be found identified with individuals, but not 
with a system. Our friend Fundi here 
represents an extreme of practice which the 
Vegetarian Society does not follow, or profess 
to follow, and thus, in his ingenuity, merely 
raises a laugh at the picture he draws, at 
which we are also able to laugh, and with the 
additional advantage, that we know ^\e\lwhen 
to laugh, and where the laugh properly ends. 


Sir — The Family Economist states that, "If 
bakers are applied to for brown bread, they gener- 
ally produce it by merely takings a portion of the 
regular dough, and sprinkling among it as much 
bran as will bring it to the colour required." 
A fact that has come to my own knowledge, tend- 
ing to corroborate this, I will now relate. 

There lives in Islington a baker who sells very 
nice brown bread. A lady in the neighbour- 
hood, wishing to bake some at home, sent her 
servant to this baker's for some of the meab 
but forgetting at the moment the name of it, 
told the servant to ask for " some of the meal his 
brown bread was made of." The servant was 
surprised to see the baksr first weigh some 
flour, and then mix a portion of bran with it, 
and told him he was mixing bran with the flour 1 
The baker, however, told her that was what he 
always did — that was the meal be made the 
brown bread of. The lady, profiting by the 
candid confession, now buys her fine flour sepa- 
rately, and bran at the rate of one shilling per 
bushel, and mixes them herself. In this way 
she has made excellent brown bread, and much 
cheaper than if she had bought what is called 
wheat-meal at the corn-chandler's. For, it must 
be remembered, that in London, vpe have to pay 
the same price, or very nearly so, for flour mixed 
with bran as for fine flour. 

Thus is the problem solved : — How to get 
wheat-meal in London at a fair price. Buy half 
a bushel of bran for 6d., and half a bushel of 
pollard for 7d. or 8d., mix them together, and to 
every 10 lb. of flour add 2^^ lb. of this mixed 
bran and pollard. 

Those who have not been accustomed to eat 
brown bread, had better begin with a smaller 
quantity of the bran, and if this be soaked in 
hot water an hour or two before the bread is 
made, it will not be so hard and harsh, and will 
not act so much on the bowels. 

I hope poor Vegetarians with large families 
will take the above hint and act upon it, as they 
will find it of great use m relation to economy. 
But many of tliem will say, " We have got no 
oven." To such I would recommend Ball's 
Portable Suspending Oven, for baking bread, etc., 
* Vegetarian, Treasury p 54. 

in front of a common fire. These ovens turn 
round before a common fire, just in the same 
manner as a leg of pork that is being roasted, 
and Mr. Bokmond says they bake bread beau- 
tifully. The smallest size will bake a 2^ lb. loaf, 
and costs 5s., and one that will bake a 5 lb. 
loaf, costs 8s. I think we should have to travel 
far before we could get a side oven for these 
prices. I am, yours truly, 

L'>ndon. T. H .S. 

Our correspondent is no doubt correct in 
his discovery as to the brown bread usually 
made by the London bakers. As in other 
populous districts, however, other bread 
made from excellent wheat-meal can doubt- 
less be had. The best brown bread is made 
at home, where there is the convenience for 
baking it ; and this, out of London, is 
^ generally secured ; and where Vegetarians 
either purchase the meal of some one on 
whom they can fully depend, or wash and 
grind the grain in a mill of their own, the 
results are most satisfactory. We hope 
shortly to return to this subject. 

Sir — Having adopted the Vegetarian practice 
of diet during the last six months, I wish to 
acknowledge the benefit I have derived in conse- 
quence, and the means by which I was led to 
take this step. An accidental circumstance 
having prevented my making this statement in 
the way I at first intended, I am induced to adopt 
the present mode of communicating my expe- 
rience, in order that it may be useful to others. 

I was led to commence the practice through 
hearing the arguments advanced by Mr. Bor- 
MOND, in a lecture in July last. I have since 
attended one of the lectures given by Mr. BOR- 
MOND, in Ebenezer Chapel, Shoreditch (in Jan- 
uary last), and wished, at the close, to rise atul 
bear testimony to the superiority of the Vege- 
tarian system, but the room not being so full as 
I expected it would be on the following night, I 
reserved my remarks, but unfortunately was 
prevented from attending then. 

I am utterly astonished at the increase of 
physical strength that I have experienced since 
abstaining from the flesh of animals as food, for 
I »ised to think, with the majority of people in 
this country, that flesh-meat was best suited to 
impart muscular strength, but I am now con- 
vinced that idea is erroneous. I may mention 
two instances that will suffice to prove this. 

I am in the habit occasionally of laying cocoa- 
nut matting down in offices, which requires a 
great deal of labour to lay it as we are accus- 
tomed to do. This is effected by means of a 
long stretcher, five feet long, which is forced 
forward with the utmost strength a man can 
exert, whilst a second man places a long nail in 
the floor to keep the iiiatting stretched tight. 
These stretches are taken about every three- 
quarcers of a yard, until the floor is covered, and 
tills labour I consider to require far more exertion 
than dragging a loaded truck for a whole day. 
This work used to fatigue and distress me 



exceediiip^ly when I lived upon a mixed diet, but 
since I have adopted the Vegetarian system, I have 
no such distressing feelings, and very seldom feel 
tired, or if I do, this feeling is of short duration. 

The next striking instance I would mention is, 
that although living at a distance from ray 
employ, about twenty minutes' walk, I am in the 
habit of going home to my dinner in the middle 
of the day, which, in the hottest part of the sum- 
mer, used to fatigue me to that degree, that I was 
scarcely able to take my food; but since abstain- 
ing from flesh meats, and although the weather 
was hotter than usual last summer, I experienced 
no such distressing feeling. I thus consider 
that I am abundantly compensated for denying 
myself the slight gratification (which would only 
extend over about a quarter of an hour a day) of 
eating flesh-meat. 

In addition to this increase of physical strength, 
my animal spirits are greatly increased, and I 
experience a pleasurable feeling of vivacity 
beyond what I formerly enjoyed. Two of my 
children have vohintarily adopted my practice of 
diet, one of these being ten, and the other four- 
teen, years old; and as I have nine children, I 
should like them all to follow the same course. 
I do not know that we have had three joints in 
the house since last July, a few ounces of meat 
only being procured occasionally for those who 
are not satisfied without it. We have all sorts of 
puddings instead of the flesh we formerly used. 

While I am writing, I may as well say that I 
have also improved in appearance, and gatiiered 
flesh, and that I exceed in swiftness of foot any 
of my children, my age being forty-seven, and 
that of my eldest son eighteen. I may also men- 
tion that a lady of my acquaintance adopted 
Vegetarianism sometime about May last, as well 
as others, through hearing Mr. Bormond at 

I desire to thank all to whom I am indebted 

for the promulgation of a knowledge of this 
valuable system, so beneficial to the human race, 
although, at the same time, my joyous feelings 
are not independent of the grace and love of Gon 
in my heart. Wishing the cause every success, 
I remain, your obedient servant, 
Hoxton, S. W. 


Dear Sir — I have the gratification of being 
able to report to you the fact of our having 
formed the nucleus of a Vegetarian Association 
in Edinburgh, at a meeting held in Sinclair's 
Temperance Hotel, on Saturday evening, the 
21st of April. Our friends, Mr. and Mrs. Cou- 
pbr, and Mr. and Mrs. J. Smith, of Glasgow, 
kindly came over, and favoured us with their 
presence and assistance on the occasion. 

Our number is very small, but the Glasgow 
friends gave us some encouragement by stating, 
that we have more numerical strength than they 
were able to command at starting. 

I enclose a list of our office-bearers, requesting 
that you will have the goodness to give it a place 
on the cover of the Messenger. These are all 
that have as yet joined our Association, but we 
doubt not that there are other Vegetarians in 
Edinburgh who will come forward and help us, 
knowing that we are desirous of spreading our 
views by means of an active organization ; espe- 
cially if our Association be brought fairly before 
the public by advertising, issuing of tracts, etc., 
and the announcement of a regular place of 
meeting, so as to secure the attention of in- 
quirers and others more or less favoiirable to the 

Any suggestions, or rules for general manage- 
ment, would be very thankfully received by us 
at your hands. 

I am, dear Sir, respectfully yours, 

JEditiburgh. H- J- 



It is a mistake into whicli many breeders 
fall, to deprive the young animal of exer- 
cise by confining it entirely in the stall. 
Such a procedure is perfectly correct with a 
fattening calf, but not with one that is 
rearing. The muscular apparatus of a young 
animal requires a certain degree of exercise, 
without which it cannot increase. Unless 
the vitality residing in the various organs be 
called into action, it becomes enfeebled ; and 
as vitality is the cause of increase in the 
body, any diminution of its power is highly 
prejudicial to growth. The amount of exer- 
cise must, of course, vary with the age of the 
animal. A child at the breast sleeps twenty 
hours of the day, and, consequently, wakes 
only four. The vitality being in the ascen- 
dancy during sleep, the mass of the body 
rapidly increases. The limbs of a young 
child are not adapted for its support, and 
hence it is unnecessary to exercise them. 


But a calf or a sheep possesses limbs fitted 
for a certain amout of progression, and by 
permitting their due exercise, the health of 
the animal is sustained. But whilst we 
should endeavour, in the rearing of cattle, 
to use every means to keep the animal in its 
normal state of health, our treatment must 
be entirely diff'erent when we desire to fatten 
the same animal. — Dr. Lyon Playfair. 


Dr, Johnson wisely said, '' He who waits to 
do a great deal of good at once, will never 
do any thing." Life is made up of little 
things. It is but once in an age that occa- 
sion is offered for doing a great deed. True 
greatness consists in being great in little 
things. How are railroads built ? By one 
shovelful of dirt after another ; one shovelful 
at a time. Thus, drops make the ocean. 
Hence, we should be willing to do a little 
good at a time, and never " wait to do a 



great deal of good at once," If we would do 
much good iu the world, we must be willing 
to do good in little things, little acts one 
after anotheY"; speaking a word here, giving 
a tract there, and setting a good example all 
the time ; we must do the lirst good thing 
we can, and then the next, and the next, 
and so keep on doing good. This is the way 
to accomplish any thing. Thus only shall 
we do all the good in our power. — The 
Leisure Hour. 


The natives of Sierra Leone, whose climate 
is said to be the worst on earth, are very 
temperate ; they subsist entirely on small 
quantities of boiled rice, with occasional 
supplies of fruit, and drink only cold water ; 
in consequence, they are strong and healthy, 
and live as long as men in the most propi- 
tious climates. — Monthly Magazine, Juhj, 


At a time when ministers come forward and 
startle the nation by declaring that Great 
Britain requires a foreign legion to help her 
to fight her battles, surely the followiug 
ought to excite attention : — " Year after 
year, year after year, have Registrars' Re- 
ports declared the thousands dying of pre- 
ventable diseases, and yet these diseases are 
not prevented. Year after year has it been 
stated that from preventable causes death 
is twice as busy aihong the poor as among 
the rich, and yet do a double number of the 
poor die on. Year after year has it been 
demonstrated that preventable typhus is 
^annually destroying upwards of thirty thou- 
sand of our people ; and yet by preventable 
typhus are upwards of thirty thousands 
annually destroyed. How can we account 
for this apathy .^ Whence springs it ? What 
is the cause ? Are these slaughters permitted 
through cold-heartedness .'' through igno- 
rance } through a want of power to save } 
But the facts are known ; the power to save 
exists ; and yet these things continue. Can 
we conceive a body of men, engifted with 
a mightier privilege than that of being 
permitted to stretch out the right hand of 
salvation to hundreds of thousands of crushed 
and trampled human beings .►* to give them 
health } to give them better powers .? powers 
of thought, powers of action, powers of doing 
good, powers of being happy } Can we, I 
say, conceive a mightier earthly privilege 
than this .'' Yet this is possessed — has been 
for years possessed by legislators, and things 
are as they are : — One hundred thousand suf- 
fering fellow-creatures are annually perishing 
in hngland from preventable diseases. We 
• may not now stop to calculate the national 
expense of this mortality, the pauperization, 

the destitution, the widowhood, the orphan- 
age, the crime, the taxes on public and 
private benevolence, which such wrongs 
must occasion. Of these another time. 
Only let it from this hour forth be deeply 
impressed upon the hearts of all here as- 
sembled, that one hundred thousand— o^'e 
HUNDRED THOUSAND humau beiugs are 
annually perishing in England from preven- 
table diseases. — Hopley's Lecture on Respi- 

A vegetarian EATING-HOUSE.* 

The immense success of the late Vegetarian 
Banquet at Leeds has induced an enterprising 
enthusiast to start an Eating House, con- 
ducted entirely without the assistance of the 
Butcher. But not only is the Butcher 
renounced, but also the Fishmonger, on the 
principle that it is wrong to catch fish : for 
Vegetarianism professes to be an improve- 
ment on that doctrine, the first promulgators 
whereof were fishermen. The Poulterer is 
excluded likewise ; for not even eggs are 
tolerated : it being considered cruel to rend 
the tie which exists between them and hens, 
if not cocks also : and although this objec- 
tion may not apply in the case of ducks, by 
reason of the indiiference of those birds to 
their eggs, yet it is thought that to eat 
ducks' eggs would be to take a shameful 
advantage of the ducks' neglect of their 
eggs. Recourse is not even had to the Dairy- 
man ; to drink cows' milk is to rob calves : 
and if the cow has no calf, to milk her is 
to weaken her, by creating an artificial drain 
upon her constitution. Milk quite sufficient 
for the composition of puddings and pies is 
obtained from various plants, and the re- 
quirements of the tea and breakfast-table 
are completely met by the milk of the cocoa 

In short, the Baker, the Greengrocer, and 
the Grocer in ordinary, purvey all the 
materials which form the bill of fare pro- 
vided at these novel Refreshment Rooms : 
the staple of the kitchen is derived entirely 
from the kitchen-garden. The beverages — 
for the establishment is teetotal as well as 
Vegetarian— essentially consist of the un- 
fermented juice of the pump. 

We have honoured this Vegetarian Eating 
House Avith- a visit, and on inquiring what 
there was ready, were informed by the 
waiter that there was " some very nice grass 
just up." " Do you think," we cried, " that 
we are going to be such geese as to eat 
that.>" "Nice young grass, Sir," he re- 
peated: " ilew cut." 

The idea of grass made us ruminate a 
little. " Any hay ? " said we. 

" jSTo 'ay. Sir," answered the waiter 

* See ControversiaUst and Correspondent, p. 52 



blandly. "No 'ay, Sir; but beautiful grass 
— sp ar r wgrass . ' ' 

" Peas, Sir ? " suggested the waiter. We 
ordered peas. '.'Two peas — thoroughly 
done ! " shouted the man, down a pipe. 

"AVhat will you take to drink, Sir.^ " he 
asked, returning to the table. "There's 
toast-and- water — there's apple- water, lemon- 
ade, ginger-beer." 

"Any ale .? " 

" Hadam's hale, Sir ; very old ; first 
liquor as ever was drunk." 

"Bring us a pot of Adam's ale apiece ; 
we prefer it mild." 

" Yessir." So saying the waiter dis- 
appeared ; and presently returned with our 
dinner ; for which, however, we found our 
two peas insufficient, so we demanded what 
else there was. 

" Kidneys, Sir — fine kidneys. Marrow." 

" Come," we said. " This is better than 
we thought. Kidneys and marrow. Bring 
a couple of marrow-bones." 

"No bones, Sir. Vegetable marrow." 

" Two kidneys then." 

"Two kidneys, Sir, yessir." 

" Let. them be devilled." 

"Very sorry, Sir: don't devil our kid- 
neys. Red-nosed kidneys, or kidney-beans, 
Sir }" 

" Red-nosed kidneys ! " we cried in aston- 

" Yessir. 'Taturs, Sir." 

"Potatoes with red-noses!" we again 
exclaimed. " In this abode of Temperance ! 
"Well ; never mind : bring us some of your 
debauched potatoes. " 

" 'Ow will you 'ave them, Sir ? Plain ? " 

" Hey .'' — 'UO. A la maitre d' hotel — that 
is with parsley and butter." 

" Parsley, Sir, we 'ave ; but no butter. 
Butter a hanimal substance, Sir ; we use no 
hanimal substance. He, Sir." 

" One wants something else with pota- 
toes," we observed. 

"You can 'ave," replied the waiter, 
"minced turnip, or 'ashed carrot, cabbage 
'art stufl'ed, scolloped hartichokes, curried 
brocoli, fricasseed cucumber, roast onion, 
stewed endive, truffle and mushroom pie, 
beet-steaks, pumpkin chops." We chose a 
slice of roast onion ; and when we had eaten 
it, the waiter inquired whether we would 
take pastry or cheese. " How is it you 
have cheese,'' we demanded, " and not 
butter.!*'' " Damson cheese, Sir,'' was his 
reply. AVe had some bread and damson 
cheese ; and then asked what was to pay. 
"Yessir. Two peas is eight; and kidneys 
is five — that's thirteen — and two roast onions 
is one shilling, two and a penny : and breads 
and cheeses four : and two waters a apeny 
each is two and fivepence apeny." 

We settled this little account without any 
demurrer ; and under the excitement of the 
generous fare we had been partaking of, gave 
the waiter half-a-crown, telling him to keep 
the change, which amounted to a halfpenny 
for himself. — Punch. 


" In a ramble I took a few days ago, T was 
distressed by the peculiarly plaintive tone 
in which a cow, standing alone by a barn, 
was lowing. ' What's the matter with her .?> ' 
I asked, of a man who leaned over the wall. 
' Calf killed ! ' was his abrupt reply, and as 
he spoke he spread a fresh skin on the wall. 
The poor mother recognized it, ran up, and 
began licking it, and smelling to the little 
hoofs that hung down. She then looked 
into the man's face, and lowed piteously, 
and again caressed the remains of her mur- 
dered darling. ' She'll go on that way for 
four or five days,' said the master, and sure 
enough it was so, for I never passed that 
way Avitliout hearing her plaintive tones.'' 


How often is the old saw verified that " Ne- 
cessity is the mother of invention." We 
arc at war with Russia, and already two 
discoveries have been made and patented, by 
which substitutes are provided to a very con- 
siderable extent for two of the chief articles 
we have hitherto imported from the realms 
of the Czar. The new system of grinding 
wheat by conical mills, it was stated by Sir 
John Shelley and Mr. C. Hindley, M.P., 
to Sir James Graham, at the Admiralty, 
would, if universally adopted in this coun- 
try, save per annum as much flour, from the 
quantity used at present, as would feed one 
million more people. If, therefore, we get 
no more wheat from that dreaded TambofF 
that so terrified our innocent and noble 
neighbour, Lord Derby, this invention bids 
fair to compensate for the loss. The second 
important article from Russia is tallow, and 
here again we have found a substitute, and 
that, too, by a Liverpool man. A patent has 
been taken out in the United Kingdom, 
France, Belgium, etc., for the. making of 
soap by means of tallow extracted from ma- 
terials hitherto considered nearly worthless, 
and which can be obtained at less than one- 
sixth of the price paid for Russian tallow, 
and soap manufactured at a cost of £10 or 
£L2 per ton cheaper than it has hitherto 
been. It possesses, moreover, far more of 
the cleansing property than ordinary soap, 
and promises to be a great boon to laun- 
dresses on one side, and cloth manufacturers 
especially on the other. On the principle, 
we suppose, of lucus a non lucendo, it is 

called in Liverpool, " empire soap," not be- 
cause it has anything to do with the empire 
of Eussia, but because it has not — a good 
practical joke, Avhich will not prevent the 
millions who detest the Czar, to wash their 
hands of him altogether. A portion of this 
new soap is in our possession ; and from the 
licenses that have been applied for by soap 
manufacturers in all parts of the kingdom, 
we have little doubt it will soon be well 
known, and generally used, from John-o'- 
Groat's House to the Land's End. — Liver- 
pool Journal. 


Whisky and misery, whichever be the cause, 
whichever be the effect, always go together. 
In the island of Mull, about £3,000 of 
money raised in charity, was spent in the 
year ending October 1 0th, 1848, for the 
eleemosynary support of the people. In the 
same space of time, the expenditure of the 
people on whisky was £6,099 ! In the year 
ending October 10th, 18J0, the sum paid in 
the island of Skye for Avhisky was £10,855 ; 
considerably more than double the amount 
expended in relief by the Destituiion Fund^ 
and more than double the consumption of the 
same district in 1845, the year before the 
distress commenced! "That is," says the 
Quarterly Review, which quotes the facts 
from excellent authority, "the increased 
consumption of whisky exactly tallies with 
the extraneous aid received — ^in other words, 
the whole amount of charitable assistance 
went in whisky .'" — The Freeman. 


Yesterday morning, Mr. C. Gibson, toAvn- 
clerk of Salford, appeared at the Salford 
Borough Court, to support an information 
against a man named David Doherty, the 
tenant of a farm, called " High Field Farm," 
in Pendleton, charging him with having had 
in his possession a quantity of meat, which 
was unfit for human food. On the evening 
of "Wednesday last, Mr. Pickering, one of 
the Inspectors of Nuisances for the Borough 
of Salford, visited the defendant's farm. In 
a barn, he found a hind-quarter of beef; in 
a stable two quarters of beef, one fore and 
the other hind ; in a slaughter-house, three 
sides and two fore-quarters of beef — all of 
which was in a diseased state, and unfit for 
human food. He also found the carcasses 
of two calves which were too young to be 
eaten, and a quantity of meat which had 
been cut up, all of which was unfit for food. 
The quantity of meat seized, and which, 
after being examined by some butchers, was 
ordered by the magistrates to be destroyed, 
was 1,288 lb. Mr. R. B. B. Cobbett, who 

appeared for the defendant, pleaded guilty to 
the charge, but urged, in mitigation of the 
sentence, that he was brought up under an 
act which had only recently been applied to 
Pendleton, in consequence of its incorpora- 
tion with Salford ; and that he Avas about to 
be punished for the commission of an act 
which, but for that act, was a lawful one. 
Mr. Trafford said it was impossible to sup- 
pose that the defendant could have been 
ignorant that he was committing an unlawful 
act. The magistrates should therefore in- 
flict upon him two penalties of £10 each, for 
two of the pieces of meat which were found 
on his premises, with costs. Mr, Pickering 
said that he believed the penalty would be 
paid. — Manchester Guardian. 

ventilation of the nursery. 
The nursery ought always to be one of the lar- 
gest rooms in the house. It should be without 
carpet, and the bed without curtains. 
Wherever there is any quantity of curtains 
to a bed, it is injurious to the health of the 
persons sleeping in it, as it prevents their 
obtaining a proper supply of fresh air, and 
they are thus compelled to breathe that 
which has already been vitiated by being 
once drawn into the lungs. The effect of 
Avant of A'^entilation upon the rearing of 
children, was very strikingly shown in the 
Dublin Foundling Hospital, some years ago. 
Between the years 1781, and 1791, 19,420 
children were received into that institution ; 
and of these, 17,420 died. This great mor- 
tality was partly owing to the use of improper 
food ; but the effects of deficient ventila- 
tion in many hospitals have been dreadful. 
At one time no one was ever known to 
recover after an amputation ; because, with 
the air supplied to it, the body had not power 
to heal the wound. At St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London, the eff'ects of improved 
ventilation have been clearly shown. In 
the year 1685, the deaths there were 1 in 7 ; 
in 1689, they were 1 in 10 ; in 1783, 1 in 
14 ; in 1800, 1 in 15 ; and in 1815, 1 in 16. 
— Dr. J. S. Wilkinson. 

love of nature. 
I care not. Fortune, what you me deny ; 
You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace, 
You cannot shut the windows of the sky. 
Through which Aurora shows her brighten- 
ing face ; 
You cannot bar my constant feet to trace 
The woods and lawns, by living stream at 

Let health my nerves and finer fibres brace. 
And I their toys to the great children leave ; 
Of fancy, reason, virtue, nought can me 
bereave. Thomson. 




The deliberations of the approaching Vege- 
tarian Conference, will, of course, embrace 
all the usual routine of business transactions 
at an Annual Meeting, besides others, 
which, from the extension of the time of 
members being together, will admit of more 
extended discussion. By this treatment of 
subjects, we hope the programme of the 
officers of the Society will embrace every- 
thing of practical interest to Vegetarianism 
in its progress, and to the requirements of 
members themselves, in order that each may 
render the individual service to the move- 
ment which duty to the interests of society 
at least prescribes. These subjects would, 
indeed, form a somewhat extended bill of 
fare ; but since the consideration of them is 
called for, and that the Conference is for 
Vegetarians, and in practical results is looked 
to as of great importance at this stage of 
our progress ; we do not see that with the 

ample time and opportunity before the 
members, any one subject of usefulness 
should be omitted. 

Besides these operations directly addressed 
to Vegetarians, and in which the public are 
not otherwise interested, than as far as 
regards their practical results in extending 
the knowledge of Vegetarianism, there is, 
it will be seen, to be a Public Meeting in 
the Town Hall, in which some of the lead- 
ing members of the Conference will be 
speakers. This part of the arrangements 
of the Annual Meeting will be of great 
interest, as the occasion will doubtless bring 
together many who can well enter upon the 
exposition of the various arguments, views, 
and experience, of the system they specially 
commend to public attention. Perhaps 
there may be more than one meeting to give 
effect to the opportunity presented of making 
useful the talent assembled. 


Annual gatherings of all kinds are in their 
social aspects not merely attractive and 
useful, but present aspects of the greatest 
interest, by which to judge of the actual 
position of movements, and, in a retrospective 
point of view, afford evidence of the greatest 

We may assume to begin with, that the 
adherents of all sound systems of teaching, 
are beneath and behind the principles of 
their system, considered in their abstract 
purity. This is true of Christian systems — 
religions of all kinds— as well as of all 
inferior systems involving moral principles. 
Look, for instance, at the Peace Movement, 
embracing some men, who, in certain cir- 
cumstances, could sanction and advocate 
war, whilst the preying upon animals, the 
great trainer for the slaughter of the human 
species, is sanctioned and practised in nearly 
every case. Look at the professors of Tem- 
perance, abjuring alcoholic drinks, and often 
living in the intemperate use of flesh and 
tobacco, whilst abstinence from flesh, the 
great excitant in their cases, would reduce 
the struggles and difficulties to hold their 
pledge, and in the more absolute temperance 
of habits, make all good things easier to 
them. Look, again, at the many incongruous 
ways in which Vegetarianism is attempted 
to be carried out by individuals, and the 


discrepancy between extreme opinions and 
eccentricities, and the sensible adoption of 
- the system, thus made apparent. In short, 
wherever we turn, the same is observable, 
and the imperfection of the adherents of a 
system is declared, when practice is compared 
with principle. 

This imperfection in the practices of men, 
however, in no way invalidates the goodness 
of the system they profess to follow, when 
the question is philosophically regarded, any 
more than the imperfection of our present 
practice in levying war on a neighbouring 
country, proves the worthlessness of the 
Gospel of Peace, which we profess to honour 
and follow. The fact proves our disregard of 
what we profess, but leaves the principle of 
Love untarnished, though it may have to wait, 
for its practical realization, for a people who 
shall be less followers of expediency than we 
are, and shall ground their principles on 
a personal reform something more than 

It is, however, with the retrospective view 
of the Vegetarian movement, and as to how 
far Vegetarians fulfil the obligations resting 
upon them in regard to the public, that we 
would have to do for a moment. This one 
aspect of inquiry is peculiarly applicable at 
the period when we approximate to the close 
of eight years of labour in our movement. 



"What have we done, then, in the time ? how 
has this been accomplished? and what 
pecuniary support has been tendered to push 
on the knowledge of the advantages of the 
system ? 

In regard to the fruits of their labours, 
Vegetarians have, unquestionably, much to 
rejoice in. There is to-day a consideration 
in wide-spread classes of our country, as 
well as a respectful notice secured for our 
principles in a literary point of view, 
which, considering our short term as an 
organization, are not less than astonishing. 

If we ask, next, How has this been se- 
cured ? we at once point to the facts of 
sound organization, zeal, and what may not 
be inaptly designated, the chivalry of the 
Vegetarian advocacy. These afford the re- 
sults which now surprise us ; but when we 
look from the effects to the actors, we see 
that only a few have been labourers, 
whilst many might probably have been 
cooperators, whose work might naturally 
have been expected still further to have 
added to our state of progress. 

As to the inquiry, however, into the pe- 
cuniary assistance tendered by members of 
the movement, in support of the advocacy of 
their principles, we fear we are most of all 
at fault. It is well known that a compa- 
vative few are found to support and ad- 
rance most moral movements, when these 
are scrutinized ; but though a few pull the 
strings of operation, a many may still be 
found to contribute to the expenses incident 
to this first planning and direction. No 
doubt this is so in the Vegetarian move- 
ment, and it is known that large benevo- 
lence enters into its operations, there being 
private individuals who largely dispense 
of their means to spread a knowledge 
of the advantages of Vegetarianism. But 
still, in our retrospective glance, we fear we 
are most certainly assailable on the head that 
the great majoiity of our adherents do far 


The enemies of the oysters are many, and all 
of them go about seeking what oysters they 
may devour. First comes the sea-crab, who 
sets himself on an oyster, and drills a little 
round hole in his back, and makes the poor 
oyster's back ache, w^hich causes him to take 
a long breath, when the villanous crab runs 
a "stinger" down his throat, and the poor 
oyster is in the sea-crab's stomach. On the 
sea-shore bushels of shells are found perfectly 
riddled with holes by the crabs. Sometimes 
the crab files the oyster's nose off, so as to 
run in his stinger. 

Second comes the drum-fish, who weighs 
about thirty or forty pounds, and is about 

less in contributions to advance their cause 
than they well might, "Who, we would ask, 
saves by learning the truth as much as the 
Vegetarian ? and why not then find, as one 
would naturally expect, every one, without 
exception, giving a portion of his savings to 
add to the knowledge, and increase the happi- 
ness of the rest of society ! The adherent 
of Temperance introduces economy into his 
household, and too frequently he forgets to 
make his offerings of thankfulness and grate- 
ful acknowledgment for benefits received. 

But who so obdurate as the Vegetarian 
who forgets his daily advantages, and the 
need of the many without for the better and 
happier system to which he has himself at- 
tained ! For a Vegetarian to withhold his 
hand in helping on his cause is, to us, a sor- 
rowful enormity we hardly dare entertain. 
But still, the retrospect of the eight years, 
we much fear, will convict the adherents of 
the movement of less done in pecuniary con- 
tributions in relation to benefits received, than 
in any other way, where the aid of numbers 
has been required. 

If, however, there be advantage in our 
retrospect, it is in directing attention to these 
errors and imperfections, in order that each 
may think the more carefully what his means 
of usefulness are, and with the new period 
of Vegetarian advocacy just opening, con- 
sider how the past bears testimony to con- 
sciousness of services rendered, and how the 
obligations of the future may best be dis- 
charged. We think a strictly conscientious 
examination of the claims of our movement 
upon its adherents will, in this way, do them 
no harm, and may add both the assistance of 
many who now are only actors socially and 
not publicly, and at the same time secure 
larger funds to work with ; and thus the 
material assistance essential to progress will 
not fail, in time to come, to have more general 
and just relation to the means of contribution 
in each member of our movement. 


two feet long ; he is large about the stomach, 
and tapers off towards both ends. He is by 
no means a modest fish ; for, just as soon as 
his eye rests on an oyster, he starts toward 
him, for the purpose of making his acquaint- 
ance, and, grabbing him in his mouth, 
smashes him into chowder, "in the twink- 
ling of a cat's tail," and immediately looks 
about for his nearest relatives — being 
opposed to having families separated, he is 
anxious to have them all rest in his stomach 
at once. It is often the case that two or 
three pounds of oyster shells are found in a 
drum fish's stomach. 

Third comes the sea-star — everybody 



knows what a sea-star is, for they look just 
like a star. These stars have five points, but 
no legs, and as they do not keep horses and 
waggons, they find it very inconvenient to go 
afoot — not having any feet — so, when they 
wish to travel, they lock themselves fast to 
each other, until they form a large ball, 
sometimes ten feet in circumference, and 
permit themselves to be driven about by the 
waves of the sea, and roll away, they know 
not, nor care not, whither ; but if they 
happen to roll over an oyster bed, they all 
immediately let loose of each other, and hug 
an oyster, and wrap their five points about 

him, and hug him closely, hug him dearly, 
until the oyster desires him to stop, and just 
opens his mouth, to say, " Hold, enough," 
when the rascally star runs a little " nipper " 
down oyster's nose, and he is a " goner." 

Fourth comes man, with dredging-irons — 
with scoops, shovels, and tongs — pulling him, 
and making him into oyster soup, pie, fry, 
roast, and so on, and so forth, eating him 
whole, and indiscriminately, body and soul, 
without saving the pieces. Thus it is with 
poor oyster, troubles beset him on every side, 
and though thousands desire to have him, 
yet none wish to he him. — Quebec Gazette. 


Some two or three years ago, I received 
through the post several numbers of the 
Vegetarian Messenger^ which I read with 
some degree of eagerness. Although I 
liked roast-beef and gravy to my Sunday 
dinner, and could relish, now and then, 
bones of dead animals stewed for soup, I 
must confess I could not help but love, yes, 
sir, love^ the Vegetarian system. Its ad- 
vocates appeared clear-headed and earnest ; 
— its principles peaceful and kind — love in 
its broad sense was stamped upon it — it 
promised a greater degree of serenity and 
freedom of mind, as well as a more exquisite 
enjoyment of life, than the flesh-eating 
practice — it was beautiful, and my heart 
could not, as I have already hinted, resist its 
overtures. But still the tiesh-eating habits 
in which I had been trained from my youth 
up, were not very easy to break off. Never- 
theless, I continued to read the strange 
books that the postman would bring, to- 
gether with some furnished to me by a kind 
friend, till at last the truthfulness of Vege- 
tarianism took hold of my intellect also. 
Judgment and heart, .noAV, said it was 
wrong to take the life of poor unoffending 
animals, and then to eat their dead bodies, 
which in all probability would be diseased ; 
so I cleared my table of their " mangled 
remains," and to-day, I am happy, healthy, 
and strong. 

I have an amount of mind-independence, 
coupled with a keen appreciation of the 
beautiful and all-glorious world, with which 
I feel myself surrounded, that I would not 
exchange for all the gratification the far 
famed " roast-beef of old England " could 
afford. The more I read, think, and ex- 
amine, the body-feeding practices of man- 
kind, and the nature of the human con- 
stitution, the more I am convinced that 
Vegetarianism is best adapted for physical, 
intellectual, and moral development. I do 
not wonder, when I am told that many of the 
wise and good of all ages of the world's 


history have been Vegetarians — that the 
great world-work — its finest specimens of 
art — have been produced, as well as that its 
meanest drudgery has ever been, and is 
still, performed by those who live in ac- 
cordance with the Edenic command, con- 
tained in the Genesis of the inspired Book. 
I like Vegetarianism because it aids me in 
my thought-hours — regulates, refines, and 
elevates —fosters all that is beautiful, benevo- 
lent, and lovely within us ; while the life- 
destroying, animal-eating customs violate and 
darken all that would remind us of Heaven 
or of God. I like Vegetarianism because 
it aids me in my efforts to detach myself from 
my fellow-man, to unloosen his grasp, and 
to become freer in my actions towards him. 
Oh ! it is a glorious thing to be a man — a 
sober man — having for my pedestal the 
green-covered earth, decorated with river, 
mountain, and dale — wrapped round with a 
mantle of stars. Wine-bibbers, and riotous 
eaters of fiesh may laugh and imagine a sort 
of pleasure in their animal practices, but I 
would draw mine from higher sources. The 
glorious sun — the golden orb of day — as he 
comes forth, "like a strong man to run a 
race," mirroring himself in my soul, fills 
me with gratitude and thanksgiving. I am 
no longer poor, but rich ; I stand erect, and 
move along like a monarch and a freeman. 
The vast dome of heaven, as it bends over 
me in awful sublimity, inspires me M'ith 
great thoughts and holy aspirations. Night, 
with its star-encircled brow, shining silently 
in infinite space, begets holiest emotions in 
the soul. As I stand upon some mountain- 
thought — some high pinnacle of the temple 
of God's truth — viewing the kingdoms of the 
world and all their glory, I see nature filled 
with living hieroglyphics, calling up my de- 
voutest sentiments, making my eyes weep, and 
knees bend in deepest adoration and heartfelt 
thankfulness that I live — live at peace with 
all creation. Oh! I would call upon my 
flesh-eating and dram-drinking brothers 



everywhere to change their course, to arise 
and shake themselves, and hasten hack with 

all speed 

to their primitive purity and 



We give the following in connection with 
the discussion, part of which has already 
appeared in our pages : 

"To the Editor of the Blachhurn Weekly Tiniest 

" Sir— It did not surprise me that 'W. T. A.' 
should rush out of the Vesjetarian ranks, as their 
' literary gladiator,' for the purpose of proving-, 
not that my statements are inaccurate, but to 
show that I was ' a tyro in controversy ' ; yet I 
certainly did not expect the honour of a 'multi- 
tude' of other assailants, with ' Scrutator' at 
their head. If ' Scrutator's ' letter was selected 
out of the 'multitude' as the most complete 
defence of Vegetarianism, his misrepresentations 
are so apparent, his reasoning is so weak, that 
one can only exclaim, 'Poor, indeed, is the best.' 

"He has contradicted ray assertions, but which 
has he proved to be false ? And in his long 
letter has he shown a single argument against 
flesh-eating? Is his scientific knowledge so ex- 
tensive that he will not throw his pearls before 
swine ? Or why does he not convince us of 
error — in the words of a Vegetarian, ' give anti- 
Vegetarianism a fatal blow ' ? We ask for proofs, 
not statements ; facts, not assumptions. He as- 
sumes that, because God gave to Adam permis- 
sion to eat fruits and herbs, he therefore did not 
allow him to eat flesh ; he assumes that, because 
Abel sacrificed the firstlings of his flock and the 
fat, that was a ' sufficient reason ' for his being a 
keeper of sheep. He assumes that there were 
two creations ; that Vegetarians are not Vege- 
tarians ; that they are the strongest, the tallest, 
the longest livers, and last, though not least, the 
heaviest. (In his letter he says, ' heartiest,' but 
he has since withdiawn 'heartiest,' and put 
* heaviest. ' ) I leave the reader to judge whether 
'Scrutator' has proved that a 'Vegetarian 
diet' is far superior to a mixed diet. He wages 
war against a prevailing custom, — it is for him 
to prove that custom an injurious one. Has he 
done so? ' Scrutator ' states that experience 
taught me the advantage of a Vegetarian diet at 
the end of a month. Does he call a month's 
trial of a diet, experience? Being at that time 
a Vegetarian, I, of course, joined the Vegetarian 
Society; but as for my having obtained any ad- 
vantage at any time from a Vegetarian diet, is, 
like many more of ' Scrutator's ' assertions, 
entirely false. If I felt no worse at the end of 
one month, I certainly did at the end of nine. 
We see from this what they call Vegetarian 
experience, viz. : four weeks living on sago pud- 
dings, etc. 

"When a class comes before the public, with 
great professions and many seeming arguments — 
when its members contend that all mankind are 
wrong who will not follow their example — when 
they abuse those who expose their pretensions, 
and assert that a custom which has existed in 

every age of the world is injurious to health, 
religion, and morality — then it is time to see upon 
what foundation this new 'ism' is founded. 

"But when this class is so divided that one 
refuses to allow what the other asserts, and a 
third contradicts the other two, then it is time 
that this chameleon humbug should be exposed. 
For, as the Vegetarian author, Mr. Smith, asserts 
that Vegetarianism is proved from Scripture ; 
when he writes in the first chapter of his Fruits 
and Farinacea, ' Here (Gen. i, 29) we have plainly 
and distinctly stated what God intended should 
be the food of mankind.' Again, he says on this 
text, 'No one, I think, can mistake the language 
here employed, or arrive at any other conclusion, 
than, that fruits and herbs bearing seed, were 
expressly granted as the food of man.' Mr. 
Hall, another of these verdant gentry, writing 
on this subject, states, ' Scripture is the Alpha 
and Omega of every principle,' and that Vege- 
tarianism is 'the fore-runner, the John the 
Baptist, to the light of Christianity ! ' So * W. 
T. A.' wishes us to believe that ' the pro-scriptu- 
ral assumption' is an 'error in fact,' and the 
mystifying man of straw (cabbage?) 'Scruta- 
tor ' comes out with a puff', •' Vegetarians have 
no religious creed ; they teach neither doctrines 
of angels nor doctrines of devils ' 1 Which of 
these four are we to believe ? 

"Further, Mr. John Smith, in a Vegetarian 
pamphlet, asserts (we have plenty of these Ve- 
getarian assertions), that flesh-eating is an injury 
to morality and religion. Whatever is an injury 
to morality and religion must, of course, be 
immoral and sinful. Again, a great many 
followers of this ' ism ' have united to form a 
religious sect, calling themselves ' Bible Chris- 
tians.' One of their doctrines is thus expressed 
in a letter from Mr. William Metcalfk, 
Philadelphia. ' Eating the flesh of animals is a 
violation of the first dietetic law, given to man- 
kind by the Creator*, as a guide to moral and 
physical health. His laws are like himself, the 
same yesterday, to-day, and for ever. To trans- 
gress his laws by killing animals we consider 

"Mr. Simpson, in his lectures at Darwen, 
taught the same doctrine. 

"But, 'Scrutator' says, 'The argument of 
Christ eating flesh, and giving it to others, 
would be excellent, providing that Vegetarians 
held it to be a sin to eat flesh.' 

"If it was cruel and immoral to kill animals, 
would God have commanded sacrifices ? If a 
flesh-diet was unhealthy, etc,, would Christ 
have eaten fish ? Would God have sent his 
prophet Elijah flesh to eat? (1 Kings xvii, 6): 
' And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in 
the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening.' 
Would Christ, by a miracle, have filled 
Peter's net with fishes ; and, by another 
miracle, have given fishes to the multitude ? 

" This brings me back to my assertion in the 

March No. of the Barwen Examiner, viz., that 
Vegetarians ofteu take Scripture as their starting 
point ; but, when assailed, refuse to acknowledge 
Scripture arguments. 

"For we have seen that Mr. Smith takes 
Scripture as his starting point; that Mr. Hall 
considers Scripture to be the beginning and 
ending of every principle ; and that a numerous 
sect of Vegetarians consider flesh-eating sinful. 
Yet ' W. T. A.' vaunts his official connection to 
prove that 'the pro-scriptural assumption is an 
error in fact,' and 'Scrutator,' the man of 
straw, has the audacity to assert that I coolly 
set aside the real foundation and arguments for 
Vegetarianism ! ' 

"In another place he writes thus: 'The 
cannibal may argue, human flesh is not for- 
bidden because herbs are mentioned.' It is not 
forbidden here, but in numerous other places, 
but where is there a command against eating the 
flesh of animals ? 

" I have proved that Gen. i. 29, was neither 
a command nor an appointment, only a general 
permission. For as in the following verse the 
permission is granted to beasts of the field and 
fowls of the air to eat the green herb, yet was 
this neither a command nor an appointmetit (for 
carnivorous animals), but similar to the per- 
mission granted to man in the preceding verse. 

" His third paragraph is to the efl'ect that 
when Adam fell, there was a new creation of 
poisonous herbs, thorns, thistles, etc. Will 
' Scrutator ' prove this, as I do not 'know for 
certain ' that a new description of plants were 
originated after the fall? If we take this para- 
graph as a guide, they must allow that Genesis 
i. 29, was a command only, so long as there were 
no poisonous herbs. 

'■ The next sentence is a thorough evasion . 
He gives, as a reason why Vegetarians should 
not go naked, that 'unto Adam and his wife 
did the Lord God make coats of skins and 
clothed them.' Now this was after the fall from 
a state of innocence, and Mr. Smith informs 
ns that ' a diet of fruit, roots, and farinaceous 
substances, constitute the diet of those who live 
during the second reign of peace and innocence 
on the earth.' In fact, that Vegetarianism is a 
return to primeval innocence. Adam and Eve, 
when in a state of innocence, went naked ; Vege- 
tarians likewise, having returned to the diet (so 
they say) and innocence of our first parents, 
should imitate them also in the clothing depart- 
ment. The question then occurs, Where did the 
skuis come from with which Adam and Eve 
were clothed? As yet there were no sacrifices; 
then why were animals killed in Paradise ? 
Then, he states that Abel was a keeper of 
sheep — not for the purpose of eating them, but 
for sacrifice. The absurdity of such an idea 
is apparent, when we consider that he only 
sacrificed the firstlings of his flock ; and the 
fat, even as Cain ofiered his first-fruits. If he 
offered up the fat of his flock, what became of 
the lean? Adam had two sons — Cain and 
Abel; Cain got his living by tilling the 
ground; Abel by keeping sheep — not by sacri- 
ficing them. Is it not a certainty that the flesh 

of these sheep formed a part of their diet ? 
But 'Scrutator' wishes us to believe that 
Abel had no use for his flock, but that of sacri- 
fice, and a skin now and then for clothing, both 
of which objects might easily have been attained 
without his being a ' keeper of sheep.' 

" He then quotes the verse, ' Every moving 
thing that livetb shall be meat for you.' This also 
is a general permission ; and as Gen. i. 29, does 
not forbid flesh, so this does not forbid fruits, etc. 

" He states that Vegetarians are not incon- 
sistent in using for food, eggs, milk, butter, 
cheese, etc. First, they say, that God appointed 
man to live on herbs and fruit alone, and then 
depart from this so-called appointment by eating 
animal productions. If this is not inconsistency, 
what is ? They are like the Pythagorean Sir 
Richard Phillips, who would not eat animal 
food, but was very much addicted to gravy over 
his potatoes ! 

" His next assertion, like all the others, with- 
out a shadow of truth, is that Vegetarians are 
' the tallest, the strongest, and the heaviest.' 

" He tells us that, Tim. iv. 3 does not refer to 
Vegetarians ; it does refer to a class of people 
which commands to abstain from certain meats, 
and not only does it class Vegetarians among 
these false teacliers, but gives a reason why 
their doctrines should be rejected : ' For,' writes 
St. Paul, 'every creature ot God is good, and 
nothing to be refused, if it be received with 
thanksgiving.' Paul does not deny any one 
the choice of his own food, but condemns 
those who teach that it is wrong to eat certain 
meats — ' every creature of God.' In reference 
to this text, a Vegeta ian (Mr. Hall), says, 
' God himself will and does sanction those who 
come in the latter days (of whom I stand in the 
midst), commanding to abstain from flesh.' Let 
the reader judge the reasoning (rather muddy) of 
these two champions 1 Though Mr. Smith and 
others assert that flesh-eating is an injury to reli- 
gion, and Vegetarianism favourable to it, yet it is 
a well-known fact, that at least two of the Dar- 
wen Vegetarians are professed infidels ! ' Tell it 
not in Gath.' 

" The system has been very extensively tried iu 
America, but it turned out a complete failure there 
— the bubble has burst, showing its emptiness. 
Vegetarians cannot deny tliis, though they at 
tempt to qualify it. In an address from the 
American Society to that iu England, we read, 
' The movement in this country (America), though 
in some respects a failure, was not quite a 
failure after all '* How important and influential 
must that Society be, which, in this civilized 
country, notoriously numbers less than a thousand 
members ; and, of these, who can tell how many 
have returned to what ' W, T. A.' calls the 
'flesh-pots of Egypt,' or rather, to the roast beef 
of old England ? Does it not speak well for the 
common sense of the millions of Great Britain, 

* [We object to give insertion to the quotation 
and comments of " W. G. B.' following the above, 
for the reason that " W. G. B." quotes matter 
from a private report issued to none but members 
of the Vegetarian Society, and so improperly in- 
troduced into " W. G. B.'s" letter.] 



that hardly a thousand simpletons can be found 
' green enough ' to be voluntary Vegetarians ? 

*"0h ! poor ignorant gluttous,' exclaims a man 
of cabbage. 'Do you not know what a sinful 
and immoral act you commit in eating roast 
beef! I, a Vegetarian, swallow millions of 
animalcules in a glass of water — I take away 
lives by the million ; but it is very cruel, sinful, 
unhealthy, and immoral to eat a beef-steak ! ' 

" But, sir, they call it an economical system. 
I call it very bad economy for a man to wear 
himself to skin and bone for the sake of a shil- 
ling a week — like the Frenchman's horse, which 
died as soon as it had learned to live on one 
straw a day ! This is Vegetarian economy ! 
Even the Secretary of the Darwen Vegetarian 
Society, I am informed, is obliged to resort to a 
flesh diet, now and then, to recruit his wasted 
strength.* * * * * 

" Sir Walter Scott gave the system a trial, 
and he states, that whilst a Vegetarian he was 
affected with a nervousness ' never felt before or 

"Miss Marshall, of Heston, Middlesex, 
who was a Vegetarian, I believe, several years, 
was obliged to resume flesh for her health's sake. 

"Mr. FuLLBROOK, who tried it about six 
months, states : ' It causes an irritability of tem- 
per, and want of vigour and spirit.' 

" Now, sir, if Vegetarians do prove anything, 
it is this — that there are some men who can live 
a long time on very little food. 

"But, because Paul the hermit, lived to a 
great age, and is said (we must not believe all 
that is said ) to have subsisted on fruits, etc., and 
drank small beer — is that sufficient reason why 
we should all drink small beer ? Because there 
may be two or three well-authenticated instances 
of men living to a good old age, living on dates 
and water — does it follow that the rest of man- 
kind should live on dates and water too ? Should 
we not share the same fate as the Vegetarian 
Mr. Newton, who, with his brown bread and 
water, was so weak that he could hardly walk 
along the streets ? 

" If there are one hundred old men in a 
country, and one lives on fruits, etc., are we to 
imitate the one, or the ninety-nine ? 

"But Mr. Smith brings up his Vegetarian 
army ; he states that 'the food of the Irish pea- 
santry of the present day is almost wholly com- 
posed of the potato.' If he had said the food of 
the idle part, etc., of the Irish peasantry, he would 
have been nearer right. But allowing Mr. 
Smith's assertion to be true, within the last few 
years where have been more abject misery and 
want, anarchy and murder, with dire disease, than 
in Vegetarian Ireland ? Not till the Irish pea- 
sant is fed on more substantial food than potatoes 
will he rank as a working man. 

"Again, he gives as samples of Vegetarians 
the Lazzaroni of Naples — a set of lazy beggars 
who lie basking in the sun, and beg a poor living, 
rather than work for a good one, 

"He states that 'the inhabitants of Asia and 
Africa are compelled by their climate to refrain, 
in a great measure, from animal food.' What is 
• See Note on page 61. 

the characteristic of these Vegetarian nations ? 
Where the intellectual superiority, the extra 
superfine morality and innocence ? Are they not 
noted for indolence, ignorance, superstition, fatal- 
ism, and inactivity ? 

"But when Vegetarianism was attempted in 
America and England, as a matter of course, in 
nineteen cases out of twenty, it failed. It may 
do for those whose employment needs little exer- 
tion, if they wish to deny themselves, and to be 
able to say with the Pharisee of old, ' I thank 
God that I am not as other men are.' 

" The stomach of flesh-eating animals generally 
consists of a simple globular sac ; in herb-eating 
animals, the stomach is divided into two or m ore 
stomachs, so to speak ; in animals that chew the 
cud, the stomach is more complicated still. The 
stomach in man is a simple sac, without any 
division or complication, so that it is very nearly 
allied to that of flesh-eating animals, though very 
different from that of the Vegetarian cow. 

" If you wish to see the effects of a flesh-diet 
fully carried out, mark the British soldier, who 
has his daily ration of flesh-meat. Famed all 
over the world for steadiness of purpose, con- 
tempt of danger, endurance of fatigue, and 
bravery under the most trying circumstances, the 
British soldier has not found his equal yet. 
Look at our hardy and gallant sailors — could 
they be excelled by a race of cabbage-eaters ? 
Are our soldiers and sailors deficient in strength, 
longevity, and muscular development, because 
they are not Vegetarians ? 

"Thus we find that the most civilized nations 
in the world are flesh-eaters. 

"'Scrutator' complains that I will not 
touch upon scientific arguments in favour of 
Vegetarianism, for the very good reason that they 
have none, not because I knew of no lever strong 
enough to move them. 

" If, then, ' Scrutator ' will screw out a little 
more truth in his next than he has in his last — 
if he will bring to light some of his ' scientific 
arguments ' — if he will prove flesh-eating to be 
an injury to health, longevity, morality, and 
religion, and Vegetarianism favourable to them — 
if he will make known the 'scientific foundation 
of their faith ' — perhaps he may succeed in 
converting the poor flesh-eating Gentiles to the 
Vegetarian faith. 

" Yours truly, 

" W. G. BAILEY." 

The following letter, in reply to the 
above, was forwarded to the Blackburn 
Weekly Tunes, but declined on account of 
its length. 
" To the Editor of the Blackburn Weekly Times." 

" Sir — In a supplement to your paper of the 
9th inst., you publish ' W. G. B.'s' reply to my 
strictures on his letter, in which he complains of 
my want of arguments against flesh-eating. I 
have no doubt he would have been better pleased 
if I had passed over all his clumsy assumptions, 
and gone into fresh matter. The work I took in 
hand, hov/ever, was to expose these assumptions, 
and I did so. 

" He now speaks of my assumptions and mis- 



representations. First, he says, I assumed, 'that 
because God gave Adam permission to eat fruits 
and herbs, he therefore did not allow him to eat 
flesh.' I never assumed nor said anything of the 
kind, and it is a pure coinage of the man of 
logic who penned the miserable truism that 
' Flesh is not forbidden because herbs are men- 
tioned.' The relationship of these two argu- 
ments is, I think, apparent. I assumed nothing 
about Abel ; we are told he made an offering of 
the firstlings of his flock, and the fat, and 
' W. G. B.' assumes that he ate the rest. The 
next assumption of mine, he says, is, that 
there were two creations, referring to my state- 
ment of a new description of plants having 
been originated. If the verse which says, 
' Cursed is the ground for thy sake ; thorns also 
and thistles shall it bring forth to thee,' does not 
prove that thorns and thistles did not grow 
before, then I cannot prove that a new descrip- 
tion of plants were originated.' I am told I 
assume that Vegetarians are not Vegetarians. 
' W. G. B.' here outruns the bounds of discre- 
tion in his anxiety to make me the author of 
assumptions, and calls that an assumption which 
I would not try to prove, far less assume it to 
be so, unless I intended to be traitor to my 
principles. Then, he says, I assume that Vege- 
tarians are the strongest, etc. I did not ; I only 
off'ered to prove by statistics that those who eat 
least flesh are the strongest, etc. So much for 
my assumptions, and as for my misrepresenta- 
tions, they are 'so apparent ' he does not take 
the trouble to point them out ! How easy it is 
to say things ! He leaves the reader to judge 
whether I proved the superiority of Vegetarian 
diet. The reader is not so oblivious but that he 
knows that I never tried to do so, and that, as 
I have already stated, I had other work in 

" ' W. G. B.' says it is entirely false that he 
received any advantage at any time from a Vege- 
tarian diet. Well, and whose falsehood is it? 
' W. G. B.' signed a document declaring that he 
' was desirous of joining the Vegetarian Society, 
and of promulgating a knowledge ofTUE advan- 
tages OF A Vegetarian diet ! ' Now, if he 
received no advantages, and knew of none, I 
ask, against whom does the charge of falsehood 

"In my previous letter I spoke of ' W. G. B.' 
joining the Vegetarian Society, after at least one 
month's experience. Referring to this, he asks, 
' Does he call a month's trial of a diet, ex- 
perience?' He again refers to this period as 
'four weeks living on sago puddings.' I now 
find that he was a Vegetarian for ten weeks in- 
stead of four, before he joined the Society. Yet 
he deliberately speaks only of four weeks, for 
the purpose of making it appear that he Lad 
little or no experience of Vegetarianism 
before he became a member. Is a ten weeks' 
trial of a diet, experience, I wonder ? And did 
the ten weeks' trial not convince him there was 
some advantage in Vegetarianism ? The docu- 
ment above referred to gives the reply. 

"One of 'W. G. B.'s' assumptions was, that 
Vegetarians maintained that the eating of flesh was 

unlawful, and he now attempts to prove it. He 
quotes the Rev. W. Metcalfe, who undoubt- 
edly states his opinion to be, that killing animals 
is sinful. Next we have Mr. John Smith 
spoken of on the same side ; but I know his 
opinions too well to allow him to be unceremo- 
niously committed to such a doctrine. He says : 
'If the flesh of animals be necessary to the 
health, happiness, and longevity of man, then the 
law of self preservation will warrant his taking 
the life of animals.' Mr. Hall (of whom I 
never before heard, but who is held up as a 
Vegetarian champion), if correctly reported 
by 'W. G. B.,' perhaps might not find a 
single individual in the whole Society who 
sentiments. Mr. Simpson 
same doctrine as Mr. Met- 
It is to no purpose, how- 
W. G. B.' shows that one person, or 
hold that it is a sin to eat flesh. 

would adopt his 
did not teach the 
CALFE at Darwen. 
ever, that 
even two. 

because the Vegetarian Society at no time ever 
acknowledged such a tenet, and when he became 

member, he knows that he was not required to 
ubscribe to any such belief. Allow me to ask, 
whether 'W. G. B.,' while a Vegetarian, held and 
taught this doctrine ? If he did not, where is 
his consistency (truth rather) in asserting that 
this is a tenet of the Vegetarians ? But it is not 
only one or two who hold this opinion : ' a great 
many followers of this ' ism,' says ' W. G. B.', 
'have united to form a religious sect, calling 
themselves 'Bible Christians,' whereas, this 
religious sect was formed at least thirty years 
before the 'ism 'was heard of! I will not pretend 
to say what the religious doctrines of this sect 
are, for I am positively ignjraHitof them; but I 
have heard one, at least, of' its members assert 
repeatedly that he did not consider it sinful to 
eat flesh. I do know, howevei*, that it has no 
connection with the Vegetarian Society. 

"I may here state, once for all, that if 
* W. G. B.' is to debate this question with me, he 
must answer jny arguments, not other people's : 
he must quote my words, not Mr. Hall's. I am 
not responsible for other people's opinions, 
neither are they for mine. The Vegetarian 
Society is not responsible for the opinions of its 
members, or their reasons for abstaining. It 
only requires abstinence from flesh, and that is 
its internal bond of union. One man abstains 
on account of his health, and another from 
motives of humanity, and so on ; but the Society 
takes no cognizance of their motives. All this 
'W. G. B.' knows perfectly well, and yet he 
persists in deliberate misrepresentation. To end 
this, however, will ' W. G. B.' debate Vegeta- 
rianism upon such principles and facts as I may 
lay down ? Will he give up the manufacture of 
spurious Vegetarian arguments, and answer my 
arguments, instead of dissecting his own men of 
straw ? If he will, I shall at once take the 
initiative, and give him some ' scientific argu- 
ments ' to digest and reply to. 

"'W. G. B.' informs us that two of the 
Vegetarians in Darwen are infidels. He ought 
to have added, and this proves that Vegetarians 
teach infidelity. When he finds up another two 
who may be members of the. Society of Friends, 



he will theo conclude that Vegetarians are 
QpUakers. And so on, till the truth at last comes 
out, apparent even to his own obliviousness, that 
the Vegetarian Society, or Vegetarians as a body, 
teach neither doctrines of angels nor doctrines 
of devils — that whatever their individual religious 
convictions may be, whether churchmen, dissent- 
ers, or infidels. Vegetarianism stands out from 
all as a separate question. 

"'But when this class is so divided, etc , it is 
time this chameleon humbug should be exposed.' 
' W. G. B.' however does not expose it. He only 
exposes the opinions of two or three of its 
members ; and, because they diflfer, he calls 
Vegetarianism a 'chameleon humbug.' On this 
principle what is the medical profession to be 
termed ? One advocates allopathy, another 
homoeopathy, and a third hydropathy — each 
calling the others empirics and quacks ; and ac- 
cording to ' W. G. B.,' because the curers differ, 
therefore curing diseases is a ' chameleon hum- 
bug.' So with religion, because almost every 
body differs from every other body on religious 
points, is religion therefore a ' chameleon humbug' 
too ? Thus let him follow out his own reason- 
ing, and he becomes an infidel also. 

" Gen. i, 29, ' W. G. B.' says, is only a permis- 
sion. Well, call it so for the sake of argument. 
What is it a permission to do ? To eat vegetable 
food certainly, he cannot deny that. Now about 
1700 years afterwards God said to Noah, 'Every 
moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you.' 
' W. G. B.' says, ' This also is a general permis- 
sion.' The matter therefore stands thus. In 
the beginning God permitted man to eat vegeta- 
ble food, and 1700 years after he permitted him 
to eat flesh : so that for 1700 years man had no 
permission to eat flesh. This is entirely * W. G. 
B.'s ' own version of the matter, and he may de- 
cide at his leisure whether man ate flesh without 
permission or not. 

"As to the ' Go-naked ' argument, I am told 
my reply was a thorough evasion. Certainly it 
will be when I become a supporter of the doctrine 
that Vegetarians have returned to primeval inno- 
cence ! If ' W. G. B,' thinks flesh-eaters so 
innocent as to believe what he says on this point, 
he will find himself mistaken. I am a supporter 
of the good old doctrine that there is neither 
Vegetarian nor flesh-eater upon the earth who 
doeth good and sinneth not. Adam fell, and 
God clothed him. Vegetarians are fallen, and 
they should be clothed. These are my argu- 
ments ; where is the evasion ? 

"By the way, will'W. G. B.' point out two 
or three of the numerous places where human 
flesh is forbidden in the Bible ? I do not think 
he reads the Bible so often as he should, or else 
I do not. 

" ' First, they say that God appointed man to 
live on herbs and fruits alone, and then depart 
from this so-called appointment, by eating ani- 
mal productions. If this is not inconsistency, 
what is ? ' Any Vegetarian who argues in the 
words here stated, and maintains that, as flesh 
was not appointed, therefore, it should not be 
eaten, must likewise admit that, as eggs and milk 
were not appointed,, therefore, they should not 

be used. Vegetarians, however, do xiot require 
to use this argument, and I decline to do so ; so 
* W. G. B.' must reserve his fire till he finds 
some one who does. Then you give up the 
argument of the appointment? I may be asked. 
Not at all ; I only reserve liberty to use it in my 
own way. My argument is this : When ' W. G. B.' 
says that without flesh he was becoming a 
skin-and-bone being — when Dr. Balbirnie, 
with all the authority of bis class, maintains that 
Vegetarianism induces consumption, and many 
others declare the impossibility of living in 
health and strength without flesh, then it is that 
1 can triumphantly refer to the appointment of 
man's food, and show that this sine qua non 
(this tudispensable requisite) of health and 
strength, is not even mentioned in that appoint- 
ment ! Now, if flesh is so important to the well- 
being of man, why was it so omitted? God, 
the Creator of man, the Maker of his physical 
frame, knew best what was necessary for his 
support, yet he did not appoint or permit the use 
of flesh, until man bad lived in the world 1,700 
years ! But go from the infinite Creator to con- 
sult his creature in the person of a doctor — a 
student of the human frame — and the first thing 
he would appoint would be flesh, as the most 
important for the nourishment of the body. 

" I should not wonder if ' W. G. B.' will call 
it an assumption of mine, to say that permission 
was not granted for 1,700 years, but my reply 
is, that the fact of a permission being granted to 
Noah, proves clearly that he had no permission 
before, and ' W. G. B.' may controvert that if 
he can. 

" Dr. KiTTO, taking the same view, says, in 
his Daily Bible Illustrations : ' It appears to us 
that the words then uttered (to Noah) contain 
a distinct reference to the original grant, and an 
extension of it — "i^very moving thing that liveth 
shall be meat for you, even as the green herb 
have I given you all things." (Gen. ix. 3.) 
And, as the language most clearly implies, the 
extension was now first made, and was necessary 
to satisfy the conscience of a righteous man, it 
is manifest that animal food could only before 
the flood have been eaten by those whose trans- 
gressions brought that awful judgment upon the 
world.' This is almost equivalent to saying that 
it was a sin to eat flesh before the permission 
was granted, but ' W. G. B.' would have us 
believe thateven Adam andEvE in Paradise killed 
animals for food ! Did space permit, I might 
quote the opinions of one or two more flesh- 
eaters, to show how they contradict each other, 
and then exclaim, ' Which of these four are we 
to believe ? ' When this flesh-eating class is so 
divided that ' W. G. B.' denies what Dr. Kitto 
asserts, and both of them may contradict the 
other two, it is time that this flesh-eating 
chameleon humbug should be exposed ! 
' W. G. B.' need not he offended when I 
remind him that he should not be such 'a tyro 
in controversy ' as to use a sword that cuts both 
ways. I leave 'the reader to judge' whether 
he has done so or not. 

" He repeats his saying that Vegetarians refuse 
to knock under or to acknowledge Scripture argu- 



meuts. This elegant piece of composition I 
certainly did not understand at first, but it now 
appears to mean, that Vegetarians quote Scrip- 
ture, and yet refuse to admit that they advocate 
Vegetarianism on religious grounds. Perfectly 
true, we do that ; and so does ' W. G. B.' quote 
Scripture against Vegetarianism, and more than 
that, as I will show presently, perverts it, and he 
will hardly maintain he does so upon religious 
grounds. So, in like manner, the devil quoted 
Scripture, perverting it, but not upon religious 
grounds, I fancy ; and with these two eminent 
examples before them, if Vegetarians are reproved 
for quoting Scripture, it will only be Satan re- 
proving sin after all. 

" I am next informed, that 1 Tim. iv. 3 does 
refer to a class of people which commands to 
abstain from certain meats. So far, this is per- 
fectly correct. Further, I am told that the 
apostle classes Vegetarians among these false 
teachers, but as the apostle does not say so him- 
self, I feel rather timid about taking ' W. G. B.' 
as my ghostly instructor on this point. To make 
sure, I propose to examine the whole passage m}'^- 
self. First, the persons referred to in this pas- 
sage are said to have 'departed from the faith, 
giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of 
devils.' Now what faith have Vegetarians de- 
parted from ? We have men of all sects of 
Christians in the Society, and who differ on re- 
ligious doctrines as much as if they had never 
been Vegetarians. Now, how can they be said 
to have departed from the faith of Jesus Christ 
by becoming Vegetarians ? Let ' W. G. B.' re- 
ply. The only faith they have departed from, is 
that which some of them once had in the dead 
carcasses of cows, calves, sheep, and swine. Again, 
what seducing spirits have they given heed to ? 
what doctrines of demons do they entertain? 
what lies do they speak in hypocrisy ? Who 
dare say their conscience is seared (as) with a hot 
iron? Who ever heard even a whisper amongst 
them against marriage ? The next sentence, 
then, is the only one out of the whole which 
*W. G. B.' attempts to apply, viz., 'and com- 
manding to abstain from meats.' When a com- 
mandment is given, the person who commands is 
presumed to be in authority, and to have power 
to enforce his commands. Now, who is there | 
amongst the Vegetarians that even presumes to 
take any authority excepting what is delegated 
by the voluntary votes of the members. Again, 
who are the commanded? Is not the Vegetarian 
Society an association of persons who have volun- 
tarily, and for reasons of their own, given up 
flesh? Who commanded ' W. G. B.' to give it 
up ? or who imposed, or attempted to impose, a 
penalty for his going back to the dead cows, or, 
as he calls them, the ' roast beef of Old England ? ' 
He knows very well no one did — he was free to 
come and free to go, and he is welcome to re- 
main. Now this voluntaryism is completely fatal 
to the idea of a commandment existing on the 
subject amongst Vegetarians. St. Paul him- 
self, though he tells us that every creature of 
God is good, himself sets the example of volun- 
tary abstinence : ' Wherefore, if meat make my 
brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the 

world standeth.' And again, ' It is good neither 
to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing 
whereby thy brother stumbleth, etc' In these 
verses two things are observable: — 1st. That it 
is not only allowable, but right, to abstain from 
flesh, if a man thinks he has a good reason for 
doing so. 2nd. St. Paul was not afraid of any 
bad effects of abstinence, although he was, perhaps, 
one of the most laborious men that ever lived. 

•"W. G. B.' omits no opportunity of intro- 
ducing the words 'man of cabbage,' 'cabbage- 
eaters,' ' cabbage association,' ' verdant gentry,' 
• chameleon humbug,' etc. I certainly cannot 
admire the wit which can descend to cull the 
every-day stale words of flesh-consumers, and 
retail ttiem as nicknames for opponents ; and 
especially when the author of this wit and 
wisdom, only a few months ago, was, in his own 
language, a man of cabbage, a cabbage-eater, a 
member of the cabbage association, one of the 
verdant gentry, and a supporter of the chame- 
leon humbug himself ! 

"Unless 'W. G. B.' give the name of the 
person who informed him that the Darwen 
Secretary resorts to a flesh-diet now and then, I 
shall conclude that himself is the author of this 

" Space fails me to expose the unfair and 
garbled quotation of what Mr. Newton said, 
and the false impression he contrives to convey 
of Mr. WilsOiN's speech; the perversions 
being, at the same time, founded on communica- 
tions of a private report, which ' W. G. B.' had 
no right to use. 

"It is far from my wish to give this contro- 
versy a personal tendency. The public are by 
no means interested in thepersons of the 'literary 
gladiators'; but the utter recklessness of 
assertion in which my opponent indulges, has 
compelled me to expose him. I do not refer to 
arguments merely, but to matters of fact. For 
example : his assertion that he never received 
any advantage from the practice of Vegetarian- 
ism, in the very face of the document to the 
contrary, which he signed with his own hand; 
his repeated assertion as to his four weeks' 
experience, while at the same time he knew it to 
be ten, and his assertion that the followers of 
this 'ism' united to form a religious sect, whilst 
the said sect was in existence thirty years before 
the ' ism ' was heard of. Then we have the low 
and vulgar attempt to injure Vegetarianism by 
scurrility ; his announcement that two of the 
Darwen Vegetarians are infidels, and his impu- 
dent insinuation as to the Darwen Secretary — 
these things mark the man I have to deal with. 

" If ' W. G. B.' accepts my challenge I shall 
write again, but not to follow the tortuous course 
of his pen. He calls for 'scientific facts,' and I 
shall have much pleasure in supplying them, far 
more than in criticising the perplexing mixture 
of truth, falsehood, sense, nonsense, nicknames, 
and mockery, contained in his last production 

"I remain, yours tralv, 


Sir — On taking up the Messenger for June, I 
find a letter from one signing himself " W. G. B.," 



who happens, once upon a time, to have been a 
Vegetarian for nine months, but has been taught 
by experience, and has given up the practice 
because Scripture does not teach Vegetarianism ! 
As I have been a Vegetarian for about one year, 
and have discontinued the practice, perhaps you 
will set my testimony to the truth of Vegeta- 
rianism against that of " W. G. B." 

I became a Vegetarian because I had an inward 
consciousness of its truth. I had hardly learnt 
its first principles when I adopted it ; but, since 
that time, by reading attentively your 3Iessevger, 
and all the books I can lay my hands on, I have, 
I trust, got further than the first principles. 
Though I have been obliged to relinquish the 
practice of Vegetarianism for a short period, I 
most firmly believe in its truth, and in the 
benefits it confers upon its adherents. I never 
before had such a season of mental enjoyment 
as during my practice of the system ; and had it 
not been for the difficulties in the way of prac- 
tising Vegetarianism in London, away from 
home, most likely 1 should now be one of its 

I think we are indebted to "Scrutator " for 
his admirable answer to " W. G. B." As I have 
heard, and had to reply to the arguments used by 
" W. G. B.," I, of course, am the more grateful 
for this letter. 

Your obedient servant, 

London. H. 


Dear Sir — Notwithstanding what our friend 
Punch has said about the "Vegetarian Eating 
House," I should be heartily glad to see one 
established in the centre of London, and I think 
if one were established near St. Paul's, it would 
further the interest you have at heart, and also 
it might, I think, very soon be made to pay. I 
have frequently been asked by different friends, 
"Where can I get a Vegetarian dinner?" My 
answer has of course been "Nowhere," and I 
have given that answer with some pain. All 
reformers, except Vegetarians, can obtain what 
they want with comfort in London, but Vegeta- 
rians either must sacrifice their practice, or put 
up with a very indifferent dinner. 

Hoping that you will give some attention to 
the" above, 

I am, your obedient servant, 
London. II. 

"We have often teen surprised at the 
difficulties complained of by Vegetarians, 
in securing a proper provision for themselves, 
and especially those resident in London. 
For ourselves, both in London, and in several 
countries of the Continent, we have always 
found it easy to reduce the Vegetarian sys- 
tem to a practical and satisfactory question. 
All that is wanted is intelligence, and a little 
business tact ; and if, with these qualifica- 
tions, the question of securing, not meagre, 
but ample, provision even in a foreign coun- 
try, can be secured, it cannot be supposed 
that there are any but imaginary difficulties 
to be overcome at home. 

There have been Vegetarian Eating Houses 
established on a certain scale in Manchester, 
and less attempts made in London, but they 
have failed ; sometimes from mis-manage- 
ment, but oftener, for want of sufficient 
numbers to make a certain daily demand. 
We will, however, put it in the poAver of our 
correspondent to succeed in making a provi- 
sion for himself, if he desire. Let him have 
such a book as the Vegetarian Cookery., and 
let him regularly get provided at some hotel, 
cook's, or confectioner's (such as abound in 
London), with dishes made from its recipes, 
and there can be ample success secured, and 
for a moderate remuneration. Of course, 
where two to four joined, and agreed to pay 
for the provision in accordance with its 
value (always cheaper than the other, after 
leaving a respectable profit), the expense 
would be much less. As to the cooking, any 
one who cannot make excellent dishes from 
the recipes recommended, cannot cook at 
all respectably on any system, there being no 
very special training required, but only the 
usual degree of intelligence and attention 
to the instructions laid down, as required in 
other mixed diet preparations. 


Dear Sir — Permit me, through the medium 
of your excellent periodical, to avail myself of 
your knowledge upon a subject which is to me, 
f nd probably to others also, one of importance. 
The information I request is the following : — 
What do you consider to be the best dietetical 
selection from the beautiful stores of nature, for 
those who have little or no manual labour to 
perform ? 

For several years I have adhered to a system 
of diet which I believe to be more in accordance 
with the physical happiness, the mental improve- 
ment, and the higher and nobler part of man, 
than a diet partly composed of the carcasses of 
animals, which a moment's thought almost would 
show ought to have some other sepulchre than 
the human stomach. During this period I have 
held no sinecure ; " by the sweat of my face have 
I eaten bread " ; yet, astounding as the statement 
may be to the skin-and-bone correspondent of 
the Darwen Examiner, I have found, greatly to 
my advantage, that "Mr. Simpson's poetical 
system would act." It is as poetical in practice 
as in theory, though I do not wonder that 
" W. G. B." failed to see this fact. 

We may lay it down as a truth, that in order 
to appreciate the beauty and poetry of the things 
we come in contact with, there must be some 
" spark of the light divine " in ourselves. One of 
the poets, exulting in the light and radiance 
which met his admiring gaze, wherever he looked, 
exclaimed — "There's poetry in every thing!" 
but he ought to have made, at least, one exception, 
it would appear. 

But leaving " W. G. B." to enter the charnel- 
house, for which, according to his own statement. 



he is emineutly fitted, I may, according to the 
principle he so learnedly (!) states — ' Experientia 
docet ' — say that my experience only serves to 
convince me of the advantages resulting from a 
diet which is in harmony with man's nature. I 
have never found it difficult to obtain from Vege- 
tarian fare the materials which are required to 
supply the waste of the body, induced by hard 
labour. It seems to me, that the difficulty is 
just the reverse of this. Our danger is that of 
taking too much nutritive food, to the neglect of 
other kiuds, which, though containing less nutri- 
tive parts, are equally necessary to the healthy 
working of the system. Many Vegetarians who 
have little active exercise greatly err liere. 

It would be a valuable service rendered to our 
" good old cause " if some one, qualified for the 
work, would compile a dietetic table, adapted to 
those who have to work hard with the hand, and 
another for those whose work is confined to the 
head. Such tables are a desiderata, and the good 
resulting from them would amply repay any well- 
wisher of Vegetarianism for the trouble of com- 
piling them. For want of a guide of this kind, 
I have to trouble you with this letter. Very 
soon I shall have to exchange my manual labour 
for other employment, which will give less exer- 
cise to the body. The diet which has been 
proper for the first, would be injurious in the 
latter case. Possibly, I might make a selection 
which would combine the necessary ingredients 
in due proportion, but I doubt whether my selec- 
tion would be the best for recommending Vege- 
tarianism to others. Some attention ought to be 
given to this subject. We owe it as a duty to 
the cause. 

Mr. Simpson's poetical system is all fair 
and comely to look upon, but the brightest gem 
may be hidden within the most unsightly in- 

crustations. The loveliest of " earth's angels " 
may be robed in garments of fantastic cut. 
We ought to save Vegetarianism from all whimsi- 
calities, for these throw a shadow over the radiant 
form. Believing this to be an obligation we owe 
to the system we have adopted, allow me. Sir, 
to ask you to point out a few varieties of Vege- 
tarian fare adapted to those engaged in study, 
and which are likely to commend the practice to 
others. Confiding, for a statement of these, in 
your kindness, and well-known anxiety for the 
success of the cause, towards the prosperity of 
which your valuable periodical has so greatly 

I am, dear sir, yours faithfully. 

'r. M. 

We have simply to recommend the careful 
study of the composition of food, and after 
taking care to procure what is suitable for 
health, to have the food procured suitably 
cooked, and not spoiled by ignorance and 
mismanagement. The tables published in 
the Messenger, the Vegetarian Cookery, the 
progressively returning instincts of the ex- 
perimenter, and reflection on all these, will 
result in the philosophy of the system. It 
is easy to see from the table of the com- 
position of articles of food, the proportions 
of the blood-forming, and heat-forming 
principles, and, remembering tha,t experience 
teaches that the hard-working man requires 
about one part of the former to four of the 
latter to keep up vigorous muscular exertion, 
whilst the easy in life require six propor- 
tions of the matter to form heat to one to 
form blood, all the intermediate require- 
ments are arrived at by a little experience. 



rough words are just the reverse ; and if 
not the product of ill-temper, are very apt 
to produce it. The plainest of truths, let it 
be remethbered, can be conveyed in civil 
speech, while the most malignant of lies may 
find utterance, and often do, in the language 
of the fisb-market. — The Family Friend. 

Many persons plead a love of truth as an 
apology for rough manners, as if truth was 
never gentle and kind, but always harsh, mo- 
rose, and forbidding. Surely, good manners 
and a good conscience are no more incon- 
sistent with each other than beauty and 
innocence, which are strikingly akin, and 
always look the better for companionship. 
Roughness and honesty are indeed sometimes 
found together in the same person, but he is 
a poor judge of human nature who takes ill- 
manners to be a guarantee of probity of 
character ; or suspects a stranger to be a 
rascal, because he has the manners of a 
gentleman. Some persons object to politeness, 
that its language is unmeaning and false. 
But this is easily answered. A lie is not 
locked up in a phrase, but must exist, if at 
all, in the mind of the speaker. In the or- 
dinary compliments of civilized life, there is 
no intention to deceive, and consequently no 
falsehood. Polite language is pleasant to 
the ear, and soothing to the heart, while 


The equivalent value of potatoes and beans 
could not be compared, because their respec- 
tive value as food arises from totally different 
causes. Potatoes are of great use in keeping 
up the heat of the body and in forming tal- 
low; but are in the highest degree unprofit- 
able for forming flesh. It will be seen by the 
table, that 1550 lbs. of potatoes would be 
required to form the same quantity of Jlesh 
that 100 lbs, of beans would do ; whilst little 
more than 200 lbs. would sufiice to form the 
same quantity of tallow : hence the great 
advantage of mixing food so as to supply, in 
smaller bulk, those constituents of which one 
kind of food is deficient. Sheep fed on oil- 



cake increase in weight faster than on any 
other kind of food, but they feel quite soft, 
and when fat handle like a bag of oil. This 
is because they receive food which contains 
very little albumen to form flesh, so that tal- 
low is the only product.* But if with the 
oil-cake they receive oats or barley, they are 
firm to the touch, and possess plenty of good 
flesh, and the fat lies equally distributed 
amongst the muscular fibre. The reason here 
also is obvious ; for both oats and barley con- 
tain much albumen, t — Dk,. Lyon Playfaik. 


Mr. Buckingham, speaking of the natives 
of the Himalaya mountains, says — There 
they stood like the statue of Hercules, with 
all their muscular powers finely developed, 
their broad and expansive shoulders and 
breasts, with their firm muscles like rolling 
waves, and such as he had never before seen 
but in the sculpture of the ancients. The 
Europeans, anxious to test their strength, 
selected some of the best men they could, 
from among the English Grenadiers and 
the vessels in the harbour, in order to excel 
them in feats of strength ; but with all the 
efforts they could make, in lifting, hurling 
the discus, vaulting, running, and wrestling, 
each of the Indians in question was found 
equal to one and three-quarters of our men. 
The former, nevertheless, had from their 
infancy upwards, never tasted anything 
stronger than water. — Temperance Cyclopedia. 

death, of a kemnant of the reign of 

george ii. — 
Died, at Thornhill, near Johnstone, Ren- 
frewshire, on the morning of Friday, Jan. 
26th, Mrs. Jane Ranshall (or Ranton by 
her maiden name), who was born seven years 
previous to the death of George II., viz., 
8th December, ]753. She was, therefore, in 
her 102nd year. She was a native of Erskine, 
Renfrewshire. She has always enjoyed good 
health, and retained possession of her facul- 
ties to the last. It may be worthy of remark 
that the birth of this woman occurred three 
years prior to the building of the high 
.church at Paisley. She witnessed many 
changes during her protracted lifetime — 
many she saw borne to their long home — all 
the companions of her youth have long gone 
before her to that undiscovered country from 
whose bourne no traveller ever returned to 
tell what is doing on the other side. It is 

* Oil-cake owes its fattening properties partlj' to 
its oil, but principall}' toils mucilage. When oil- 
cake is put into water, it dissolves into u thick 
gummj' mass. 

t Chemically speaking, they do not contain albu- 
men, but gluten. All the nilrogenized ingredients 
of food being of the same composition, I employ lor 
them one term. This is chemically wrong, but agri- 
culturally correct. 

certainly strange to think that a woman, 
seven years old at the death of George II., 
and thirteen at the death of the old Pre- 
tender, and the Duke of Cumberland (son 
of George XL), should only have bidden 
adieu to this mortal state so recently as the 
end of last week. — Glasgoiv Saturday Font. 

We present the following additional par- 
ticulars respecting Mrs. Ranshall, elicited 
by a correspondent from members of her 
family, and from which it will be seen that 
she was remarkably temperate, and of active 
habits, her diet being essentially Vegetarian 
in its character, though we cannot but regard 
her use of tobacco as mistaken and inju- 
rious, as well as the occasional use of stimu- 
lants in the form of flesh and alcoholic 
beverages : " Her diet consisted of porridge, 
sowens, potatoes, cheese, and milk, etc., with 
an occasional sparing use of flesh-meat. She 
was not an abstainer from alcoholic beverages, 
and kept a public house at the Thorn for 
many years, but never had any liking for 
such drinks, though she would taste them 
when asked by the frequ.enters of her house. 
She drank tea, and also smoked tobacco, 
during the last thirty, or thirty-five years of 
her life, if not longer, and had the impres- 
sion that this practice tended to preserve the 
teeth. She Avas a person of remarkably 
cleanly habits, and very healthy, the only 
times of her being unwell, of which her rela- 
tives are aware, being when she had the 
typhus fever, which she had three times ; on 
the last occasion she was eighty-two years of 
age. She appears to have always been a 
very strong woman, in proof of which I may 
mention, that there is a barn at Thornhill, 
Avhich was built when she was seventy, and 
that she then served the masons with lime 
and stones. She always cut her own corn, 
going about with a leathern apron, and never 
being careful to avoid wet weather, which 
she seemed rather to like. Her grandson 
remarked, that ' three years since she was 
thrashing and shearing corn, singing on the 
house rig.' I saw her corpse, and rertiarked 
at the time that I had seen persons, not more 
than half her age, much older looking. 
Her father's Bible, with the family register, 
is still in good preservation." — A. H. I. 


The Daily Netvs' special correspondent, 
writing on Dec. 23rd, says : — " The quality 
of the rations is a subject for the interference 
of Parliament. I mentioned the biscuit 
question. It is scandalous that our troops 
should, for months together, live on a sort 
of bread only intended for exceptional cases. 
I appeal to the whole medical faculty to 
bear me out that biscuit, even the best, in 
its dry state, eaten for weeks and months 

together, is higMy injurious ; and that, 
when fresh meat is wanting, hiscnit and salt 
meat, without any addition of rice and 
vegetables, do not give sufficient sustenance 
to enable men to bear up against cold and 
fatigue. Even the ration of rice, going on 
for months together, must in the end, by its 
sameness, cease to have a good effect upon 
the digestive organs. I know this has been 
felt, and that a faint attempt has been made 
to send out Scotch Barley. But somehow 
or other the supply was discontinued, and 
now even rice has been stopped as a ration, 
because the supply ran short, and barley 
suffices for the Turks. But are rice and 
Scotch barley the only dried vegetables fit 
to be served out as rations to an army in an 
intrenched camp ? Are oatmeal, peas, beans, 
and, most nutritious of all, are lentils, such 
luxuries — are they so rare, or difficult of 
transport, that it is unreasonable to ask for 
them, and extravagant to send ? I mention 
these matters not as matters of comfort, but 
of health and efficiency, and I have no doubt 
that my views will have the concurrence of 
your medical readers. I may add, that I am 
one of the unrationed few, and for my own 
subsistence I am thrown on the tender 
mercies and potted moats of the Levantines, 
who carry on the traffic in Balaklava. I 
have no personal interest in the question of 
varied rations." 

We regard the above strictures on the 
mismanagement and want of knowledge, as 
to the requisite articles of food for the pro- 
visioning of our unfortunate soldiery in the 
Crimea, as exceedingly useful, and suggestive 
of a far more efficient, as well as economical, 
means of feeding large masses of men, whilst 
tending, at the same time, to maintain their 
health and efficiency, in a far higher degree 
than the ordinary rations of our soldiers can 
possibly do. Our readers do not, of course, 
need to be informed of the great nutritive 
value of oatmeal, peas, beans, and lentils, 
as well as of barley, but the commissariat and 
medical departments of our army do seem 
most lamentably at fault in their selection of 
food for the men dependent on their exer- 
tions. It is encouraging, however, to see 
that the genius of M. Soyer has already 
produced most admirable results, even with 
the defective supplies at his command, 
affording a fresh illustration of the impor- 
tance of a knowledge of cookery in making 
the Inost of whatever description of food may 
require to be dealt with. 


The British sausage has always been a 
mystery to us, and a mystery we have felt no 
inclination to go into. The British sausage has 
in our eyes — for we have usually kept it out 

of our mouth — been a compound in which 
our imagination has pictured the possibility 
of those who have led literally a " cat-and- 
dog life," being blended together at last in 
silent union. A new light has recently been 
thrown upon the sausage by an advertise- 
ment, which would seem to show that there 
is some rather close connexion between the 
British sausage and the British lion. We 
have often heard from the Protectionists of 
the decease of that highly popular beast, 
though we suspect that the creature they 
patronised under that name, was an inferior 
brute in the skin of the nobler animal. 
This must be the supposed lion alluded to in 
the annexed advertisement as having " gone 
off" into sausage meat. 


''The Noiseless Lion Sausage-Making 
Machine, Mince-Meat, and Vegetable 
Cutter, as worked in the Great Exhibition, 
Dublin, and shown in several public institu- 
tions. It was inspected and patronised by the 
Lord Lieutenant, the Countess ot St. 
Germains, and several other ladies of dis- 
tinction, on account of the simple and effec- 
tive working. It makes no noise, is not dan- 
gerous (the cutters being all enclosed) . The 
meat (put in in pieces of two inches) is cut 
fine, and filled into the skins at the rate of 
one pound per minute by the small machine. 
It will also cut vegetables for soup into the 
size of peas ; and cut bread for force-meat, 
etc., as fine as grating. It can be worked 
on counter, dresser, or table, and in appear- 
ance is ornamental, etc." 

Now, we presume, it is not imperative on 
any one who uses this machine, to use it 
exclusively for lion sausages, inasmuch as 
the old culinary direction, " first catch your 
hare," would naturally suggest the difficulty 
of corapl5'ing with the hint, " first catch your 
lion." If the machine can be made available 
in producing a home-made sausage of some 
wholesome substance, it will indeed be a 
boon, and we can't be surprised, that even 
the Countess of St. Germains, and other 
ladies of distinction, have taken an interest 
in its working. As the machine is " orna- 
mental," it is probably intended to become 
an article of furniture ; and if the " ladies of 
distinction" begin to take it up as a "hobby," 
we shall perhaps find " sausage making " 
taking its turn with crotchet work, as an 
object of fashionable female industry. For 
our own parts, if a lady friend were to offer 
her services, to make us either a sausnge or 
an an ti -^macassar, we should say at once, 
" Give us a sausage." — Funch. 

perversion oe natural instincts. 
" Look at the consequences to man arising 
out of the perversions of his natural instincts. 



Scarcely an individual is to be found for any- 
protracted period in a state of perfect health. 
Especially is this true of the inhabitants of 
our large towns and cities, where our arti- 
ficial system is carried to more perfec- 
tion. (?) Many of these individuals, if asked, 
from time to time, * How do you do ? ' 
would reply, ' Very well, I thank you.' 
But press them closer, and we find their 
frequently resorting to aperients, and so- 
called antibilious pills, or some other of the 
many domestic remedies, will confirm the 
truth of our remarks. Dr. Abernethy says, 
' There has been a great increase of medical 
men of late years ; but upon my life diseases 
have increased in proportion.' What a 
theme for reflection ! Contrast this with 
the joyous playfulness — consequent upon a 
healthy organism— of the animals living in 
a state of nature. These, not possessing the 
amount of reason capable of subverting their 
natural instincts, require no staff of medical 
officers to keep them in a state of moderate 
health. Why, then, should man ^ Surely it 
cannot be that Infinite wisdom designed 
'creation's lord' to be inferior incorporeal 
enjoyments to the 'beasts of the field!' 
No. It is because man, in the pride of his 
heart, has said, ' We will have none of thee, 
or thy laws, Nature, to reign over us,' and 
has consequently, in his shortsightedness, 
' hewn for himself cisterns, broken cisterns, 
that will hold no water." — S. W. 


A Yorkshire cow in a London dairy establish- 
ment is seldom calculated to give less than 
twenty quarts of milk daily, for the first four 
months after dropping her calf, and many of 
this breed have been known to give from thirty 
to forty quarts of milk daily, for a few weeks 
after calving. Mr. Briggs, Edgeware Road, 
London, keeps four hundred Yorkshire cows 
in his dairy ; twenty quarts a day is the 
average quantity of a great proportion of his 
best cows, and many of them would continue 
in milk all the year round ; but as this would 
be injurious to the animals, and would dimi- 
nish the yield in the succeeding year, they are 
intentionally run dry about six weeks before 
the time of calving. — Agricultural Gazette. 


The ancient Spartans paid as much attention 
to the rearing of men as the cattle-breeders in 
modern England do to the breeding of cattle. 
They took charge of the firmness and loose- 
ness of men's flesh, and regulated the degree 
of fatness to which it is lawful, in a free state, 
for any citizen to extend his body. Those 
who dared to grow too fat or too soft for 
military exercise, and the service of Sparta, 

were soundly Avhipped. In one particular 
instance, that of Nauclis, the son of Poly- 
bus, the ofi'ender Avas brought before the 
Ephori, and a meeting of the whole people of 
Sparta, at which his unlawful fatness was 
publicly exposed, and he was threatened with 
perpetual banishment, if he did not bring his 
body within the regular Spartan compass, and 
give up his culpable mode of living, which 
was declared to be more worthy of an Ionian 
than of a son of Lacedenion, — Mr. 
Bruce' s Classic and Historic Portraits. 


" There were about 300 clipped sheep in the 
market," so says the Smithfield report of the 
19th ult. To shear even fat sheep in ordi- 
nary weather before May, is a practice which 
it would be difficult to justify ; but to strip 
the poor things under the degree of cold we 
have lately experienced, is utterly brutal, — 
Manchester Examiner and Times, March 3, 


"When the newborn helpless Stranger 

Enters first this World beneath, 
Born in Palace or in Manger, 

'lis the common air we breathe. 
When the silken lids asunder. 

To the miracle of sight. 
Open first with joy and wonder, 

'Tis unto the common light : 

All good things are common. 

"On him now in quick succession 

Influences unnumbered play ; 
Hidden powers in due progression 

Forth unfold from day to day. 
Sun and shade, the earth and ocean, 

Change of season, night and noon. 
Minister to one emotion. 

Nature knows no partial boon : 

Needful things are common. 

" Nature, universal Mother, 

Doth bestow on every soil, 
Unto one as to another. 

Equal gifts to equal toil. 
'Tis on all the rain descendeth, 

'Tis for all the flowers are spread, 
'Tis one common sky that bendeth 

O'er the humblest, haughtiest head : 

All such things are common. 

" Not alone the broad creation : 

Thought and feeling both are free ; 
Heart and mind are not of station, * 

Nor controlled by man's decree. 
Like the precious ore in mountains, 

Knowledge yields to strength and skill ; 
Wisdom from her sacred fountains. 

Cries — Ye thirsty drink, at will ! 

Inmost things are common." 




We reserve sufficient of our space to inti- 
mate to our friends who were not present at 
the recent Conference and Annual Meeting, 
that the whole proceedings of the 26th 
ultimo were in every way made attractive by 
the excellent arrangements entered into, 
both general and local, by those whose 
duties it was to provide for the occasion, 
as. well as by the importance and interest of 
the matter presented to the Society and the 

We have, however, to regret, that though 
the members of the Vegetarian Society 
present exemplary instances of persons 
making sacrifices to be present on these 
occasions, both of time and expense (some 
travelling several hundred miles to be present 
at the annual meetings), that the practice 
of the members generally leaves these ex- 
cellent instances of devotion somewhat too 
marked. We are not in possession of the 
exact numbers present on the 26th, but our 
observation of this and similar annual 
meetings convinces us, that we have still 
to imitate our excellent exemplars, the 
Friends, in our efforts to assemble large 


AVe extract the following article from a 
recent number of a popular periodical, * as 
presenting an interesting account of the 
growth and importance of rice as an article 
of food. 

"Those who have only seen rice as ex- 
posed for sale in grocers' windows, or who 
have tasted in it no other shape than as 
puddings, may with truth be said to know 
nothing of it as an article of food. In this 
country, indeed, little is understood of the 
important part this grain performs in em- 
ploying and feeding a large portion of the 
human family. Cultivated in all four quar- 
ters of the globe, but chiefly in America and 
Asia, it is no exaggeration to say, that it 
forms the food of three-fourths of the human 
race : in other words, of between six and 
seven hundred millions of the population of 
the world. 

" It is not merely that the densely-packed 
inhabitants of China, Siam, British India, 
and the Eastern islands, employ this grain 
in lieu of wheat. It stands them in place of 
* Dickens's Household Words, No. 275, page 522. 

numbers of our adherents, their May meeting 
in London, still far exceeding our own 
muster of July. 

In this, however, we must not forget 
that our organization extends over less than 
eight years, and whilst we would stimulate 
the observation of our friends to what may 
be accomplished, we would not, at the same 
time, undervalue the meeting just held. 

The Conference was commenced and sus- 
tained throughout, with that lively interest 
which the nature of the subjects introduced 
was certain to excite, and we trust that the 
primary object of the assembly will have 
been amply secured in the increased interest 
in which every thing pertaining to our 
movement will be viewed by the members 
present, during the official year just entered 
upon. The details of the subjects discussed 
will shortly, we learn, be before the mem- 
bers ; and it will be our duty, by the middle 
of the present month (anticipating the 
issue of the Messenger for September), to 
present a report of the interesting speeches 
delivered at the public Meeting on the 
evening of the Conference. 


all the varied food of European countries — 
of bread, vegetables, flesh, and fowl. The 
rice-dealer is at once their baker, green- 
grocer, butcher, and poulterer. It is impos- 
sible to enter the most remote village in the 
East, without seeing piles of rice stored in 
half-open granaries, or heaped up for sale in 
bazaars in such boundless profusion as to 
bewilder a traveller from the west, who is 
apt to wonder what will become of it all. 
Three-fourths of the warehouses in town and 
country the traveller may depend on being 
rice stores— three-fourths of the lumbering 
native craft that steal along the coast, and 
quite that proportion of the lazy bullock- 
carts that are to be met with toiling over 
Indian roads, are certain to be laden with 

"Of rapid growth, and easily adapting 
itself to many varieties of soils, irrespective 
of culture, rice appears to be the most suit- 
able for the countries in which it is found. 
The abundant rains which periodically fall 
within and about the tropics, are precisely 
what is needed by this semi- aquatic plant. 



Sometimes, however, the rainy season ceases 
before its time, or fails altogether — in which 
case the crops will assuredly perish, should 
there exist no means of procuring a supply 
from elsewhere, by aqueducts and dams, or 
bunds, as they are termed. The construction 
of works of irrigation has, from the earliest 
periods, occupied the attention of Indian 
monarchs, who spared no efforts to keep 
their subjects well supplied with water. It 
long formed a reproach to the British 
government of India, that, whilst the Hindoo 
and Mahometan rulers of Hindostan had been 
alike mindful to spend a portion of the taxes 
on works of this kind, they allowed the bunds 
and canals to fall into neglect and ruin. 

" The want of those means of irrigation 
has often been fatally felt in some districts of 
India. A sudden and severe drought will 
destroy the growing crops ; and when, as is 
unfortunately the case in some parts, there 
are no roads by which to convey grain from 
more fortunate districts, the consequences are 
frightful. In this way, we read that in the 
year eighteen hundred and thirty-three, fifty 
thousand persons perished in the month of 
September, in Lucknow — at Kanpore twelve 
hundred died of want — in Guntoor, two 
hundred and fifty thousand human beings, 
seventy-four thousand bullocks, a hundred 
and sixty thousand cows, and an incredible 
number of sheep and goats, died of starva- 
tion — fifty thousand people perished from the 
same cause in Marwa ; and in the north-west 
provinces half a million of lives are supposed 
to have been lost. During that year a mil- 
lion and a half of human beings are believed 
to have perished from want of food. 

" In some parts of India the monsoon 
rains fall heavily for a short period, and very 
slightly at other times, yielding a greater 
supply than is needed in the first instance, 
and too little afterwards. To meet this irre- 
gularity, and store up the too copious rains 
of the early monsoon, bunds were built 
across valleys to form artificial lakes, often 
of vast extent, whence the adjacent country 
was irrigated by means of water-courses car- 
ried frequently for many miles along the 
flanks of mountains, across gorges and val- 
leys, and through the most difficult country ; 
operations, which would have sorely puzzled 
our best European engineers to have accom- 
plished without a great and ruinous outlay. 

" We have been long accustomed to regard 
the magnificent ruins yet remaining in the 
prostrate land of the mighty Pharaohs, 
with feelings of mingled awe and admiration, 
looking upon them as the crumbling types of 
a bygone reign of architectural and engineer- 
ing greatness. Further eastward, still nearer 
the rising of the sun, there are, however, 
ruins quite as vast ; monumental vestiges of 

former greatness fully as astounding. The 
remains of ancient works of irrigation in the 
island of Ceylon alone, are sufficient to fling 
into the shade the boasted labours of the old 
Egyptian kings, to dwarf to the flimsiest 
insignificance the proudest engineering works 
of the present rulers of India. 

" Situated amidst the wildest solitudes, or 
in the depths of unhealthy jungle districts, 
these ruins have remained almost unknown 
to Europeans. Surrounded by stagnant 
swamps or dense forests and jungle, where 
once were fertile plains or luxurious valleys, 
rich with waving rice-fields, fields that in those 
remote ages fed a vast population, those 
ruined bunds are now the resort of wild 
elephants, buffaloes, and innumerable water- 
fowl. Here and there a cluster of miserable 
huts, termed out of mere courtesy a village, 
may be seen vegetating in the less overgrown 
corners of this great jungle- water plain, 
like islands in some oriental Dead Sea, but 
how they came there, or what their inmates 
do, is not easily defined. 

"Of the extent of these tanks some idea 
may be formed from the fact of there being, 
at the present day, not fewer than fifteen 
villages within the dried-up bed of one of 
them. The dilapidated wall of this great 
artificial lake is fifteen miles in length, 
extending as it did, at one time, completely 
across the lower end of a spacious valley. 
Built up of huge blocks of stone strongly fixed 
with cement work, and covered with turf, it 
formed a solid barrier of one hundred feet in 
width at the base, shelving off to forty feet 
wide at the top. The magnitude of these 
works bear ample testimony not only to the 
ability of the former craftsmen of this island, 
but to the extent of the then population ; 
and the resources and public spirit of the 
Cinghalese monarchs, who could successfully 
undertake works of such magnitude and 
utility. In the early period of the Christian 
era, when Britain was in a semi-barbarous 
state, when her nobles dwelt in rude edifices 
but little removed from huts, and when her 
navigators had not learnt to tempt the perils 
of an over-sea commerce, Ceylon, then known 
as ' the utmost Indian isle, Taprobane,' 
possessed cities of vast extent — as large as 
the present London — and housed her mo- 
narchs and priests in edifices that would 
astonish the architects of our modern 
Babylon, that would leave our proudest 
palaces far behind, that would need a Milton 
to describe, and a Martin to delineate. She 
was also a liberal exporter of rice to distant 
countries. In the present day, with but a 
fourth of her former population, Ceylon is 
compelled to purchase grain from Indian 
producers, in consequence of the decay of her 
works of irrigation. 



"It must not be supposed by European 
readers, that rice, in the larger acceptation 
of the word, is represented by ' the finest 
Carolina,' or even * the best London Cleaned 
Patna/ There is no more affinity between 
those white artificial cereals, and the ' real, 
original ' staple food of India and the East, 
than is to be found between a sponge-cake 
and a loaf of genuine farm-house bread. 
The truth is, people in this part of the world, 
have no conception of what good rice is like. 
If they had, there would not be such a lively 
demand for the produce of the Southern 
American States. But such is prejudice, 
that if a merchant were to introduce into any 
port of Great Britain, or Ireland, a cargo of 
the real staple of food of orientals, he would 
not find a purchaser for it, so inferior is it in 
appearance, in its colour, shape, and texture, 
to the better-known and tempting-looking 
grain of South Carolina. 

" Perhaps, no greater fallacy exists, than 
the common belief in the poverty of the 
nutritive qualities of rice. That may hold 
good in regard to the rice consumed in this 
country, but certainly not if applied to the 
common rice of many parts of the East. A 
hard-working Indian labourer would not 
make a meal on our " Finest Carolina, " if 
he could get it as a present : he would know 
that he could not do half-a-day's work on it, 
even though he swallowed a full Indian al- 
lowance, and that is saying a good deal : an 
Englishman in the West, can have no con- 
ception of the prodigious quantities of rice a 
working-man in the eastern tropics will dis- 
pose of at one sitting. A London alderman 
might well envy him his feeding capacity. 

" Perhaps, it may be thought, that there 
is no such thing as a hard day's work in 
India ; and that, therefore, there can be no 
good grounds for vouching for the nutritive 
properties of the grain of those countries. 
If so, it makes another of the rather long list 
of popular modern fallacies. I have seen as 
hard work, real bone and muscle work, done 
by citizens of the United Kingdom in the 
East, as was ever achieved in the cold West, 
and all upon rice and curry — not curry and 
rice — in which the rice has formed the real 
meal, and the curry has merely helped to 
give it a relish, as a sort of substantial Kit- 
chener's Zest, or Harvey's Sauce. I have 
seen, likewise, Moormen, Malabars, and 
others of the Indian labouring classes perform 
a day's work that would terrify a London 
porter,* or coal-whipper ; or a country navvy, 
or ploughman ; and under the direct rays of 
a sun, that has made a wooden platform too 
hot to stand on, in thin shoes, without liter- 
ally dancing with pain, as I have done many 
a day, within six degrees of the line. 

" It wou]^be a matter of no little diffi- 

culty, and, perhaps, of doubtful interest, to tell 
how many varieties exist of the rice family, 
in eastern lands, from the whitest, most 
delicately- formed, table-rice of Bengal, to 
the bold, red, solid grain of the Madras 
coast, and the sickly-looking, transparent, 
good-for-nothing-but- starch rice of arracan. 
Making a rough guess at their number, there 
cannot be less than two hundred varieties. 
These may be thrown into two great, widely- 
difi'erent classes, viz., field rice and hill 
rice : the distinctive features of which are, 
that the former is grown in cultivated fields 
by the aid of water, the latter on dry hill 
slopes without irrigation. The one yields a 
rich, nutritious grain, in great abundance, 
the other, a thin, and husky rice, fit only for 
the food of cattle, or the very poorest class 
of natives. With this last-mentioned des- 
cription of grain there is scarcely any at- 
tempt at cultivation, in a European sense 
of the word, nor is there any feature about it 
worthy of notice; so that the reader will 
readily excuse me for passing to the more 
interesting subject of the ordinary field rice 
of the East. 

" A corn field in the ear, a hop plantation 
in bud, a cherry orchard in full blossom, a 
bean field in flower, are lovely sights to look 
upon ; yet, I have beheld one more beautiful. 
A rice field half grown in age, but fully devel- 
oped in the rich velvet beauty of its tropic 
green, bending to the passing sea-breeze, 
amidst a cooling bath of limpid water, with 
topes of cocoa-palms clustering about its 
banks, and here and there groves of the yel- 
low bamboo sweeping its bosom with their 
feathery leaves ; above, flights of gaily plu- 
maged paroquets, or gentle-voiced doves, 
skimming in placid happiness across the 
deeply rich azure of the tropical sky, is a 
scene worth all the toils and privations of an 
eastern voyage to gaze upon. 

"■ A more unpromising or uninviting pros- 
pect can scarcely be imagined than the same 
fields, when being prepared for the grain, at 
the usual sowing time, just as the first rains 
of the changing monsoon begin to fall. Sa- 
turated with water, the soil wears all the 
attributes of slushiness. Far as the eye can 
reach along the ample valley lays one dull, 
unbroken vista of rice-land, ankle-deep in 
rich alluvial mud. No cheerful hedgerows ; 
nothing by which at, a distance, one can dis- 
tinguish one field from another. Here and 
there a long, irregular earth-mound, crowned 
with rambling stones, marks the boundary- 
line of Abrew Hickrema Apoohamey, and 
divides his humble forty ammomuns of rice- 
land from the princely domains of Adrian 
Hejeyrasingha Seneratane Modliar. 

" Heavy showers have fallen ; the fat, 
thirsty soil has drunk deep of the welcome 



down-pourings from above, and thus, whilst 
it is in rich unctuous humour, the serving- 
men of the humble Apoohamey, and the 
lordly MoDLiAR, ply it liberally with potations 
of the buffalo-plough. It is quite as well 
that the stranger traveller is informed of the 
nature of the operation which is going on 
before his perplexed eyes, otherwise he 
would be sorely puzzled to know what it all 
meant : why the pair of sleepy-looking 
buffaloes were so patiently wading, up to 
their portly stomachs, in regular straight 
■walks, through the sea of slushy quagmire, 
and why the persevering native followed 
them so closely, holding a crooked piece of 
stick in his hand, and urging them, occa- 
sionally, with a few oriental benedictions. 
On drawing near to the muddy, nude agri- 
culturist, you perceive that the buffaloes are 
tied, with slight pieces of string, to the fur- 
ther end of a long, rambling queer-looking' 
slip of wood, which they are dragging delib- 
rately through the slimy ground, a few 
inches below the surface, and at the other 
end of which appears to be tied likewise, the 
apathetic Indian ploughman. 

'' It needs all the faith one can muster to 
believe that this actually constitutes the 
ploughing operation of eastern countries. 
You have no doubt about the man, nor the 
buffaloes ; it is the plough that is so intensely 
questionable. It bears no likeness to any 
kind of implement — agricultural, manufac- 
turing, or scientific — in any part of the 
world. Still, there is a faint, glimmering, 
indistinct impression that you have some- 
where met with something of the sort, or 
that you have dreamed of something like it. 
A sudden light bursts upon you, and you 
recognize the thing, — the entire scene — man, 
buffaloes, and sticky plough. You have 
seen them represented in plates of Belzoni's 
discoveries in Egypt, and in Layard's 
remains of Nineveh, There they all are — 
as veritable, as formal, and as strange — as 
were the Egyptian and Ninevite agricultu- 
rists, I'm afraid to say how many centuries 
ago. It was precisely the same set of 
cattle, man, and plough, that sowed the corn 
that Joseph's brethren went down from the 
land of Canaan for, when they heard there 
was corn in Egypt. It was just such culture 
as this, thousands of years since, that raised 
the ears of corn that were found entombed 
in the mummy's hand, by Mr. Pettigrew, 
some few years ago. 

" There is nothing peculiar in the Cing- 
halese mode of sowing their grain, further 
than that, like other orientals, they blend a 
certain portion of superstition and religious 
observance with every operation of their 
primitive agriculture. The village priest 
must be consulted as to the lucky day for 

scattering the seed ; and an offering at the 
shrine of Buddha is necessary to secure the 
protection of his Indian godship ; in addition 
to which, small bouquets of wild flowers, and 
the tender leafelts of the cocoa palm are 
fastened on sticks, at each corner of the 
newly-sown field, in order to scare away any 
evil spirits that might otherwise take it into 
their mischievous hands to blight the seed. 

" In an incredibly short space of time, the 
rice-blades, of a lovely pale green, may be 
seen peeping above the slushy soil, and in a 
few more days, the tiny shoots will be some 
inches high. Then they are treated to a cold 
bath, from the nearest tank, bund, or river, 
as the case may be, the supply of water 
necessary to cover the field as high as the 
tops of the growing corn being brought to it 
by means of water-courses, or mud-aud-stone 
aqueducts. In the hilly country of the inte- 
rior, as before stated, these water-courses, 
even as now existing, and of a comparatively 
humble description, are marvellously made 
and managed. For many miles the tiny 
gurgling stream flows on through the wildest 
parts of the country ; and the traveller on 
his horse, may ride a good day's journey 
without reaching the end and destination of 
one of those simple, but most useful 

" In hilly country, the field paddy is often 
grown on steep ground, cut into narrow ter- 
races, which rise prettily above each other, 
often to a considerable height. In such 
situations the plough, small and light 
though it be, cannot be used, and the loosen- 
ing and turning up of the ground has to 
be performed by hand-labour. Weeding, 
by women and children, takes place whilst 
the rice plants are but a few inches 
in height; after which the growth and 
maturity of the corn becomes very 

"The period which elapses between the 
sowing and the harvesting varies according 
to the particular kind of rice that may be 
under cultivation. From three to five 
months is the usual time ; and, in this way, 
two harvests are secured during each year, 
in favourable situations, though in much of 
the poor light soil of the sea-board not 
more than one crop can be taken, and then 
only after manuring, or the ground must 
lie fallow for an entire year. I have known 
many fine fields, in elevated positions, where 
the supply of water was abundan^, yield 
two full crops every year in succession with- 
out the aid of manure, and this they had 
continued to do since the earliest recollec- 
tion of that universal patriarch, the oldest 

"■ The harvest-home of Indian farmers 
is, as with us, an import|j^t operation, 



though carried on in a widely different 
manner. Here, again, a lucky day must 
be found ; and, when obtained, the prior 
cuttings of the ripe field are carefully set 
aside for an offering of thankfulness to 
Buddha. There is not any attempt at stack- 
ing ap the corn in the straw : it is removed 
to the threshing-floor as fast as cut — the 
said threshing-floor being neither more 
nor less than a very dry, smooth, and hard 
corner of the nearest meadoAV. There the 
operation of threshing goes on in precisely 
the same ancient fashion as the ploughing. 
The cattle that, treading out, unmuzzled, 
the corn of the Cinghalese cultivation, in 
the reign of Queen Victoria, are employed 
precisely in the same manner as the cattle 
were during the sway of King Cheops of 
the Nile ; and, for aught we know, may be 
lineal descendants of the same cattle. It 

is quite certain that the agricultural societies 
eastward of the Pyramids have accom- 
plished very little in the improvement of 
farming implements and processes during 
the last few thousand years." 

"When trodden out by the hoofs of 
cattle, the grain is winnowed from the 
chaff by simply letting it fall from a light 
shallow basket raised to some height from 
the ground. The wind blows the chaff 
away whilst the corn falls in a heap below. 
It is then stored in dry rooms, or buried 
in pits below the ground, under cover, till 
required. In that state it is called ' paddy,' 
having a rough husk, which must be re- 
moved before it becomes rice, and is fit for 
cooking. Ihis removal is accomplished by 
simply pounding the grain in a large wooden 
mortar, after which it is again winnowed, 
and transformed into edible rice." * * 


Horticultural Societies, for the exhibi- 
tion of garden produce, are not of very 
recent origin. They have been long known 
and appreciated for the beneficial influences 
they exercise in the promotion of gardening 
as a science, while they tend, in an especial 
manner, to diffuse a taste for this pleasant 
and healthful pursuit amongst various 
classes of the community. It is only recently, 
however, that they have risen to the impor- 
tance which they now hold among the insti- 
tutions of our country — an importance such 
as their first originators could not have con- 
templated, and such as many think they are 
scarcely entitled to claim. For, say they. 
Horticultural Societies go on increasing day 
by day, and, although in themselves institu- 
tions of high value, there can be no doubt 
but that, in numerous instances, the false 
importance to which they have attained, is 
the means of diverting attention from other 
important means of promoting horticulture, 
and extending a taste for it in the various 
grades of society. 

While, however, almost every town of any 
extent, from John 0' Groat's to the Land's- 
End, has its society or societies, at the exhi- 
bitions of which the professional gardener 
may produce the result of his labours, we 
find few such for the humble cottager. 
Village Horticultural Societies, indeed, seem 
to have been hitherto almost entirely over- 
looked in the rage for their more aristocratic 
neighbours, the town societies. They are 
a class which, it is true, cannot claim any 
great importance on account of their direct 
influence in the promotion of the higher 
branches of gardening, or in elucidating its 
principles as a science ; but they are calcu- 
lated to exercise a very powerful influence on 


the social, and, indeed, we may say, intel- 
lectual, progress of the industrious orders of 
society : and this we conceive to be an im- 
portant reason why these societies should 
obtain the serious attention of all who desire 
the progress of knowledge and of social com- 
fort, in one of the most important orders of 
society — the peasant population. 

It has been remarked (and will agree well 
with the observations of most travellers), 
that the external appearance of the way-side 
cottages of a country, indicates pretty cor- 
rectly the condition of the peasant popula- 
tion. The miserable mud hovels of the Green 
Isle afford correct data from which to judge 
of the low standard of civilization in that un- 
fortunate country, while the smiling cottages 
of England and Scotland have a happier tale 
to tell of the industry and social comfort of 
their inmates. But even a surer index than 
this of the progress of civilization will be 
found in the character of the cottage gar- 
dens. When we see the little plot neglected 
and overgrown with weeds — no simple 
flower to cheer the eye of the passing tra- 
veller, or waft its perfume on the evening 
gale, we may safely conclude that the cot- 
tager himself is unknown to the hand of 
refinement, and shares but a tithe of the 
enjoyments that a weU-directed industry 
might bring within his reach. On the other 
hand, when we find the humble cottage- 
garden neatly planted with flowers and 
vegetables, a jasmine diffusing its balmy 
odours around the poor man's home, and a 
lively China-rose to greet him with its 
blushing beauty as he returns from his daily 
labours, we may then depend upon the 
occupant being intelligent and industrious, 
and the home itself one of comfort — provided 



in an ample manner, not only with the 
necessaries of life, but also with a goodly 
share of those simple luxuries that add so 
much to the happiness of the humble cottager. 
The delightful pursuit of gardening will be 
thus seen to go hand in hand with social 

The importance of promoting the pursuit 
of gardening amongst our peasant popula- 
tion is greater than may at first thought be 
supposed. It is a pleasing and healthy re- 
creation, that can be enjoyed equally well 
by the humblest peasant as by the wealthy 
peer, and that, too, without affecting the 
limited income of the working-man : on the 
contrary, it may be made the means of bring- 
ing within his reach many a comfort that he 
could not otherwise possess. It is an amuse- 

ment that every one can enjoy : the plants, 
and flowers, and fruits of the garden we have 
all learned to love from our earliest years, 
and our love for them does not languish or 
die, although it may be that we have lost all 
relish for the gayer pleasures of this busy 
world. More than one proud name in Euro- 
pean literature disappeared from the bustling 
stage of public affairs, to seek shelter from 
the noisy world in the mild and peaceful 
shades of the garden bower. 

We are happy to observe, that some of the 
village societies recently established in Scot- 
land, offer prizes for the most neatly kept 
cottage gardens, and that the emulation of 
the villagers, called forth by this means, has 
led to marked improvement in their social 
habits. — Commonwealth . 



The Glasgow Examiner^ in calling attention 
to Dr. Strang's statistics of the social and 
economic condition of Glasgow, presents the 
following particulars as to the number of 
animals passing through the cattle market, 
and the number killed for food : 

"Having disposed of the vital statistics, the 
Doctor proceeds to give us some insight into the 
Commissariat of the city. It seems that, 
during 1854, tliere were passed through our 
cattle market 36,009 oxen, 114,780 sheep, and 
59,737 lambs; giving a total of 210,528, or 
rather more than one to every two of the in- 
habitants. This shows an increase over the pre- 
ceding year of 1,143 oxen, and of 14,641 sheep 
and lambs. There were killed, however, not 
quite so many as passed through the cattle 
market. Of oxen, there were slain, 27,881 ; of 
calves, 2,004; of sheep, 94,027; of lambs, 
44,098; of goats, 36 ; and of pigs, 4,633 ; being 
a total of 172,669, or nearly one to two of the 
entire population. Verily there is much to do 
yet, ere the citizens are all cured of their car- 
nivorous propensities, and become vegetable- 
totalers. The only year in which the amount 
killed was as great as last was 1852; in which 
31,238 oxen, and 48,000 lambs, were killed. In 
1843 there were 28,443 oxen killed, but there 
were many fewer sheep and lambs. Besides the 
fresh meat used, it is supposed that 20,000 tons 
of salt meat reach by the Clyde and the rail- 
ways, etc. The Doctor thinks that annually 
every inhabitant eats not less than 113 lb. of 
flesh. He values the entire butcher-meat at 
£1,125,000, or an amount approachhig a million 
and a quarter. He thinks the consumption of 
bread cannot be under 144 millions of pounds 
weight. The gross cost is nearly the same as 
for butcher-meat — approaching a million and a 
quarter. Besides this, there were brought to 
Glasgow last year, no less then 3,367 tons of 
fish, valued at £94,276. There were also used 
1,100 tons of cheese, and 918 tons of onions, 
and above one million pounds weight of fruit." 


The writer in the Examiner does not 
"believe that the still-obtaining consump- 
tion of animal food is simply a remnant of 
savage life, a custom doomed to vanish under 
the light of human reason ; " on the con- 
trary, he evidently rejoices in its probable 
long continuance, and in the fulness of his 
satisfaction, exclaims : " Verily, there is 
much to do yet, ere the citizens are all cured 
of their carnivorous propensities, and be- 
come vegetable-totalers." We admit that 
there is much yet to be done in putting our 
system fairly before the public ; but take 
encouragement from the past active and 
useful efforts of our Glasgow friends, that 
the work will be zealously and effectively 
prosecuted, remembering that all reforms 
have commenced with a small number of 
adherents, and that a small upper room in 
Jerusalem was at one time sufficient to con- 
tain all the followers of Christianity. We 
know what these men, with the truth in 
their possession, and the world against them, 
did, and have thus learnt what truth, zeal, 
and fidelity can everywhere accomplish by 
the same means, and cannot, therefore, 
entertain any fear as to the ultimate success 
of our movement. 


Dear Sir — Is it in your power to inform me 
whether there really is a law in force to compel 
me to have ray child vaccinated ? 

I am a Vegetarian of many years' standing, 
and I do not believe in vaccination, and I think I 
have sound reasons for not having a child of 
mine vaccinated ou any account, if I can possibly 
avoid it. 

I have an impression on my mind, that Vege- 
tarians generally object to vaccination, and that 
there was a sort of opposition made by the 
Society, some time ago, to some compulsory Act 
of Parliament then in contemplation regarding 



I see, by a form the Registrar of Births and 
Deaths has served me with, that I am required 
to have my child vaccinated within three months 
after birth, or subject myself to a penalty of 
twenty shillings. 

The penalty of " twenty shillings " I do not 
care about paying, if the law can do me no 
further injury than that. But I am told there 
is a much heavier penalty to be inflicted — a fine 
of £50. 

Would you be so good as to inform me what 
you know about the matter? 

I beg leave to apologize for thus troubling you, 
but I think you are most likely to afford me the 
information I require. 

I am, dear sir, yours most obediently, 

Grhmiby. D. C. I. 

AVe cannot pronounce upon Vegetarians 
being generally opposed to vaccination, but 
are aware that many are, as was shown by 
the fact of their earnest petition against the 
present Act, certainly in force, and making 
vaccination compulsory. The argument of 
the petition referred to was, that though 
vaccination may be a precautionary measure, 
made necessary to the meat-eating world by 
previous errors of diet in consuming the flesh 
of animals^ and thus inducing a febrile state 
of the system, likely to entertain this and 
other diseases, it is unnecessary for the Vege- 
tarian, who, abjuring the cause of danger, 
should not be made to pay the penalty con- 
sidered necessary to the safety of those who 
bring the evil intended to be avoided upon 

By the Vaccination Extension Bill, as 
newly amended, and probably now law, we 
perceive that the fine for non-compliance 
with the Act is proposed, as before, to be 
One Found upon the first complaint, and " to 
be afterwards increased at the discretion of 
the justices imposing the penalty," which, in 
case of repeated complaints for non-compli- 
ance with the Act in respect of the same 
child, cannot, however, " in the whole amount 
of such penalty," exceed " Five Founds.^' 


Sir — Your May number contains a report of 
a lecture at Birmingham, in which the lecturer 
professes to give an extract from an article in the 
Westminster Review. 

On turning to the Review, however, I found that 
the quotation as presented differs considerably 
from the original article, being composed of 
detached sentences and clauses, ingeniously fitted 
together and interspersed with matter from an- 
other article of earlier date, so as to convey the 
impression to those hearing the lecture, or reading 
the report, that the paper in the Review is pro- 
Vegetarian in its tendency, instead of, as is the 
fact, being a piece of free and impartial criticism on 
Vegetarianism in connection with other isms 
of the day. 

I have ventured to call your attention to this 

way of treating the able article in question, 
having no doubt you will agree with me that it 
is unfair, as essentially altering its character ; 
and thinking, at the same time, that you might 
see it well to offer some hints to your corres- 
pondents on the loose and inaccurate way in 
which quotations are too frequently made. 

Allow me to add, that I am no captious oppo- 
nent of the Vegetarian system, but that it is an 
earnest desire to guard against anything tending 
to mar its beauty and truthfulness, in the way 
of presenting it to public attention, that leads 
me to trouble you with this communication. 
Yours respectfully, 


Some parts of the lecture referred to* are 
certainly open to objection, and in the report 
supplied, difficulty was experienced in sepa- 
rating the original from the extracted matter 
largely composing the lecture. 

The instance in question, certainly 
aff'ords a suitable opportunity to advise our 
correspondents, and especially those who 
supply reports of meetings or lectures, to 
be particular in the marking of extracted 
matter introduced, which ought, at all times, 
to bear the signs of quotation. Again, we 
would throw out the hint, that it is not 
proper to throw into italics passages of a 
quotation on which special stress is laid by 
the commentator, unless such passages have 
previously been presented in the same 
article in their original form. Otherwise, 
an author is made to say what he has not 
said, or the reader is at least left in doubt as 
to the original quotations. "We have to 
express our regret that the matter calling 
forth these remarks was not checked earlier, 
and presented in a form more suited to the 
nature of the communication, from one of 
those seasons of pressure as to time, which 
all who provide for the public press have more 
or less to encounter. 


Dear Sir — Imbued with a deep sense of 
regard for my health, I am anxious to conform 
to such a system of diet as will best sustain the 
constitution, and preserve it from disease. If I 
had been a subscriber to the Vegetarian Messen- 
ger for some time, you might be surprised at my 
asking you, what kind of diet would be best for 
my health and constitution, but when I inform 
you I have only just commenced, you may con- 
descend to answer my question, which I can 
assure you is put through pure motives. 

I have for the last two years subsisted entirely 
on oatmeal porridge for breakfast and supper, 
and coffee and bread and butter to dinner and 
tea ; this, you will observe, is a singular mode 
of diet, but I am convinced that it does not sup- 
port me in the manner required. I am sixteen 
years of age, and am naturally of a strong con- 
stitution ; I say this merely because I think it 
may be necessary, as your advice may be different 
* Supplement, vol. vi, pp. 23—29. 



from what it would be had I been a grown 
person : T am also very thin. 

By advising me as to what diet would be best, 
you will do me a favour which I cannot forget. 
I remain, yours, etc., 

Huddersfield. H. 

We recommend our young adherent to 
abandon his coffee dinners ! and getting the 
Penny Cookery, if he cannot afford to pur- 
chase the Vegetarian Cookery, get some of 
the good soups, and other dishes there de- 
scribed. Common cookery is, with a 
measure of intelligence, all that is required, 
and vigorous growth will be amply secured, 
the habits being good in other respects. 
"VYe have spoken of soups, which are easily 
prepared, abundantly nutritious, of very 
little trouble (one preparation being suffi- 
cient, with simple heating afresh, for several 
days), and still it is lamentable how little 
our friends seem to know or understand this. 
"With the barley and bread soups, or the 
peas and barley, (not to mention numerous 
other kinds) and bread, witb vegetables and 
a pudding, a dinner is had which puts the 
" flush of comfort " on the cheek ; and 
where other preparations are added, no one 
need say, " How shall I live this new way } " 
The fact is, this is the old way of living, 
and the other a merely temporary and mis- 
taken practice, to disappear before a higher 
state of civilization, departure from which 
now is only made difficult by the force of 


Sir — I am wishful to bear my testimony in 
behalf of the advantage of Vegetarian habits 
of diet, for the benefit of the truth, and of others 
who may see this, and especially for the benefit 
of working men. 

I am an operative shoemaker employed by one 
of the first shops in London, and am in the habit 
of sitting at my employment from twelve to 
fourteen hours a-day. About six mouths ago I 
had the pleasure of hearing a lecture, given by 
Mr. J. BoRMOND, in London. I then adopted 
the Vegetarian practice, and resolved to try it 
well, having great faith in the truths uttered by 
the lecturer. The experiment is, I am happy to 
say, completely satisfactory ; I am now in better 
health, more cheerful in spirits, and able to do 
more work with less fatigue. 

I may mention here, that at first I was subject 
to a feeling of drowsiness whilst at my work, 
and this I continued to experience for a few 
weeks, at intervals, but it has now subsided, and 
I am quite well, and completely satisfied with the 
choice I have made. 

I have been a teetotaler for many years, and 
as such, and also as a Vegetarian, I may say, with 
all proper feeling, that I will yield to no man in 
the trade for the quantity of work done by me, 
and the character of the shop for which I work 
will speak as to the quality of that work. 

Allow me to add, that through the instru- 

mentality of Mr. BoRMOND, I am a constant 
reader of the Messenger, and feel thankful both 
for the benefit I have derived from the practice, 
and the instruction I have received. 

London. S. W. 

P.S. It is my intention to make my Declara- 
tion, and thus connect myself with the Society 
as early as convenient. 

Dear Sir — Mrs. Bolton of Dorington 
wishes me to inform you that she has derived 
considerable advantage by tlie adoption of the 
Vegetarian system of diet. She has been a 
Vegetarian now twelve months, previous to which 
time she was severely troubled with several 
nervous affections, and determination of blood to 
the head. Very soon after she had discontinued 
eating flesh-meat these symptoms vanished, and 
she is now in the full enjoyment of perfect 
health, which she attributes entirely to her 
disuse of the flesh of animals as food. 

If you think the above worth insertion in the 
Messenger, you are at liberty to make use 
of it. 

I am, dear sir, yours fraternally, 

Grimsby. D. C. J. 

Sir — Allow me to state, through the pages of 
your valued and instructive journal, that about 
six months ago I was induced to adopt the 
Vegetarian practice of diet, on hearing some 
lectures given by Mr. Bormond in London. 
In my experience, I am happy to say I have 
found all he stated to be true, I am better in 
health, more independent, because my wants are 
fewer, and my diet better and cheaper. I am an 
operative shoe-maker and I find that I can do 
any amount of work without fatigue. I may 
add, that I can now do with much less sleep than 
when following the mixed diet practice. 

If this can be made of use in drawing attention 
to this simple yet valuable principle, I shall be 
glad. I rejoice in my new habits more and 
more. I am. Sir, 

London. Y. T. 

joining the society. 

Dear Sir — I have received your kind pro- 
posals, and I am happy to say they meet with 
my approval, and that I shall feel it an honour to 
join such a Soeiety as the Vegetraiau, for I think 
there is no other Society that has the cause of 
humanity so much at heart, or so much founded 
on Bible principles. 

Although I have only been a practical Vege- 
tarian eight months, I have been one in principle 
for three or four years, but was afraid of being 
laughed at if I carried out my convictions. I 
have, however, since found out that he is not a 
man who is afraid to do right because short- 
sighted people laugh at him, since true greatness 
of soul and heart is shown in carying out that 
which we believe to be right between God and 
our own conscience. 

I now feel that the earth is full of fruits for 
man and beast, and even feel thankful that they 
have been provided by the bountiful hand of 
God, but never thought of these things when, 
like the wolf, I devoured flesh and blood. As 



to the effect of my practice upon me physically, 
I may say that I feel lighter in body and 
mind ; for, under the old system, I was troubled 
with indigestion and a heaviness that I never feel 

I have been a cold water drinker three years, 
and drink no tea or coffee, nothing but cold 
water, and I have found so much benefit from 
this, and living on Vegetarian food, that I 

would not change my practice for all the flesh 
and blood in the earth. 

I beg to enclose twelve stamps, and to request 
you to make declaration of my membership as 
soon as you can, for then I shall feel that I 
belong to a Society that, more than any, is 
trying to carry out the cause of humanity and 
civilization. Yours respectfully, 

Wrawly. W. G. 



I am fond of children — I think them the 
poetry of the world, the fresh flowers of our 
hearths and homes, little conjurors, with 
their "natural magic," evoking hy their 
spells what delights and enriches all ranks, 
and equalises the different classes of society. 
Often as they bring with them anxieties and 
cares, and live to occasion sorrow and grief, 
we should get on very badly without them. 
Only think, if there was never anything 
anywhere to be seen but great grown-up men 
and women ! How should we long for the 
sight of a little child ! Every infant comes 
into the world like a delegated prophet, the 
harbinger and herald of good tidings, whose 
oiSice it is "to turn the hearts of the fathers 
of the children," and to draw "the disobe- 
dient to the wisdom of the just." A child 
softens and purifies the heart, warming and 
melting it by its gentle presence ; it enriches 
the soul by new feelings, and awakens within 
it what is favourable to virtue. It is a 
beam of light, a fountain of love, a teacher 
whose lessons few can resist. Infants recall 
us from much that engenders and encourages 
selfishness, that freezes the afi'ections, rough- 
ens the manners, indurates the heart ; they 
brighten the home, deepen love, invigorate 
exertion, infuse courage, and vivify and 
sustain the charities of life. It would be 
a terrible world, I do think, if it was not 
embellished by little children. — Binney. 


Whilst pigs are growing, they are permitted 
the use of a yard, but when it is desired to 
fatten them, they are confined to a sty. This 
confinement is to prevent any waste of 
matter in the production of motion. Some 
even confine the pigs in sties so narrow that 
they are unable to turn, and as dark as 
possible, in order to induce them to sleep. 
Most farmers are aware of the fact that 
young calves, sheep, and pigs fatten more 
quickly in the dark than in the light. The 
explanation of this fact is simply this, that 
they pass more of their time in sleep. Sleep 
is that portion of the life of an animal when 
the principal growth of its body takes place. 
In sleep all the voluntary motions cease ; 
vitality, therefore, now increases the mass of 


the body, as its force is not expended in pro- 
ducing motion. It is for this reason that we 
like those lethargic pigs which stagger to the 
trough in a lazy way, and sleep as soon as 
they have finished eating. Very little matter 
being expended in motion, they rapidly 
increase in size. The phlegmatic Chinese 
or Neapolitan pig fattens quickly, whilst the 
unimproved, long-legged Irish pig, which 
gallops about at such an extraordinary rate, 
expends all its food in the production of 
force,* and does not grow rapidly. — Dr. 
Lyon Playfair, 

the boatmen of the volga. 
Now, for the first time, we examined with 
attention the appearance of our crew ; and a 
wild, piratical-looking set the majority of 
them were. Bushy whiskers, beards, and 
moustaches, almost concealed their grim 
visages, while the hair, worn long, was cut 
with mathematical precision in a line with 
the chin. On their heads were caps of fur 
or sheep skin ; a shirt and a pair of trousers 
of cotton, with the bottoms of the latter 
confined by coarse bandages, in the place of 
stockings ; and the feet encased in laptyi, a 
kind of shoe, made of matting. A large 
sheepskin coat, used at night or in cold 
weather, in addition to these, constituted 
their entire wardrobe. There was no great 
expenditure of time in preparing their break- 
fast. A large wooden bowl being dipped 
into the river, some jet-black bread, broken 
into pieces, was thrown into the water it 
contained, and a little salt having been 
sprinkled over, each in turn helped himself, 
with a wooden spoon, to a morsel of the 
contents. Scanty as was this repast, they did 
not forget to cross themselves, and bow many 
times, while uttering a short prayer or 
thanksgiving before commencing the frugal 
meal, concluding it also with the same cere- 
mony. Their dinner and supper consisted 

* Dr. Drury, the physician to the private lunatic 
asylum in Glasgow, informed me that very violent 
patients eat an enormous quantity of food, and yet 
never become fat ; while low, lethargic patients 
(when they are not melancholic) have great ten- 
dency to become so. In the first case, the violent 
muscular exertions of the unhappy patient exhaust 
the food which they consume ; in the latter case, 
it produces increase of size, from not being ex- 
pended in the production of force. 



of the like simple fare, and was only occa- 
sionally varied by eating the bread and salt 
dry, and sipping the water alone with their 
spoons, each adhering to his turn with the 
same regularity. When we afterwards gave 
them apples and cucumbers, of which the 
lower orders in Russia are all passionately 
fond, they quite luxuriated, enjoying the 
treat much more than any alderman ever did 
the greenest fat of the most corpulent turtle. 
— Scott's Baltic, Black Sea, and Crimea. 


Many cruel practices are resorted to in the 
slaughter and preparation of the bodies of 
animals for use as food, which are unthought 
of, and perhaps unsuspected, by those who 
afterwards partake of their flesh at the table. 

Our attention has been recently directed 
to an instance of this kind, in the abomi- 
nable practice of plucking the feathers from 
living poultry, because it is supposed that 
fowls stripped when living are less liable 
to have their skins torn in the operation. 
We feel grateful that our practice of diet 
effectually secures us from any participation 
in these attrocities, and much fear that 
nothing short of the falling-off of the de- 
mand for flesh as food will effectually put an 
end to this and similar barbarities. 

The facts of the case referred to are detail- 
ed in a letter to the Editor of the North 
British Daily Mail^ of June 14th, under 
the heading of "Revolting Treatment of 
Fowls." The writer was in Glasgow, and 
in the search for some Polish fowl, was 
directed to the Bazaar, a public market near 
the Candleriggs. "Stopping at the first 
poulterer's," says he, "I saw two persons 
engaged in plucking fowls. When answer- 
ing my questions, they desisted from their 
employment for a moment, when, to my 
astonishment and horror, the poor animal that 
the man was holding between his knees 
writhed up in agony. It was entirely strip- 
ped of its feathers, except a few about its 
head and points of its wings. The man, as 
he spoke, tried to cover it with his hand, 
but could not keep down its convulsive 
movements. The woman, who sat opposite, 
was plucking a duck. If alive, it was past 
struggling, so that I could not know 
whether it likewise was living ; but I saw, 
what I since remarked in other poultry 
prepared for the table in Scotland, that it 
was not bled, but must have been deprived 
of life by strangulation, or some such means. 
I left the stall in haste, and went into 
another shop in the same Bazaar, where I 
inquired if it was the custom to pluck living 
fowls, stating what I had seen. The person 
answered that she had before heard that it 

was done, though the poulterers denied it ; 
but that it was supposed that fowls stripped 
when living, were less liable to have their 
skins torn in the operation." .... 

" I think it is the duty of all Christians 
to stem, as far as possible, the torrent of 
brutality and cruelty that overwhelms the 
inferior animals, very much through the 
ignorance of how such matters are managed. 
If fine ladies, and fastidious gentlemen, 
could see the misery that most animals that 
call them master, have to suffer from the 
horrid cruelties inflicted on them by careless, 
ignorant, cruel, ill-tempered, or drunken 
deputies, I think they must be startled into 
more attention to these matters. They 
would be paid by safety from many mys- 
terious losses of valuable cows, horses, dogs, 
etc., etc., and also by the affection, un- 
changeable and sincere, of these poor crea- 
tures, whose lives and comforts are trusted 
to our care by their great Creator." 

We agree with the writer in the above 
closing remarks, that many of these cruelties 
are tolerated only "through the ignorance 
of how such matters are managed," and 
therefore cannot but rejoice in every attempt 
to direct attention to their existence ; though, 
as above intimated, we do not think this 
alone will bring about a better state of 
things, but that, so long as animals are con- 
sumed as food, will there be little scruple to 
take their lives in those ways, and carry out 
such processes in preparing them for the 
table, as shall be found most convenient to 
the operators, irrespective of the sufferings 
of the unoffending creatures " whose lives 
and comforts are trusted to our care by their 
great Creator."— H. W. 


" Walking is the best possible exercise. 
Habituate yourself to walk very far. The 
Europeans value themselves on having sub- 
dued the horse to the use of man; but I 
doubt whether we have not lost more than 
we have gained by this animal — for no one 
thing has occasioned so much degeneracy of 
the human body. An Indian goes on foot 
nearly as far in a day as an enfeebled white 
does on his horse, and will tire the best 
horses." , 


Few people have any idea of the vast con- 
sumption of the metropolis. From informa- 
tion obtained from official sources, Mr. 
Ormandy finds that there were brought into 
London in 1854, by railways and steamboats 
and by the common roads, 301,322 oxen 
1,634,034 sheep, 92,559 calves, and 169,345 
pigs, or a total of 2,197,260 animals. These 
he estimates to represent 349,438,848 lb. of 
meat, as slaughtered in London, and to this 



must be added the quantity brought in by 
the different railroads and steamboat com- 
panies, dead, of which there were 95,817,762 
lb., which makes a grand total of 445,256,610 
lb. as the actual annual consumption. Cal- 
culating the above at 65d. per lb., the value 
of the meat consumed last year in London 
was £12,059,000 ; and, taking the population 
at 2,362,000, the average consumption of 
each person was 188| lb. valued at £5 2s. 2d. 
Mr. Ormandy, in his report for the year 
1850, calculated the then consumption of 
each person at 180 lb. so that in four years it 
has increased 8| lb. — Manchester Examiner 
and Times y April 25, 1855. 


" Why, how in the world do you live ! — you 
say you eat no meat or grease ! — how is it 
possible for you to live? I would starve 
without meat ; and it must be wretchedly poor 
living without grease ! How do you cook, 
or do you eat your vegetables raw .> Bless 
me ! I should die under such miserably poor 
fare ! " Of course, with becoming humility, 
and a due respect for the flesh-fed paro- 
chial powers that be, we are forced to 
acknowledge that we have adopted, from a 
conviction of its being more in harmony 
with constitutional instincts, with adaptation 
and the laws of God, — somewhat the plan of 
many of the Patriarchs and Prophets, and 
wise men of olden times, of using for a diet, 
fruits and farinaceous seeds and roots — either 
partaking of them raw, or cooking them with 
or without water, and serving them up in the 
plainest manner. " Why ! It is not possi- 
ble ! What ! cook only with water, and 
have no seasoning I it must be a horrible 
kind of diet ! I don't see how them old 
fellows could have stood it, but I reckon they 
knew no better, and lived up to the best 
lights they had. And you say the laws of 
God are in favour of such a poor way of 
living .> Why, the Bible does not forbid 
meat- eating, and I am sure our preacher, and 
all the preachers and elders too, eat meat 
and grease too, and a plenty of it ; drink tea 
and coffee ; and love pickles and preserves ; 
and can eat as many good things, and smoke 
as many cigars, as anybody; and if the 
preachers don't kno'wfl&.bout the laws of God, 
and what's best for us to eat, and drink, and 
smoke, we should like to know who does } 
You are a little fanatical, and carry tho 
matter too far. Now we will agree there is, 
in general, too much meat eaten ; and perhaps 
it would be best for all of us, if we were to 
eat less, but to give it up entirely is out of 
the question. What in the world would we 
all live on } and, besides, what would become 
of the hogs .^ So don't think of trying to cram 
any such notions upon us, for our fathers ate 

meat, and taught us to eat it ; it is good, and 
we like it, and would rather die than give it 
up." All of this forcible argument, as it is 
considered, against Vegetarianism, we will for 
the present dispose of, by saying that, as far 
as our observation has extended, much the 
larger number of the preachers and of the 
elders, know a great deal less about the laws 
of God than of the contents of the larder ; 
and that nine-tenths of the Christians of the 
present day, think that the way to heaven 
lies directly through the meat-house, the 
pantry, and the dairy, simply because they 
always see their leaders going that way. 
In charity, therefore, we refer them all to 
the perusal of the American Vegetarian and 
Health Journal, that the savoury cloud of 
animalism may be dispersed from the vision, 
and they may be enabled to see the truth 
as it is in Vegetarianism. — Extracted from 
an Article by A. W. Scales, in the American 

A novel temperance society. 
The Rev. James Martineau, at the meeting 
of the Domestic Mission Society, on Thurs- 
day evening, described the operation of a 
new Temperance Society, which has been 
established in Germany, and the object of 
which is, not to apply the principles of tem- 
perance merely to the beverages in which its 
members indulge, but to their ordinary 
habits and daily life ; in fact, to make them 
temperate in eating, sleeping, social indul- 
gencies of all kinds, domestic furniture, and 
entertainments. A tariff, regulating diet 
and other matters, is published, which the 
members bind themselves faithfully to adhere 
to ; and at the same time pledge themselves 
to devote the surplus which accrues from the 
course of "moderation in all things," which 
is prescribed by the Society, to the support 
of religious and charitable institutions. The 
Rev. Gentleman mentioned the subject to 
show that, by the adoption of a similar plan 
here, institutions like the Domestic Mission 
might gain an increased measure of support, 
while those who adopted these principles of 
self-denial and temperance, would gain an 
equivalent advantage. — Liverpool Times. 

wild animals in confinement. 
Were it not that custom reconciles us to 
every thing, a Christian community would 
surely be shocked by the report, and still 
more by the sight, of the sacrifice of inno- 
cent and helpless creatures — pigeons and 
rabbits, for instance — to the horrible in- 
stincts of snakes, who will not cat anything 
but what is alive. An account was recently 
given of a night-visit to the place of con- 
finement of one of these disgusting reptiles, 
in which the evident horror of their in- 
tended victims, confined in the same cages, 



was distinctly mentioned. The gratification 
of mere curiosity does not justify the in- 
fliction of such torture on the lower animals. 
Surely, the sight of a stufl^ed boa-constrictor 
ought to content a reasonable curiosity. 
Imagine what would be felt if a child were 
subjected to such a fate, or what could be 
answered if the present victims could tell 
their agonies, as well as feel them ! Byron 
speaks of the barbarians who, in the wanton- 
ness of power, were " butchered to make a 
Roman holiday" ; and, verily, the horrors 
exhibited in our public gardens and mena- 
geries, are somewhat akin to the fights of 
gladiators ; it is the infliction of misery for 
mere sport. With reference also to lions, 
tigers, and other ferocious animals kept in 
cages — if retained at all, the space allotted 
them ought to be much larger than it is, so 
as to allow them full room for healthful 
exercise. At present, they must be wretched ; 
and, considering also the quantity of food 
they consume, which might be converted to 
useful purposes — though this is taking a 
lower view of the matter — it is at least desi- 
rable that the number should be much 
smaller, and a much greater space allowed 
them to exhibit their natural vivacity. 
These remarks do not, of course, apply to 
fowls, and other animals, who are allowed a 
sufl&cient share of liberty to exist in com- 
fort, and to whom it is not necessary to 
sacrifice the existence of other creatures. — 
Ogden's Friendly Observer. 

[We entirely agree in reprobating the 
practice of placing live rabbits and other 
creatures within the cages of boa-con- 
strictors. A recollection of a poor little 
rabbit, cowering in the corner of one of these 
cages, as if aware of its approaching fate, 
has haunted us for years. No purpose of 
science can be answered by this constantly 
recurring barbarity. Zoological Societies 
should be careful not to run any risk of 
counteracting by such spectacles the elevated 
feelings they are so well calculated to foster. 
— Ed. 0. E. J.] — Chambers's Edinburgh 
Journal, No. 433, New Series, p. 256. 


The wife of one of the lowest class of horse- 
dealers was lately complaining to me of the 
loss her husband would sustain, by a diseased 
horse which he had turned out upon a piece 
of grass.- A donkey was chosen to be his 
companion, who died in consequence of such 
companionship, and the poor horse has 
dwindled away almost to a skeleton. 

The horse-dealer (who, by the bye, is also 
the keeper of a low beer shop, harlDouring 
immoral characters) in some degree to 
recover his loss of a ton of hay, which he had 

calculated the meadow might have yielded 
had he left the grass to grow, and also the 
value of the horse and donkey, resolved to 
purchase a few hungry pigs, and kill his 
poor starved diseased horse, and cut it up for 
their food, as he is persuaded that " growing 
pigs do well on flesh." This practice, if 
known to be generally adopted, (and who 
can deny that butchers and others, who use 
all sorts of ofi'al for feeding pigs, are not 
very scrupulous as to what they employ for 
this purpose ?) wouldbe apowerful inducement 
to many to join the ranks of the Vegetarians, 
by inducing them to have nothing further to 
do with these unclean animals. — R. 

The practice of feeding swine on the flesh 
of deceased animals and the garbage of 
animals slaughtered for the table, is by no 
means uncommon. It has come to our 
knowledge that this is extensively carried on 
in the town of Leeds, and that a large 
slaughtering establishment regularly uses the 
blood and ofi'al of animals they kill by boiling 
these in large quantities to provide foodforthe 
numerous pigs, in connection with the estab- 
lishment, and which they devour with the 
greatest avidity. A person who visited this 
place in company with three others, des- 
cribes it as filthy in the extreme, and that 
the stench was so overpowering that he did 
not recover from its sickening efi'ects, for 
some hours. Two of those accompanying him 
were unable to eat flesh-meat for more than a 
week after, and we believe our informant 
still abstains from it, though it is now nearly 
twelve months since his visit to this dis- 
gusting place. 


The danger of our present period of tran- 
sition is, that theory should expect too 
much, and that practice should do too little, 
in the amelioration of the condition of the 
people. — London Journal. 


The flowers are in the fields again, 

The sunlight's on the grass. 
The hawthorn's bloom flings a perfume 

To greet us as we pass ; 
It is the time of birds and flowers. 

Of blue and sunny skies, 
And gives this changeful world of ours 

A glimpse of Paradise. 
The flowers are in the flelds again. 

And clouds and storms have pass'd. 
They've given way to brighter days, 

And joy is ours at last; 
And so 'twill be through life's career, 

In sorrow, glgom, and pain, 
The sun is ever shining near, 

And flowers will come again. 

Family Herald, 




As will be obseryed from our previous 
announcements, a Vegetarian Festival is 
looked forward to in Glasgow, on tbe 
occasion of the Anniversary of the Associa- 
tion, the period, though not the precise 
day, being fixed for the close of September. 
We are happy to see our friends thus 
early preparing for an event of much interest 
to themselves and numerous inquirers of all 
classes, many of whom have long since over- 
come the first impression of the ^'■strangeness " 
of the Vegetarian system, and are now look- 
ing on with their various measures of 
interest to the practice recommended. The 
teaching and discussion of principles afi'ect- 
ing the soundest practice of diet, are, doubt- 
less, all interesting ; but when the principles 
inculcated have their accompaniments of prac- 
tical illustration in the shape of some inviting 
entertainment, the eflTect cannot but be the 
more successful, and thus, as we have always 
found, the most rapid conversion to Vege- 
tarianism is in eating one^s way into the 
system, concurrently with an intelligent 
observation of its principles and arguments. 
Like our Manchester friends, with whom 
rests the merit of first destroying the pre- 
judice that the Vegetarian practice of diet 
was one of self-denial, if not of starvation, 
the Glasgow Association intend to preface 
their arguments in favour of our system by 
a banquet or soiree, such as did them so 
much honour, and gave so much pleasure 
to the public, at the close of their last 
year's important labours. 

Birmingham, we are informed, is like- 
wise commencing the arrangements which 
are to result in a large Vegetarian festival 
during the month succeeding the one in 
Glasgow, and should the growing interest in 
the subject be sustained, and the arrange- 
ments be made commensurate with it, it is 
probable that this festival of the Birming- 
ham Association will be on the largest scale, 
and assemble more guests than have been 
brought together on any previous occasion in 
the history of our movement. The limit 
to these entertainments elsewhere, is gene- 
rally prescribed by the size of the hall where 
they are held ; but Birmingham, it is well 
known, in the capacity of its Town Hall, 
offers an area greater than most places of 
public meeting, and to see this filled by 
a company of the Vegetarian adherents and 
friendly inquirers of this busy town, is no 
more than may be realized, and is, we are 
informed, quite within the arrangements 

Our object in the early notice of these ap- 
proaching festivals, is to keep them before the 
minds of our readers, in order that as large an 
attendance of our friends from a distance as 
possible may be secured, and advantage 
taken of these occasions, by the arrange- 
ment of business and pleasure engagements, 
as much as possible, to secure the realiza- 
tion of the Vegetarian spirit of our large 
meetings, which has no doubt very much 
contributed to the popularity and healthy 
progress of our movement hitherto. 


You see the banana- tree — a tree of low 
growth, with a palm-like crown, not much 
above your head in height. The stem shoots 
up straight, surrounded by leaves, which 
fall off as the tree increases in height, and 
which leaves it somewhat rugged, and with 
rather a withered appearance. When the 
tree has attained the height of four or five 
ells [about seventeen feet], it ceases to grow, 
but unfolds and expands a crown of broad 
light-green leaves, as soft as velvet, and 
from two to four ells long, and which bend 
and are swayed gracefully by the wind. 
The wind, however, is not quite gracious to 


them, but slits the leaves on each side of the 
strong leaf-fibre into many parts, so that it 
often looks tattered, but still preserves, even 
amidst its tatters, its soft grace and its beau- 
tiful movement. From amid the crown of 
leaves, shoots forth a bud upon a stock, 
and resembling a large green flower-bud. 
This shoots up rapidly, and becomes as ra- 
pidly too heavy for its stalk, which bends 
under its weight. The bud now bends down 
to the stem, and grows probably as large as 
a cocoa-nut, its form being that of a rose- 
bud, and of a dark-violet colour. I saw 
upon almost all banana trees, even those 



which bore rich clusters of ripe fruit, this 
immense violet-coloured bud hanging, and 
was not a little curious to know all about 
it. And now yoit shall know. One of the 
outer leaves or envelopments of the bud 
loosens itself, or opens itself gently at the 
top, and you now perceive that its innermost 
side glows with the most resplendent vermilion 
red ; and within its depth you see peeping 
forth, closely laid together, side by side, six 
or seven little light yellow figures, not un- 
like little chickens, and very like the woolly 
seed-vessels in the single peony flower. 

The leaf encasements open more and more 
to the light and the air, and those little 
light yellow fruit chickens peep forth more 
and more. By degrees the leaf, with its 
little family, separates itself altogether from 
the body, and a length of bare stem grows 
between them. The little chickens now 
gape with pale yellow flower beaks, and put 
out their tongues (they are of the didynamia 
order), to drink in the sun and the air ; but 
still the beautiful leaf bends itself over their 
heads like a screen — like a protecting wing 
— like a shadowy roof. The sun would, as 
yet, be too hot for the little ones. But they 
grow more and more. They begin to de- 
velope themselves, to plump out their breasts, 
and to raise their heads more and more. 
They will become independent ; they will 
see the sun ; they need no longer the old 
leaf. The leaf now disengages itself — the 
beautiful maternal leaf — and falls to the 

I have frequently seen these leaf-screens 
lying on the ground beneath the tree, and 
taken them up, and contemplated them with 
admiration, not only for the part they act, 
but for their rare beauty and the clearness 
of the crimson colour of their inner side. 
One might say, that a warm drop of blood 
from a young mother's heart had infused 
itself there. 

The young chickens plume themselves now 
proudly, and with projecting breasts, and 

beautiful curved backs, and beaks raised 
aloft, range themselves, garland-like, around 
the stem : and thus, in about two weeks' 
time, they ripen into delicious bananas, and 
are cut off" in bunches. 

The whole of that dark purple-tinted bud- 
head is a thick cluster of such leaf-envelopes, 
each enclosing such an ofl'spring. Thus 
releases itself one leaf after another, and 
falls ofi" ; thus grows to maturity one cluster 
after another until the thick stalk is as full 
as it can hold of their garlands ; but never- 
theless, there always remains a good deal of 
the bud-head which is never able to develops 
the whole of its internal wealth during the 
year in which the banana-tree lives ; for it 
lives and bears fruit only one year, and then 
dies. But before this happens, it has given 
life to a large family of young descendants, 
who grow up at its feet, and the eldest of 
which are ready to blossom and bear fruit 
when the mother-tree dies. One can scarcely 
imagine anything prettier or more perfect 
than these young descendants, the banana 
children ; they are the perfect image, in 
miniature, of the mother tree, but the wind 
has no power upon their young leaves ; they 
stand under the mother-tree in paradisaical 
peace and beauty. 

It has been attempted to transplant the 
banana tree into the southern portion of North 
America, where so many trees from foreign 
climes flourish : but the banana-tree will not 
flourish there ; its fruit will not ripen ; it 
requires a more equal, more delicious 
warmth ; it will not grow without the para- 
disaical life of the tropics. 

Roasted banana is as common a dish at 
the breakfast of the Creoles as bread and 
cofTee ; but I like it only in its natural state. 

Such is the history of the banana-tree — 
musa paradisaica — as it is called in the 
Tropical Flora ; and of a certainty it was 
at home in the first Paradise, where all was 
good. — Miss Buemeu's Somes in the New 



Since our last, the discussion carried on in 
the Blackburn WeeJcli/ Times, has been con- 
cluded by the further insertion of three 
letters. Having already reproduced the 
discussion in our pages, we should regret 
that we cannot give its conclusion, if any 
arguments were used at all useful to the 
reader ; but the further attempt at assailing 
the Vegetarian practice by " AV. G. B." 
having sunk to a low personal character, 
without embracing any thing beyond refer- 
ences or assertions which the commonest 
apprehension in watching the discussion will 

discover to be false or mistaken, we should 
have to apologize to our readers for the 
language appearing in our pages, in giving 
insertion to it. 

It is much to be regretted, that incon- 
siderate attempts should be made to discuss 
questions which the aspirant to notice 
knows neither practically nor in theory ; and 
the more so where there is an incapacity 
to discern when the attempted argument 
has been refuted, and the question is drawn 
to a narrower issue. Such instances, however, 
frequently occur, and our readers, Ave trust, 
will in some measure have benefited by the 



exhibition recently presented to their atten- 
tion, in which the disadvantages of not 
knowing the subject entered upon are amply 


Dear Sir — In times to come the Vegetarian 
Anniversary Meetings will be looked back to as 
the coQiiuenceraent of a great and beneficial 
change in society. The principles which we 
advocate are necessary to give a practical ten- 
dency to that spirit of philanthropy which so 
many minds are now struggling to raise up 
against the influences which make humanity 
sufl'er so much misery. Our chairman, James 
Simpson, Esq., in opening the meeting, observed 
how few of the workers in any great cause con- 
tinued an enthusiastic advocacy for a period of 
seven years. Facts are stubborn things, and it 
requires a firm resolution to act against the 
custom of all around us ; and a still stronger 
mind to attempt to overthrow custom. " Cir- 
cumstance is, in most instances, too strong for 
spirit. We all fling ourselves into life 
with the conviction that an athletic soul may 
mould all things as it wills ; but sooner or later 
we find we have flung ourselves against a rock 
which sends us backward, staggered and bleed- 
ing." With God's help, and in a good cause, 
there are some who will continue to batter the 
walls of custom, and wield the weapons of truth, 
undaunted by the discomfiture of some of their 
fellows. If Vegeterians lead the forlorn hope, 
the greater is the honour and glory of the un- 

With these preliraiuary remarks, I send you 
an account of my travels, in as far as I consider 
them interesting to those who hold our princi- 
ples. I left London on the 25th July, and 
visited Ilartwell, near Aylesbury, where there 
was a Temperance Festival. The day was fine, 
and a large number of persons visited the park. 
In a village so rural, and amid such a rich and 
highly cultivated country, I certainly expected to 
find abundance of fruit; in this I was disap- 
pointed — there were no fruit stalls. In the first 
class stall I found fruit pies on the table, with 
large joints of flesh, and also some strawberries, 
which, however, came from Isleworth. The con- 
clusion I drew from this was the general corrup- 
tion of taste. Notwithstanding the notice not 
to smoke, uumerous individuals were seen with 
pipes and cigars, which we protested against 
when opportunity offered. There was, how- 
ever, a very respectable audience to hear the 
Temperance speakers, and in the evening several 
of the gentry of the neighbourhood came to 
hear Mr. Gough. Mr. W. Horsell had a 
book stall for various works on Temperance and 
Vegetarianism, which attracted some attention. 
Thursday was a very wet day, and on Friday, at 
the suggestion of Mr. Horsell, Dr. Lee gave 
a treat to the men who had been engaged on the 
premises, and there were some interesting 
speeches on Temperance, Vegetarianism, and 
anti-tobacco. On Thursday I was not present, 
having attended the Vegetarian Banquet, which, 
being fully reported, I need only say that I, like 

all present, was much gratified by the spirit dis- 
played in the management of the whole affair, 
and wished that our file could have been held 
in Drury Lane Theatre, and the nobility and 
gentry lookers on. 

The following day, the pic-nic to Alderley 
heights gave us another opportunity of rejoicing 
in the gifts of nature. Looking down upon the 
fertile valley, and around on the choice spirits of 
our movement, as we enjoyed the beautiful fruits, 
we could feel with the poet Shelley, 

" How sweet a scene will earth become 
Of happy spirits the pure dwelling place, 
When man, with changeless nature coalescing, 
Will undertake regeneration's work." 

After these proceedings a friend and myself 
determined ou a trip to the lakes. We had some 
discussion in the carriage arising out of the 
smoking propensities of one man whom we 
stopped. In answer to a question why I ab- 
stained from animal food, I said, because I wish 
to live and to enjoy life. All pretend to have 
this end and aim, yet the majority, by their 
foolish habits, are suicides. We saw by this 
party's conduct, and his admissions, that ou 
holiday occasions the treat was an extra allow- 
ance of gin, tobacco, and edibles. On arriving 
at Kendal, we called on a brother Vegetarian, 
whom we at once recognized as an intelligent 
and benevolent man, and under his guidance we 
found a comfortable lodging at Windermere, at 
Mr. Leighton's. 

I need not describe the beauties of the Lake 
scenery. They must be seen to be felt. Our 
first day's walk was about 30 miles, which wjB 
accomplished without being much tired. On 
this jaunt we visited Esthwaite water and Conis- 
ton water. At Hawkeshead we were agreeably 
surprised to find a public garden where all sorts 
of fruit are grown. My friend and I are believers 
in fruit and farinacea, and we had a most luxuri- 
ous feast, seasoned by a good appetite, on oatmeal 
cake and strawberries. In commending our 
practice to Mr. Baisbrown, the gardener, we 
found him very intelligent and unprejudiced. 
Seated under a rustic summer-house, with our 
table set out with fruits, the lines of Gold- 
smith occurred to me, which I quoted : 
" No flocks that range the valley free, 

To slaughter we condemn ; 

Taught by that power which pities us, 

We learn to pity them. 

For us the garden's fertile soil 

Its guiltless food doth bring ; 

Fresh herbs and fruits our tables spread, 

Our water's from the spring." 
Aud beautiful water it was, altogether a repast 
much more fit for princes than the carcasses of 
animals mixed up in various forms. In none of 
the guide books do we find this rational and 
beautiful resort mentioned, while all the inns are 
praised. Miss Martineau, in her popular guide, 
dwells on the luxury of eating the fish caught 
out of the lakes, and says nothing of these 
gardens, of which we found three, the other 
two being one at Ambleside and one on Lake 
Windermere, opposite Bowness. The idea of a 
lady rejoicing in the fish being laid before her 
just deprived of their lives, and the enjoyment 



of the waters in which they existed, is to us 
monstrous; but it shows the extent to which 
custom carries mankind ; they suffer for their 
false taste, as Pope says, in his Essay on Man — 

*• Who foe to nature hears the general groan. 
Murders their species, and betrays his own ; 
But just disease to luxury succeeds, 
And every death its own avenger breeds." 

Our second day we walked twenty miles, and 
went on the lake in the steamer. Our walk 
extended round the lakes of Rydale and Gras- 
mere, and we visited the tomb of Words- 
worth. I have often thought that with 
"Wordsworth's sentiments on frugality, if 
the truths of Vegetarianism had been pre- 
sented to him, he would have adopted them. 
Before I knew how far his principles could be 
carried, I was struck with the beauty of this 
prayer, which in some measure contributed to 
draw my mind towards our principles. 

"Dread Power, 
"Whose gracious favour is the primal source 
Of all inspiration, may my life express the image 
Of better times ; more simple manners and more 

wise desires, 
Nurse my heart in genuine freedom, all pure 

thoughts be with me, 
So shall thy unfailing love guide, support, and 

cheer me even to the end." 

The next day was wet, and we called on Mr. 
Hudson, of the Hydropathic Establishment, 
which is beautifully situated about a mile from 
Windermere station, a most delightful place for 
an invalid to recruit. We also called on an old 
farmer named Roger Barron, who is in his 
ninety-fourth year, and yet able to move about. 
Some people may quote his habits as a cause of 
his great age; but, though moderate, he has not 
abstained from the ordinary food and drinks, 
and we should say that if he had lived according 
to the laws of health, he might have been hale 
and strong. He has been deaf for years, and 
though now able to move about, is very infirm. 
With the fine air and exercise which many enjoy 
in this country we should see many long-lived 
men but the bad habits of the rest of the world 
are spread through the district ; a bit of genuine 
bread is not to be obtained ; smoking and drink- 

ing are prevalent. One man of seventy, to whom 
we spoke, boasted of his health and strength in 
justification of his habits, and while men see these 
examples, they will point at them and forget the 
number who go to early graves. We must en- 
deavour to establish the idea that man's life 
should extend to 100 years, and that all this 
disease and death has a cause. Another wet day. 
We started in the morning, under a gleam of 
sunshine, intending to reach the Old Man moun- 
tain ; but got no farther than our friend's, 
Mr. Baisbrown, the gardener, of Hawkes- 
head, with whom we had an agricultural con- 
versation. We were pleased to find that he 
had discarded the use of pigs, being convinced, 
after careful calculation, that, notwithstanding 
all his waste from the garden, the pork cost him 
Is. 9d. per lb.; he said he required no animal 
manure for his garden ; he grew potatoes weighing 
16 oz. each ; off less than half-an-acre of ground 
he had drawn £50 worth of strawberries. He 
used soot and sulphuric acid. He mentioned a 
certain plan of preventing disease in potatoes, 
which had now succeeded for several years. The 
tops always drooped a few days before they 
turned spotted ; on observing this sign, he im- 
mediately pulled up all the stalks, leaving the 
roots, placing his feet on each side to prevent 
the potatoes from being drawn out with them. 
The potatoes may then be left till November, or 
dug up as wanted. This information maybe useful 
to some of our Vegetarian friends, and, as Mr. 
B . has proved it thoroughly, by leaving one row, 
which were bad, he is certain that this is the 

Wishing all success to our principles, which 
is the re-establishment of nature's laws, and the 
relief of mankind from a great cause of their 
blindness, and ignorance, and consequent suffer- 
ing, I conclude, having completed the account of 
our journey, which was terminated by a railway 
trip to London, the following day, in which I had, 
for a travelling companion, a lady who had heard 
something of Vegetarianism, and who, I hope, had 
some of her objections removed. 

I am, dear Sir, yours truly, 

London, August ith, 1855. VIATOR. 


ful rapidity.* This probably arises from 
the liver being unable to produce the proper 
quantity of bile. In certain diseases arising 
from inflammation of the liver, both this organ 
and the blood become loaded with fat. The 
food, which otherwise would have formed 
bile, now produces fat and flesh. — Dr. Lyon 


"When we wish to show any one that he is 
mistaken, our best way is to observe on what 
side he considers the subject — for his view is 
generally right on this side — and admit to 
him that he is right so far. He will be satisfied 
with this acknowledgment that he was not 
wrong in his judgement, but only inadver- 
tent in not looking at the whole of the case. 
— Fhonetic Journal. 


You may have heard that Mr. Bakewell 
used to bring his sheep to the market some 
time before other feeders. This he efi'ected 
by producing rot. In the early stages of rot 
sheep acquire both fat and flesh with wonder- 


" As regards Vegetarianism, which I believe 
is more favourable to health than flesh- 
eating, most people hereabout (Aberdeen- 
shire) are Vegetarians through necessity, the 
majority being too poor to afford a flesh -diet, 
and a stout and healthy people they are, and 
* You ATT on Sheep, p. 446. 



no mistake. Very few, I apprehend, of the 
stout Highlanders who routed the Russians 
on the heights of Alma were brought up on 
animal food, and they are generally repre- 
sented as being the best looking men of all 
the British army." — J. G. D. 


Dr. RiDDELL, officiating superintending 
surgeon of the Nizam's army, in making 
experiments on the Muddar Plant of India 
(Asdepia gigantea), had occasion to collect 
the milky juice, and found that as it gradu- 
ally dried, it became tough and hard, like 
gutta percha. He was induced to treat the 
juice in the same manner as that of the gutta 
percha tree, and the result has been the 
obtaining a substance precisely analogous to 
gutta percha. Sulphuric acid chars it ; nitric 
acid converts it into a yellow resinous sub- 
stance ; muriatic acid has but little effect 
upon it ; acetic acid Jias no effect ; nor has 
alcohol. Spirit of turpentine dissolves it 
into a viscid glue, which when taken between 
the finger and thumb, pressed together, and 
then separated, shows numberless minute and 
separated threads. The foregoing chemical 
tests correspond exactly with the established 
results of gutta percha. It becomes plastic 
in hot water, and has been moulded into cups 
and vessels. It will unite with the true 
gutta percha. The muddar also produces an 
extensive fibre, useful in the place of hemp 
and flax. An acre of cultivation of it would 
produce a large quantity of both fibre and 
juice. The poorest land suffices for its growth, 
and no doubt, if well cultivated, there would 
be a large yield of juice, and a finer fibre. 
A nearly similar substance is procurable from 
the juice of the Euphorbia tirucelli, only 
when it hardens after boiling, it becomes 
brittle. The subject is most important, and 
if common hedge plants, like the foregoing, 
can yield a product so valuable, the demand 
for which is so certain quickly to outrun 
supply, a material addition will have been 
made to the productive resources of the 
country. — Journal of the Society of Arts. 


At the sitting of the Adulteration of Food, 
etc.. Committee, yesterday, in reply to a 
question as to sausages, Dr. Thompson said, 
it had often been asserted that they were 
made of horses' tongues. Indeed, he had 
reason to believe that all the tongues of all 
the horses killed by the knackers,, were used 
for food! — Alliance Weekly New$, July 28. 


But in the whole of the lovely view, never 
seemed a spot more fair or attractive than 
the old and many-gabled rural seat of Lea 
Hurst, on that central knoll, henceforth 

classic for ever — the English home of Flo- 
rence Nightingale, whose name, like 
Grace Darling's, now quickens the beat of 
millions of hearts. Some people are born 
with a genius for nursing, or dancing, 
or poetry ; and Miss Nightingale may be 
regarded as the archetype of her order* 
Her spirit first showed itself in an interest 
for the sick poor in the hamlets around Lea 
Hurst, but at length found a sphere requir- 
ing more attention and energy in continental 
hospitals, and afterwards in London, where 
she took the office of matron to a retreat for 
decayed gentlewomen. And now she is gone 
to tend and to heal the wounds of the sufferers 
by the Siege of Sebastopol. AVhat a contrast 
to the quiet pastoral retirement of Holloway, 
with its fire-side memories and its rural 
delights ! They avIio love not war must still 
sorrow deeply over the fate of its victims ; 
and to such, even now amid all the din of 
arms, the beautiful and beneficent name 
of Florence Nightingale cometh sweetly 
as " flute-notes in a storm." And in after 
ages, when humanity mourns — as mourn it 
will — over the blotches and scars which 
battle and fire shall have left on the face of 
this else fair world, like a stream of sunlight 
through the cloud with which the present 
strife will shade the historic page of civi- 
lization, will shine down upon it, brighter 
and brighter, the memory of the heroic 
maiden of Lea Hurst, till all nations shall 
have learnt to do "justly, love mercy, and 
walk humbly before God," and covetousness, 
war, and tyranny shall be no more. — Dr. 
Spencer T. Hall. 

swedenborg on flesh-eating. 
Eating the flesh of animals, considered in 
itself, is something profane ; for the people 
of the most ancient time never ate the flesh 
of any beast or fowl, but only seeds, espe- 
cially bread made of wheat, also the fruits of 
trees, esculent plants, milk, and what is pro- 
duced from milk — as butter. To kill ani- 
mals and to eat their flesh, was to them 
unlawful, and seemed as something bestial ; 
they only sought from them service and uses, 
as appears also from Genesis i, 29, 30 ; but 
in succeeding times, when man began to grow 
fierce like a wild beast, yea fiercer, then 
first they began to kill animals, and to eat 
their flesh, and because man was such a 
character, it was even permitted ; and at this 
day also it is permitted ; and so far as man 
does it out of conscience, so far it is lawful ; 
for his conscience is formed of those things 
which he thinks to be true ; wherefore also 
at this day no one is by any means condemned 
for this, that he eats flesh. — Arcana Coelestia. 

manure for strawberries. 
The following is from a communication to 


the Friend'' s Beview^ and may be very useful 
to many of our readers. "The writer had a 
very productive bed, thirty to forty feet. 
' I applied,' says he, ' about once per week, 
for three times, commencing when the green 
leaves first begin to start, and made the 
last application just before the plants were 
in full bloom, the following preparation; — 
Nitrate of potash (saltpetre), glauber salts, 
and sal soda (carbonate of soda), each one 
pound, nitrate of ammonia, one quarter of 
a pound — dissolving them in thirty gallons 
of river or rain water. One third of this 
was applied at a time ; and when the wea- 
ther was dry, I applied clear soft water 
between the times of using the preparation, 
as the growth of the young leaves is so 
rapid, that, unless supplied with water, the 
sun will scorch them. I used a common 
watering-pot, making the application towards 
evening. Managed in this way, and the 
weeds kept out, there is never any necessity 
of digging over the bed, or setting out new. 
Beds of ten years are not only as good, 
but better than those of two or three years 


There is a great tendency in the medical 
profession, as well as out of it, to prescribe 
for children who are out of health, a stimulat- 
ing meat diet. A pallid, scrofulous child, for 
example, is taken before the family attendant, 
and the order is immediately issued: "Let 
him have as much good beef and mutton as 
he will eat." Fortunately, the child's repug- 
nance to meat frequently nullifies this com- 
mand. He refuses to take the meat which is 
earnestly pressed upon him. Here, as in so 
many other cases, the natural indications are 
neglected, and an artificial standard erected. 
Nature gives the child a disrelish for animal 
food, and this instinct is healthy and con- 
servative ; for in these instances the stomach 
is generally unable to digest any but the 
simplest aliment. Frequently, it will be 
found, on examination, that the child's 
tongue is furred, his breath foul, his bowels 
constipated, his abdomen tumid, and perhaps 
tender. The digestive apparatus is, in fact, 
thoroughly disordered. Now, if under these 
circumstances we oppress the irritable organs 
of digestion by stimulating, concentrated 
food, we run counter to the dictates of com- 
mon sense. Yet such is the ordinary plan of 
treatment. To a child in the condition which 
I have described, a smart purgative is exhi- 
bited, followed by an alterative course of 
rhubarb, and some mild mercurial, probably 
combined with columba or some bitter tonic, 
intended to produce an appetite. Together 
with this, " plenty of good beef and mutton" 

is strenuously recommended. On the other 
hand, the rational physiologist seeks to 
improve the health and strength by simple, 
natural measures, and until the disordered 
alimentary canal recovers its digestive power, 
yields to the child's instinctive inclination, 
and puts it upon a plain bread-and-milk diet. 
Thus he is enabled to dispense with the 
reiterated druggery, which is equally nau- 
seous to the palate, and injurious to the 
economy. — Dr. W. Johnson, Journal of 
healthy vol. 2, No. 32, Nexo Series. 


In Sweden, the people are fast rising to a 
fearful conviction of the self-entailed mise- 
ries produced by spirit- drinking. The late 
allusion to this vice, in the king's speech, at 
the opening of the Diet, seems to have been 
more the reflex of incipient public opinion 
than an original conception of his own. 
Various petitions have been presented of late 
to king Oscar, praying him to take such 
measures as shall avert the misery which 
threatens the nation if the production of 
spirits be allowed to continue in its present 
extent. The last of these petitions had 
18,000 signatuves. The people begin now 
to assemble in large crowds, and to call 
tumultuously for the closing of the distil- 
leries, " that they may be secured against 
death before next harvest comes round." In 
some cases the mob has forcibly entered the 
distilleries, and with the cry, "The hell- 
drink shall not be made any more ! " put 
out the fires. Hitherto no more violent excess 
than the above has taken place. — The 


The gardeners of Japan display the most 
astonishing art. The plum tree, which is a 
great favourite, is so trained and cultivated 
that the blossoms are as big as those of 
dahlias. Their great triumph, however, is 
to bring both plants and trees into the 
compass of the little garden attached to the 
houses in the cities. With this view, they 
have gradually succeeded in dwarfing the fig, 
plum, and cherry trees, and the vine, to a 
stature so diminutive as scarcely to be 
credited by a European ; and yet these dwarf 
trees are covered with blossoms and leaves. 
Some of the gardens resemble pictures in 
which nature is skilfully modelled in minia- 
ture—but it is living nature! Meylon, 
whose work on Japan was published at 
Amsterdam in 1830, states that in 1828, the 
Dutch agent of commerce at Nagansi, was 
offered a snuff-box, one inch in thickness, 
and three inches high, in which grew a fig 
tree, a bamboo, and a plum tree in bloom. — 
Glasgow Sentinel. 




We have pleasure in calling attention to the 
fact that a large meeting was held in the 
De Grey Rooms, in the city of York, on the 
18th ultimo, whilst we have to regret that 
the pre-occupation of our space prevents us 
giving more than this notice of the pro- 
ceedings. The Vegetarian question, it 
seems, had not previously been raised in 
York, and we are happy that the announce- 
ments of the meeting secured the presence 
of a large and most respectable audience. 
Mr. Smith, of Malton, the well-known 
author of Fruits and Farinaoea the Froper 
Food of Man, occupied the chair, and ably 
introduced the subject of the evening in a 
speech descriptive of the Vegetarian organi- 
zation and principles. Mr. Simpson, Presi- 
dent of the Society, then followed, dealing 
with the details of the arguments and prac- 
tice of Vegetarianism, as well as with the 
objections urged against it, and presenting a 
powerful comparison of the characteristic 


A RECENT leading article of the I>ailij JSFeics* 
amply attests the serious mistake of attempt- 
ing to write about what is not more than 
partially apprehended. It is unfortunate 
to hazard an opinion in such a case, worse 
still to speak, but especially so to write with 
the tone of authority, when the whole con- 
ception of the subject may be erroneous, or 
even false. 

The writer referred to has obviously been 
occupied with the last number of the Mes- 
senger, and, apparently, forming his opinions 
as he goes along, with the customary admix- 

* Impression of August 30 ; referred to in Con- 
troversialist and Correspondent, p. 90. 

advantages of the system contended for, 
with the pain and repugnance incident to 
the mixed-diet practice. The impression 
produced appears to have been all that could 
be desired, and we trust that the reports of 
the newspapers will have still further 
extended the influence of the meeting. 

It will be seen from our advertising 
columns, that the Glasgow Annual Meeting is 
to be celebrated by a Banquet on the 4th 
inst., and we learn that other operations in 
or about Glasgow, will be brought to bear 
about the same time. Arrangements are 
also, we are informed, being made for a 
large meeting in Edinburgh, and others at 
Aberdeen, Newcastle, and Carlisle. It will 
thus be seen that our friends in the north, at 
least, are active, and we doubt not that much 
good will result from the operations proposed. 

The Birmingham Soiree, though not yet 
announced, is, we understand, likely to take 
place at the beginning of November. 


ture of want of information and prejudice, 
comes to favourable and unfavourable con- 
clusions of the people referred to, as he is 
able or not to sympathise with what he 
conceives to be their objects and opinions. 
We, however, do not blame any part of 
this process in itself, but merely regard 
it as natural enough, and such as a little 
better acquaintance, in the observer, with 
the matters pictured to his mind, would, in a 
great measure, correct ; and only, as we 
may return to the subject in the meantime, 
repeat, that it is a pity he wrote about what 
he conceived so hurriedly, as not to have had 
time to have corrected his impressions. 


Having tested Vegetarianism in almost every 
possible way during eight years, it seems to 
me but just to state that I have found it to 
be all that was promised by its advocates. I 
commenced abstinence from flesh before I 
heard anything about a Vegetarian Society. 
I did so not from any moral or religious 
motive, but from a conviction that it was 
unnecessary as an article of diet, and more, 


that it was injurious. I was at that time, 
though not an intemperate eater of flesh, 
corpulent, and suffered much from oppres- 
sion of stomach, from indigestion, and from 
dulness, sleepiness, and swimming in the 
head. The pain I then felt much more than 
counterbalanced the pleasure derived from 
the eating of flesh. 

At that time I knew little of the chemistry 




of food, and the relative amount of nutri- 
ment. My dietetic reform was consequently 
commenced almost in the dark, and without 
a single individual as a companion. When 
it became known, which was soon the case, 
scorn, contempt, and jest were incessantly 
poured upon me ; almost every ill name was 
applied to me ; children and adults insulted 
me, for the simple reason that I had made 
an inroad on a very popular custom. 

I grew thin in person, which was the con- 
sequence, not of my food containing an 
insufficient amount of nutriment, but from 
having abandoned the stimulants of flesh, 
fish, tea, and coflfee, and not substituting 
others in their stead ; and being but little in 
the open air, my appetite fell off; the amount 
of food I took was therefore insufficient. 
The difference in my appearance was taken 
advantage of, and commented upon freely. 
Doctors themselves gave utterance to most 
absurd statements, statements which went to 
show that they knew little more than others 
on the subjects of physiology and dietetics. 
The almost universal verdict was that Vege- 
tarianism was an unnatural, ridiculous, and 
insane practice. Notwithstanding this, my 
perseverance was unabated. I applied my- 
self at the same time to the study of physi- 
ology, and the properties of food ; but 
although my progress therein was not very 
rapid, I was soon sufficiently acquainted with 
them to be satisfied that the knowledge of 
medical men on these matters was very small. 
Instead of returning to flesh, etc., I have 
gradually advanced to greater simplicity in 
diet ; bread and potatoes are now the foun- 
dation thereof, with other vegetables, and 
fruit occasionally. 

In reference to my times of taking food, 
I find it best not to be confined to the times 
called breakfast, dinner, and supper, but to 
listen rather to the calls of nature — in other 
words, to eat when I am hungry ; by doing 
this, I avoid the taking of a large quantity 
of food into the stomach, which is one of 
the causes of indigestion and its unpleasant 
attendants. By eating as often as hunger 

returns T not only take food in smaller quan- 
tities, but can take a sufficient quantity with- 
out stimulating the appetite with butter, 
eggs, sugar, salt, etc. These stimulants, I 
find, render more difficult the work of 
digestion, produce an unnatural craving, 
and an injurious effect upon the nervous 
system generally. The enemies of dietetic 
reform, on seeing the change which had 
taken place in my person, predicted my 
speedy demise, and, doubtless, looked for- 
ward to that event as an effectual extin- 
guisher of an attempt to interfere with a 
very old and almost universally patronized 
usage, at least in this locality. 

Since I have adopted the practice of 
taking food when nature asks for it, I have 
grown stouter — not corpulent but muscular — 
so much so that those who expected soon 
to hear of my death, are so surprised that 
they have not now a word to say against 
Vegetarianism. The following is from a 
person who met me a few weeks since : 
" You are looking much better than you 
did ; I believe you are right : this acknow- 
ledgment condemns myself." 

I am now in age, forty-seven ; in health, 
everything I can desire ; just fit to enjoy 
life ; full of energy and vigour ; cati rise 
with the lark, and sleep in five minutes after 
going to bed. The current of pleasure 
which runs through me, springing from the 
increased capacity, mental and moral, derived 
from a course of living approved of by 
reason and religion, and the independence 
secured by Vegetarianism, is not only greater 
in amount, but more angelic "in nature than 
that enjoyed by me in former life, and 
greater than I can conceive it possible for 
a person to enjoy who is addicted to the 
practice of causing animals to be slaughtered 
that he may feed on their bodies. 

Having proved the truth of Vegetarianism, 
and sustained the shock consequent on its 
adoption, not only without injury but with 
advantage, I now offer myself as a member 
of the Vegetarian Society, and promise you 
that I will not be an inactive one. 


THE "daily news." 

D. G. — Our want of space forbids any 
lengthened notice of the recent article of 
the Daily News. The editor, in comment- 
ing upon Vegetarians and their objects, 
interlards the most superficial speculations 
with some very great errors and misap- 
prehensions. It IS always dangerous to 
commence writing before a little correct 
observation and reflection have been brought 
to bear on the subject to be discussed ; and 
this, to the Vegetarian, will be abundantly 


illustrated in the leading article of the journal 
re.^rred to, manifesting, as is at once seen, 
a first acquaintance with the subject the 
writer attempts to deal with, in and out of 
the facts and considerations of which he runs 
for the space of something more than a 
column of leading type. We shall be happy 
to notice this, and give some of the matter 
in question, in our next. 


In the Monthly Christian Spectator^ for 
March, there is an article entitled, " The 



Mission of Death," in which occur the fol- 
lowing remarks : 

"But if death had not been in the world before 
man, it is quite certain that man could not have 
lived without causing the death of tens of thou- 
sands of creatures. The question of an animal 
and vegetable diet by no means interferes with 
this matter. There may be climates where a 
purely vegetable diet is best suited to the human 
frame; but place the Vegetarian near the poles, 
and let him plant his potatoes in an iceberg, and 
his cabbages in a snow-drift, and he will wait a 
long time for his crops. Neither, indeed, could 
any man eat enough to keep him warm if he 
did nothing else. The most expert Irishman 
that ever devoured a potato would require a 
steam engine to assist his jaws, or he would perish 
of cold in Nova Zembla, although he should eat 
of his favourite esculent incessantly. And if it 
were possible to avoid taking life in eating, we 
should still be destroying life in drinking, for 
every drop of water is a world of animal life, 
where one creature devours another, as the lion 
eats the sheep. We trample to death thousands 
of living beings as we walk the earth; and to 
kindle a fire is to burn and destroy millions." 

We do not often meet with a paragraph 
containing so many gross errors and miscon- 
ceptions in such a short space. These we 
need only briefly to point out. 

1. Even though practicable, we do not see 
the necessity for anybody living " near the 
poles." But if necessary, for a season, to live 
there, the resources of other climes could be 
made to meet the wants of the civilized, 
without being dependent upon the denizens 
of the air, earth, or ocean, for food. It 
should be remembered, also, that vegetation 
sufficient to feed the reindeer and other 
animals is to be found, and that the severity 
of the cold in the arctic regions is not alto- 
gether due to their latitude. The currents 
of the ocean render some islands and dis- 
tricts less intense in the midst of winter than 
in others not so far north. 

2. The statement that no *' man could 
eat enough to keep himself warm, if he did 
nothing else," is simply amusing, ignoring, 
as it does, the fact that exercise with food 
always conduces to the warmth of the body. 
As to the composition of vegetable food, how- 
ever, as grain and pulse, we need only remark 
that the experience of the agents of the 
Hudson's Bay Company in the use of Indian 
meal, will justify a very different conclusion. 
It would not be necessary or wise, if practi- 
cable, to confine one's self to the Irishman's 
"favourite esculent," but we should prefer 
such a diet to being compelled to live almost 
entirely upon salted meat, and thus run the 
risk of encountering the scurvy, and other 
ailments incident to the eating of such pro- 

3. "Every drop of water" does not con- 

tain " a world of animal life." The drops of 
water magnified by the oxy-hydrogen micro- 
scope, are obtained from fermented vegetable 
matter, or stagnant pools and ditches. Pure 
spring water rarely contains any living 
matter, and if the writer in the Mo7ithly 
Christian Spectator will not admit our 
statement, we advise him to put a few ques- 
tions to the exhibitor of the oxy-hydrogen 
microscope, who shows him these objects, on 
his next visit to the Polytechnic Institution, 
in the Metropolis, or elsewhere, when he 
will find that his statement is a mere figment. 
It is always useful, when those who are 
not prepared to admit the truth of Vege- 
tarianism, candidly state their views and 
objections ; but the confident and dogmatical 
tone which the writer of " The Mission of 
Death " exhibits, is even as great a disad- 
vantage as the mistakes into which he has 


H. J. — The small tract, entitled The 
Vegetarian Humbug, by a Beef-eater, is 
beneath the notice of all who look for 
honest argument in opposition to the prin- 
ciples and practice of the Vegetarian system. 
There is, too, a want of truthfulness in some 
of the quotations and the gratuitous infer- 
ences drawn from them, with a wilful perver- 
sion of facts and arguments, which cannot 
fail at once to be discerned by any one ac- 
quainted with the works and opinions re- 
ferred to, and the organization and objects 
of the Vegetarian movement. We cannot, 
indeed, and we much regret it, better describe 
the whole than as a vicious attempt to detract 
from and injure the progress of Vegeta- 
rianism with certain people ; but, since most 
who will take the trouble to read this effu- 
sion will readily discern the spirit in which 
it is produced, and will, probably, be directed 
by it to an impartial inquiry into the Vegeta- 
rian system, more good than harm may still 
be the result of its issue. We will endea- 
vour, in our next, to comply with the wishes 
of our correspondent as to the parts re- 
ferred to. 


We have great pleasure in giving insertion 
to the following valuable and interesting 

Sir — In reply to a circular of the Vegetarian 
Society, which has been transmitted to me by 
that staunch Vegetarian advocate and philo-zoist, 
Mr. Lewis Gompertz, I beg leave to offer a 
few observations on Vegetarian diet, founded 
chiefly on fifty-three years personal experience, 
and many remarks made on other Vegetarians, 
my companions in early life ; which observations 
you are at perfect liberty to publish if you please. 

From birth till about the age of twelve years 

I was not a strong child, and probably should 
have been a very weak one, had not my father 
brought his children up, in a great measure, on 
fruits. Five of us, however, escaped the small-pox, 
and some other complaints, notwithstanding his 
aversion to inoculation, in consequence, as I 
believe, of our natural diet. At twelve years old, 
reading some account of the Hindoos, I resolved 
to adopt a Vegetarian diet, which, being a fanci- 
ful child and always fond of experiments, I 
accomplished in spite of the advice and ridicule 
of my friends and playmates. On this regimen 
I gained strength, and laid the foundation for 
that healthy constitution I have since enjoyed. 
Being sometimes forced by my preceptor to eat 
meat, it was always attended with headache, and 
injured my health, till about the year 181 1, when I 
was fully confirmed in Vegetarian habits, by my 
early companions having adopted the same in nocent 
food. My particular friend, the late Percy 
Bysshe Shelley, ate only of the productions 
of the garden, and abhorred the very sight of 
flesh-meat. His poetry and imaginative talents 
testify to the manner in which this diet con- 
tributed to the perfection of his mental powers. 
Byron, the poet, lived a large portion of his 
life on vegetable food, and he used to say that 
meat made him both ill and ferocious in disposi- 
tion. About the year 1813, 1 became acquainted 
with a gentleman who had brought up a large 
and fine family entirely on vegetable productions ; 
the children were amongst the most beautiful I 
ever saw, and were remarkably free from all those 
epidemics which harass the existence of ordinary 
children. Mr. Lawrence, whose eminence as a 
surgeon and physiologist is already too well 
known to need any comment, used to live on 
vegetable food when I first luiew him ; and the 
personal experience and practice of the late Dr. 
Lam BE confirmed me in the opinion I had 
formed, of the slow and certain injury done to the 
human frame by the introduction of animal food. 
When I went to college in 1812, the difficulty 
of finding vegetables enough at table induced 
me to eat some meat, but always with manifest 
disadvantage. I once made the experiment of 
changing my diet, and the consequence was, loss 
of appetite and spirits, and very bad health, 
which did not cease till I had returned for some 
time to ray usual Vegetarian food. It is now, 
and has been for many years, my fixed habit; 
and nourished only by vegetables and bread, I 

have travelled in both hot and cold countries 
with renovated and almost indefatigable strength. 
In medical practice it is extremely difficult to 
persuade people to use a diet to which they are 
unaccustomed, but wherever I have succeeded iu 
establishing the use of vegetable food, it has 
been attended with extraordinary success. 

The extensive ravages of disease, in almost 
every affluent family, certainly point to some 
grievous error in diet or other habits. Now I 
want you to show by some statistical observations, 
that the Vegetarian is free from the diseases of 
the feeder on flesh. The Statistical Society are 
about to meet in Paris. Cannot you contribute 
some very valuable facts to it? You ought to 
have a representative there among the rest ! 

My own opinion is that public morals, as well 
as health, would be benefited by the general 
adoption of Vegetarian diet. The Animals' 
Friend Societies, of which there are many all 
over Europe, ought to consider this, and the 
Peace Society would find in our practice of diet 
a much more solid basis for a pacific edification 
than in five hundred religious tracts on the sub- 
ject. It may be said of vegetable food that 
emollit mores nic siuit esse feros ! This was the 
opinion of Hippocrates, EscuLAPius, Galen, 
Aristotle, and the ancient moralists ; and it is 
confirmed by all we have seen or read of the 
tribes of India who live on rice and fruits, and 
regard it as a sin to destroy animal life. Ovid 
has represented the opinions of Pythago- 
ras on this subject in one of the finest orations 
in Latin verse that I ever read ; and the works 
of Dr. Lambe, Dr. Graham, Mr. Ritson, and 
many others, fully confirm the doctrine which 
I have endeavoured to lay down herein : viz. that 
Vegetarian diet is the Jo hi/, and animal food the 
Jo /M.Ti ou both of individual health, and of secure 
social organization. And I consider the subject 
to be of such importance, when we consider the 
demoralizing tendency of cruelty to animals, and 
particularly of the slaughter-house, that no apology 
is necessary on my part for thus endeavouring, 
however imperfectly, to bring it the more fully 
before the general notice of the public, through 
the instrumentality of your most excellent 

I have the honour to remain, 

Your most obedient servant, 
T. FORSTER, M.D., F.R.A. & L.S. 
Brussels, llth August, 1855. 



hours of sunshine and peace. That must be 
no small sin in the eye of God which he so 
often visits with an early death or premature 
old age, and which has deprived many a 
family of its most precious treasure, and the 
Church of its brightest hopes. — The Earnest 

Let me earnestly press it upon young and 
ardent students that it is a very mistaken 
manliness to despise the demands of the 
body ; that it is no self-denial, but self- 
indulgence, to sacrifice health and life in the 
pursuit of knowledge. Let me remind them 
that God will make them responsible for 
every talent committed to them, and for 
shortening those days which might have 
been many, and for turning those days into 
darkness and distress which might have been 

importance of tranquillity in nurses. 
In woman we find that anything that tends 
to annoy her, to irritate her feelings, or pro- 
duce an exhibition of anger, occasions at the 
same time a partial destruction of the valu- 



able constituents of her milk. We have it 
in our power to observe these effects in 
woman with more accuracy than in the 
lower animals, though, doubtless, similar 
feelings will produce in both the same 
change in the composition of the milk. The 
milk of a woman, who has experienced a 
violent and sudden fit of anger, is found to 
be quite sour, hence it is requisite that wet- 
nurses should be kept in a state of perfect 
tranquillity, both in mind and body.* — 'Dr. 
Lyon Playfair. 

vegetarianism in carrara. 
The miners [of the marble quarries] are a 
fine and hardy race, remarkable for their 
robustness of constitution, reckless courage, 
and unalterable good humour ; nor do the 
fatal consequences which occasionally occur 
tend to lessen their gaiety ; and many 
snatches of loud and melodious song may be 
heard amid the clanging of hammers, the 
report of gunpowder, and the crash of falling 
stone. The workmen do not derive their 
supplies from the town of Cai-rara (which is 
only about fifteen miles distant) ; the fru- 
gality by which they are distinguished 
enables the surrounding villages, where they 
reside, to satisfy all their wants. Their 
hours of labour are from eight in the morn- 
ing to two in the afternoon, all extra work 
being remunerated according to the time 
employed ; and thus they are enabled to pass 
a considerable portion of their time with 
their respective families. There being no 
spring in the quarries, and the difficulty of 
ascending rendering it essential to the work- 
men to avoid all unnecessary burdens, they 
are reduced to drinking rain water, which 
they obtain by excavating square holes as 
reservoirs ; their diet consists of polenta, or 
bread, and the common cheese of the country, 
and these simple aliments, with the fruits of 
the season, compose their whole nourishment. 
In wine or coffee they never indulge, and 
yet the amount of labour of which they are 
capable exceeds belief. — Illustrated London 


" The troops who arrived with Omar Pasha 
stand the climate well, with not more than 
the average sickness which must, under all 
circumstances, be expected in a large body 
of men collected together. I am not sure 
whether their temperance, bordering on 
abstemiousness, does not contribute consider- 
ably to this result. Meat is with them an 

* The sympathetic irritation, which occasions a 
change in the nature of the secreted fluids, is con- 
veyed through the sympathetic system of nerves, 
whose branches accompany the blood-vessels to 
every part of the body, and are furnished to the 
heart and viscera. 

exceptional article of food, and biscuit, rice, 
and beans are their daily diet. I think an 
approximation, I do not say imitation, but 
an approximation to this diet, would be of 
considerable advantage to troops in this 
climate." — Correspondent of the Times, 
Aug. 2. 


"We will begin with the lowest ground of all, 
though, in our present low estate, not one of 
the least effective, namely, the mere enjoy- 
ment of life. This, of course, can only be a 
matter of individual experience ; and only 
those who have fairly tried both sides are 
competent to appear in evidence. The testi- 
mony of those who are thus duly qualified, 
I believe to be universal to the greatly 
increased amount of the enjoyment of food, 
I mean in a purely sensual and epicurean 
sense, through the refined and delicate taste 
that springs from the rejection of all the 
coarser parts of a mixed diet. The true 
enjoyment and luxury of food, and the 
proper and delicious flavours of fruits and 
vegetables, are all but unknown to those who 
deteriorate and benumb their palates by the 
habitual use of stimulating meats and dishes. 
It was to gardens, not to slaughter-houses, 
that the disciples of Epicurus were wont to 
resort. We observe a parallel analogy in 
the difference of habit, and in the apparent 
calm enjoyment of life, between the carni- 
vorous and the herbivorous animals. — What 
is Vegetarianism f 


There they come — the milk-maid and the 
boy. The boy is towing a little boat along 
the canal, and the maid, with her full blue 
petticoat and pink jacket or bed-gown, walks 
beside him. Now they stop ; she brings 
from the boat her copper milk-pails, as 
bright as gold, and, with a chooing greeting 
to her dear cows, sets down her little stool 
upon the grass and begins to milk. The 
boy, having moored his boat, stands beside 
her with the special pail, which is to hold 
the last pint from each cow — the creamy 
pint, which comes last, because it has risen to 
the top of the udder. Not a drop is left to 
turn sour and fret the cow. The boy fetches 
and carries the pails, and moves as if he trod 
on eggs when conveying the full pails to 
the boat. When afloat there is no shaking 
at all. Smoothly glide the cargo of pails 
up to the very entrance of the dairy, where 
the deep jars appropriated to this "meal" 
of milk are ready, cooled with cold water 
if it is summer, and warmed with hot water 
if the weather requires it. When the 
time for churning comes, the Dutch woman 



takes matters as quietly as hitherto. She 
softly tastes the milk in the jars till she finds 
therein the due degree of acidity ; and then 
she leisurely pours the whole— cream and 
milk together — into a prodigiously stout and 
tall upright churn. She must exert herself, 
however, if she is to work that plunger. 
She work it — not she ! She would as soon 
think of working the mill on the dykes 
with her own plump hands. No — she has a 
servant under her to do it. She puts her 
dog into a wheel which is connected with the 
plunger ; and, as the animal runs round, 
what a splashing, woUoping, and frizzing 
is heard from the closed churn. The quiet 
dairy-maid knows by the changes of the 
sound how the formation of the butter pro- 
ceeds ; when she is quite sure that there are 
multitudes of flakes floating about within, 
she stops the wheel, releases the dog, turns 
down the churn upon a large sieve, which is 
laid over a tub, and obtains a sieveful of 
butter, in the shape of yellow kernels, while 
the butter-milk runs ofi", for the benefit of 
the pigs, or of the household cookery. — 
Dickens's Household JFords. 


There were, however, several incidents 
worth noticing in the course of this week 
of military festivities, and one, not the least 
amusing, relates to our old gastronomic 
friend Soyer, who found himself suddenly in 
what the Americans would call an awkward fix. 
He was desirous to do his " possible " on 
such an auspicious occasion to promote the 
gratification of the imperial and royal palates, 
but not holding the position of culinary 
artiste to his imperial majesty, he succeeded 
in procuring two gigantic pine apples, 
obtained from the country seat of his Grace 
the Duke of Sutherland, at Trentham, in 
Somersetshire. The smaller of the two 
weighed upwards of 8 lbs., and measured 
more than 3 ft. from the stem to the crown. 
Here was an introduction even to an empe- 
ror, and freighted with the precious treasure, 
our friend Soyer arrived at Boulogne. 
Now, as we have already informed our 
readers. Englishmen may do in France what 
the inhabitants of no other country dare 
attempt. From his long residence in 
England, M. Soyer perhaps thought him- 
self an Englishman, and came without a 
passport. At all events he received a sudden 
check in the enthusiasm of his loyalty, for 
he was taken into custody forthwith. He 
sent for his friends, but in the meantime 
cautioned the authorities to take care of his 
box, which was on no account to be opened 
until it reached the palace, or rather the 

hotel of the emperor. On obtaining his 
liberty, some hours later, he found his box 
gone, and to its right destination. Thus by 
a singular misadventure, the emperor was 
luxuriating over Soyer's delicious present 
while . detaining the donor in prison — one 
hand bearing the pine apple to his lip, the 
other holding fast the prison doors on him 
who sent it. It will be, however, perhaps 
gratifying to M. Soyer to learn that all 
honour was paid to his pine apples, for they 
figured conspicuously at the royal banquet. 
They were artistically raised on pyramids of 
fruits and flowers by the head confectioner of 
the royal household, and produced a very 
charming effect. — Correspondent of the Morn- 
ing Herald. 

diseases of animals communicated 

TO man. 

Dr. Alphonso Lerzy, of Paris, has pub- 
lished an essay on certain diseases of men, 
which he traces to the animals on which 
they are fed ; and he establishes the doctrine 
generally, that many diseases with which 
mankind are afflicted are communicated by 
eating the flesh of animals. — Monthly Maga- 
zine, June, 1815, p. 446. 


Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness ! 

Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun ; 
Conspiring with him how to load and bless 
With fruit the vines that round the thatch- 
eaves run ; 
To bend with apples the mossed cottage trees. 
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core ; 
To swell the gourd and plump the 
hazel shells 
With a sweet kernel ; to set budding more, 
And still more, later flowers for the bees. 
Until they think warm days will never cease, 
For summer has o'er-brimmed their 
clammy cells. 

* * * * 

Where are the songs of spring ? Ay, where 
are they ; 
Think not of them, thou hast thy music, 
While barred clouds bloom the soft dying day, 
And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue ; 
Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn 
Among the river sallows, borne aloft. 
Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies ; 
And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly 
bourn ; 
Hedge-crickets sing ; and now with treble 

The redbreast whistles from a garden croft. 
And gathering swallows twitter from 
the skies. 





Some of our readers may, perhaps, not be 
aware, that a grave matter for the cou- 
sideration of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
of the city of London has recently been 
submitted to their court, and is thence 
carried to a superior court, from the 
obviously doubtful decision of the presiding 
magistrate, A body of evidence was pre- 
sented in support of the charge made, and 
this was met by counter-statements, the 
sum of the whole apparently producing, in 
the minds of every one, more than an 
assurance as to the correctness of the charge 
made; but with the singular accompani- 
ment of a strong sense of the unfairness or 
impropriety of the accuser, in his tolerating 
in others a certain measure of the same 
objectionable character as that for which, 
in the particular case referred to, the 
penalties of the law are sought to be applied. 

But what is the nature of the case .»' No 
more nor less than a grave dispute * between 
the Christians and Jews as to the com- 
parative demerits of their respective 
processes of slaughtering certain animals 
for food. Our old friends the Jews, as they 
have long done, contend for the slaughter 
of the ox by one cut of the knife of a certain 
authorized operator, which, sooner or later, 
is expected to produce the death of the 
animal by exhaustion from the loss of blood. 
A second cut, or any other operation, even 
though hastening the death of the suffering 
animal, would be considered to contaminate 
the whole carcass, and make it unclean 
for the food of the true Israelite. 
But here our Christian reformer steps in, 

* Controversialist and Correspondent^ p. 100. 

in the person of the representative of the 
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, and with the laudable object of 
abridging, if not preventing, cruelty, insists 
upon the process of cleaving the skull of 
the ox with a pole-axe, and then "stirring 
about the brains with a stick," the suffering 
preceding the death of the animal, it is 
contended, being thus much less than by 
the Jewish process. The evidence tendered 
was from both ordinary slaughtermen, and 
physicians who professed to have witnessed 
both the operations under notice ; but the 
sitting magistrate (Sir Peter Laurie) recog- 
nizing the cruelty of both processes, declined 
to apply the law to a case of degree in 
cruelty, which was " a matter of religion " — 
a curious libel this, we fear, for the decision 
of some other superior court. 

For our own parts, we look upon this 
curious dispute with some measure of con- 
scious advantage, and are not sorry to see 
it attract so much attention, many being, 
doubtless led, by the moment's reflection 
secured, in the voice of nature, when the 
truth is confessed, boldly to question the 
propriety of cruelty and death in either case — 
of the slaughter of animals for food at all. 
Both complainant and defendant are at 
disadvantage, and though the former has 
a measure of law applicable to the beating 
or otherwise maltreating of the ox, but none 
for the cruelty of killing him outright, we 
think both their systems, in the court of 
reason and humanity, will be seen to be 
indefensible, and especially so when the 
old fallacious notions which support the 
slaughter of animals for food in any way 
whatever, have been impartially examined. 


Our columns give the preliminary notice 
of this approaching meeting, and we learn 
that the number of guests, as well as 
the whole arrangement comprised in the 

plan of operations, will most likely secure 
one of the most important and useful 
Vegetarian gatherings hitherto witnessed in 
the progress of Vegetarianism. 


A RECEKT French work,* by M. Flourens, Professor of Comparative Physiology in 

.^ ^ ., , ., ^ ^ ^ T-^ Paris, affords some valuable conclusions 

* Human Longevity and the Amount of Life *-u« j-„* a-„ i. a £ j j.-u 

upon the G/oi6. Translated by c. Martel. 11. «», t^^? dietetic character of man, and the 

Bailliere. 11 following we select as most interesting, m 



relation to a question, much more completely 
settled, however, than most are aware or, 
if the history of diet, and the opinions of 
the greatest naturalists that have written on 
the subject, are to have their due weight, 
instead of the popular influence of prevail- 
ing custom. 

" A question that has much occupied 
the attention of physiologists,* and winch 
they have not decided, is, what could have 
been the natural food — the primitive diet of 
man ? According to some, it is herbivorous ; 
according to others, man has always been 
what we now see him : that is, at once 
herbivorous, and carnivorous, or omnivorous. 

" By comparative anatomy, we very well 
understand the condition of the herbivorous 
and of the carnivorous diet ; and it is easy 
to perceive that man, primitively, has been 
neither herbivorous (at least, essentially 
herbivorous) nor carnivorous, 

" The carnivorous animal has sharp 
molar teeth, a simple stomach and short 
intestines. The lion, for example, has all 
its molar teeth cutting, a small straight 
stomach, almost a canal, and intestines so 
short that they are only three times the 
length of the body. 

" Man has no sharp molar teeth ; his 
stomach is simple, but large ; and his intes- 
tines are seven or eight times the length 
of his body. Man, therefore, is not natu- 
rally carnivorous. In every animal, the 
form of the molar teeth indicates the food. 
The lion, which has only sharp molars, 
lives exclusively on prey, and even living 
prey ; the dog, which has two tuberculous 
molars, that is, with blunt point, is able 
to mix vegetables with his food ; the bear 
has all its teeth tuberculous, and can live 
entirely on vegetables. f 

" Man, then, is not carnivorous, neither is 
he essentially herbivorous. He does not 
possess for example, like the ruminating 
animal (the herbivorous animal, par ex- 
cellence), molar teeth, with crowns alter- 
nately hollow and raised, a stomach which 
is composed of four stomachs, and intestines 
even twenty-eight and forty-eight times 
longer than its body. The intestines of the 
sheep are twenty-eight times longer than 
its body ; those of the buffalo, thirty-two ; 
those of the ox, forty-eight, etc. 

* p. 97. 
+ A bear which I have fed nearly five years 
upon brown bread and carrots, has now no longer 
any desire to touch flesh. 

j "By his stomach, teeth, and intestines, 
I man is naturally and -^x\m\t\vQ\j frugivorous 
i like the ape. 

" But the frugivorous diet is, of all 
others, the most unfavourable, because it 
constrains animals subjected to it, never to 
quit the country where fruit is constantly 
found, that is, the warm countries. All the 
apes inhabit warm countries. 

"But man, when he had once discovered 
fire, when he had once prepared and made 
tender, by cooking, animal as well as vege- 
table substances, was able to feed upon all 
living creatures, and mix together every diet. 
" Man, therefore, has two diets : one 
natural, primitive, instinctive, by which he 
is frugivorous ; and he has an artificial 
diet, due entirely to his intelligence, by 
which he becomes omnivorous.^' 

As to the opinion on the frugivorous diet 
being most unfavourable, we have to dissent, 
knowing well the abundant resources of man 
to raise fruit wherever it suits him to dwell 
at all in accordance with nature. It is most 
erroneous to reason from the far off and 
degraded races at the extremes of creation, 
back to man in more normal relations ; and 
when we cease to make this mistake (as great 
as would be that of questioning morals, be- 
cause we cannot at once apply them to the 
offscourings of society), we can understand 
that man in a normal condition would either 
never inhabit the inclement fruitless re- 
gions of the earth, or would carry with 
him there the resources of other and 
more genial climes, as, indeed, civilized 
man ever does now, in degree, wherever 
he dwells. 

It is, of course, no objection to the in- 
terest of M. Flourens' opinion that he 
points out that man, after his discovery of 
fire, could live on the flesh of animals, as 
we see this amply proved. Our question is 
rather with what is natural, and thus, 
what is best worthy of attention, as most 
likely to be productive of happiness. And 
hence, as far as the evidence of M. Flou- 
rens affects the question, we have another 
modern physiologist agreed with Linnjeus, 
CuviER, Ray, Daubenton, and others, that 
the natural source of man's food is the vege- 
table kingdom, whatever he may come to 
eat " by acquired habits," our whole argu- 
ments and practice, so far as the subject re- 
lates to anatomy and physiology, being 
substantiated in this fact. 




As promised in our notice of last month, * 
advert to the recent article in the 
* No. 72, pp. 89, 90. 



columns of the Daily News, halting and 
stumbling in its details, but still only mainly 
censurable in the aspect of pretentiously 
treating a subject obviously not understood, 



and perhaps even only superficially con- 
sidered, concurrently with the passage of 
the pen over the paper in the process of 
reviewing it. 

The writer in question refers to the 
recent and approaching festivals in Man- 
chester, Glasgow, and Bii-mingham, and 
then remarks that the juhilations of A^egc- 
tarians are such as to lead to the supposi- 
tion that the movement is much greater 
than it really is — " a few working men," to 
the extent of several hundreds in all, having 
joined the organization — surprise being ex- 
pressed that the numbers should be so 
small, especially after the hearing of festivals 
fifteen years ago, and organization being 
now eight years old. 

We hardly need to correct the error of 
the conception that our festivals date even fif- 
teen years back, or again, that the movement 
is restricted to working men, because the 
facts of nearly all public occasions, as well 
as the statistics of Vegetarianism, show 
that the movement numbers persons of 
nearly every class of the well-ordered of 
society. As to the comparison of our 
organized numbers with the public influence 
of the movement, we at once confess that 
an association of less than one thousand 
members is far less than might be expected ; 
but, as admitted, considering that great 
numbers, amounting probably to thousands, 
are certainly affected, and have their 
dietetic practice altered or modified by the 
promulgation of Vegetarian theories and 
arguments (many, adopting the Vegetarian 
system altogether, whilst holding themselves 
apart from the organized expression of 
their convictions, whilst the rest are of the 
" all but" class and have at least lost their 
strong faith in the flesh of animals) ; it 
would not be less than absurd to measure 
our influence by the present number of 
members in the Society. 

The numbers, however, we are told, are 
of no great consequence : 

"Our concern with the Vegetarians is that 
they bear a useful relation, as far as they go, 
to certain public objects. It is not only that 
they discourage drunkenness, excess in eating, 
and cast their weight, such as it is, into the 
scale of frugal living, but they directly and 
fervently advocate the purification of the Thames, 
the abolition of the bad old practices of the 
shambles, and the economy of the sewage of 

We are obliged for the compliment to our 
earnestness in acknowledged good things, and, 
whilst we suggest that the bad practices of 
the shambles are by no means antiquated, if 
old— are more present and deformed than ever 
they were before in the history of meat- 
eating — we simply ask for a little con- 

sideration of our less understood question 
of Vegetarianism. 

It often happens that, in writing, as in 
speaking, when hard things have to be 
advanced, they are preceded by something 
as much as may be approaching to com- 
pliment or conciliation ; and thus, follow- 
ing the above matter, we are told that 
" we are not fair" in our "statements and 

"They have no wish or intention to be candid, 
and they make no pretence to it. They are 
people of one idea — possessed by an * enthusiasm ' 
— who employ themselves in presenting a case 
which is, in their own eyes, full of beauty and 
goodness, and in painting all other sides of the 
great food question in the most disgusting and 
shocking colours. They, thus far, of course, in- 
jure their own case, and impair their influence ; 
but they are so earnest and active, that it is a 
good to society when they get hold of a real 
mischief — like the cruelties of Siuithfield, and the 
gush of sewage into the Thames." 

And on our critic goes, to censure our 
many pleas, and what, to him, appears con- 
flicting in them, in which even Liebig is, 
somehow or other, involved, and his "no- 
torious weakness " referred to ; and, next, 
he suggests that our " British Brahminism" 
produces a more plentiful supply of 
butcher's meat for those who want it, 
with references to long periods of time to 
prove the correctness of our practice. The 
boasted health and spirits of Vegetarians are, 
at least, suspect ; and, in confirmation of 
this, we are told : 

"We have known rational and conscientious 
persons who have tried the Vegetarian experiment 
and have desisted for the sake of tVieir wits ; and, 
perhaps, our physicians could tell us some in- 
structive facts about the proportion of their 
moping patients in Vegetarian districts who owe 
their depression to their diet." 

As to our reputation for candour, we trust 
we need not enter on our defence because 
we are mistaken by a stranger. Our pur- 
pose being to benefit others, we can afford 
to be here and there misrepresented. But 
our critic forgets that we could not succeed 
in representing both sides of the question 
with the force we do, but for the truthfulness 
of our appeals. It is, truly, because the 
Vegetarian system is beautiful in its very 
details, and harmonizes precisely with nature 
and refinement, whilst the corresponding 
features of meat-eating are as much in anta- 
gonism with nature, that we have, from the 
first, a hold on public attention, and the 
reflection of all who are led to enter into 
honest inquiry as to what is reasonable and 
best, and the moral courage to deviate from 

j custom. 

I We are always inviting attention to " our 

pleas," and, if they be wrong, we shall benefit, 
as well as society, by their exposure ; but, 
hitherto, we cannot admit any valid reason- 
ing against them, and believe that none can 
be fairly produced. It is by the force of 
*'our pleas" that we alter the conviction, 
and change or modify the practice of so many 
who hear our arguments fully stated, and, 
if not sound, the eflPects produced could not 
be witnessed — the convictions of individuals 
being made evidence, in large numbers of 
people even, against the errors of their own 
dietetic practice. 

As to the time required for experiment, 
it is forgotten that the Vegetarian system 
is not new, but a fact of history and experi- 
ence in all time. Races, nations, armies, 
individuals, in the highest civilization of 
the past, have practised and proved it, 
Races as well as individual experience again 
prove its correctness now, and as regards 
society here, by the least fallacious of com- 
parisons — that of a man with his former 
self, whatever that might happen to be. 
The "boasted health and spirits" of Vege- 
tarians are but a popidar expression of this, 
and one commanding its measure of respect 
too. And as to the opinions of physicians, 
why, they can form few just ones of Ve- 
getarians, for the common accident of Vege- 
tarians is to take leave of them in getting 
into their improved practice ; and where re- 
quired, the experience is that the conserva- 
tive power of the body is higher than on 
the meat diet, and that less care and less 
medicine are required to render relief, or 
effect a cure. And again, if some have 
been found who said they had tried Vege- 
tarianism, and had to desist for their wit's 
sake, we venture to say the experiments 
tried were curious enough, if honestly dis- 
closed. We know of no such failures where 
intelligence and reason are brought to bear ; 
and whilst these experiments referred to 
may have been of the " biscuit and water " 
kind, or other similar ones not less un- 
reasonable, commonly to be associated with 
what are called " failures," the fact is, as 
even meat-eaters well know, the mind is 
clearer and readier for intellectual occu- 
pation, as the body is for labour, under 
a judicious practice of abstinence fi'om 

But after this we are told, 

" If we look a little further — to temper — there 
is something more certain before us ; something 
quite indubitable to observation. The Vege- 
tarians claim for themselves unbounded good 
humour ; and yet their publications are filled, 
from end to end, v;ith the coarsest imputations 
against the eaters of meat. All eaters of meat 
are called gross, coarse, and inhuman. That 
they are so is taken for granted, and all repre- 

sentations are grounded on the supposed fact. 
Pretty and attractive descriptions of fruits, vege- 
table dainties, and confectionary, and of arbours 
and picnics on grassy slopes, and of limpid 
streams, and so on, are contrasted with 'huge 
masses of meat,' ' bloody flesh,' and the like, to 
support the accusation of grossness, as if it were 
not possible, if their adversaries had a mind, to 
describe delicate speckled trout, and tender 
cutlets, and relishing ham, and juicy loins of 
mutton, and in the same breath, the swarms of 
insect life which are devoured with raw vege- 
tables, and boiled alive with cooked ones. The 
Vegetarians should remember the story of the 
Brahmin, who, when shown the animalcule life 
of the pure water he drank, broke the micro- 

And last, are remarks about the cruelty 
to animals " that must be perpetrated if men 
left off eating meat," — if animals were not 
allowed to exist in such numbers — ending 
by remarking, 

"But all such imputation and recrimination is 
a sad pity. What Vegetarians and all other people 
have to do is to eat what they find agrees with 
them best ; and ' Honi soil qui mat y jpense.' If 
they will be satisfied with doing this — or whether, 
indeed, they are so satisfied or not — we shall be 
thankful to them for all good services in advocating 
a reform in the shambles, a purification of the 
Thames, agricultural improvement, and a sober, 
frugal, and discreet method of living among the 
working men, to whom they are now particularly 
addressing themselves." 

But, really, have we again to disclaim raw 
and unwashed vegetables, or to repeat, once 
again, that the story of animalcule life in 
pure water is, like the hint of the Brahmin, 
purely a story of the least reputable kind — 
fermenting vegetable matter in water, or 
stagnant pond or ditch water, being required 
to produce the effects referred to ; or that, 
demand falling off, the supply of animals 
(created in obedience to the dictates of a taste 
for flesh) will also diminish in a progressive 
and insensible way } 

For the rest, we have here the evidence 
presented by large audiences, that there is a 
singular and convincing effect produced by a 
single honest exposition of our principles; 
for how else can we read these remarks, ob- 
viously suggested by the perusal of our recent 
number following the Annual Meeting of the 
Society ? and after we have set the matter 
right as to "temper," by saying that a great 
mistake is here made, and that while coarse 
expressions, as regard the system of eating the 
flesh of animals, are avoided by us, and no 
instance of reproach to individuals is offered, 
we can only fairly conclude that the matter 
about our denunciation is rather suggested 
by the conviction and imaginative per- 
ceptions of our critic, than by anything found 
in other Vesretarian writing. "We will not 



venture into the comparison suggested by the 
" speckled trout" (beautiful, truly, in a state 
of nature, like the other creatures commonly 
destroyed for food), "tender cutlets, and re- 
lishing ham," for this would be attempting 
to contrast the rude rhyme of artificial habit 
with the true poetry of nature, in her teeming 
stores of the vegetable kingdom, and this, 
like some of our other sayings, might be by 
mistake applied to the consciousness of the 
individual, rather than to the errors of the 
mixed "diet system. 

On the whole, then, whilst we apologize to 
our readers for the length of this notice, we 
congratulate them upon the additional evi- 
dence it presents of the soundness and im- 
portance of the arguments "which support the 
V egetarian practice. 


J. B. — The recent articles of several news- 
papers, provoked, no doubt, by the influence 
of the recent meetings and lectures in Scot- 
land and Newcastle, are none of them, we fear 
worthy of any notice in our limited space. 
The excellent President of the Society might 
well have been covered with proof arguments, 
from the little that seems to have been 
taken exception to, and which a moment's 
consideration on the part of the writer, if in 
candour and honesty, would not have dis- 
sipated. Our space, however, having already 
been much drawn upon in this direction, we 
must reserve any notice of the correspondence 
referred to, and merely here give a letter 
inserted in the Edinburgh News, with a reply 
by Mr. Simpson, a copy of which we are 
favoured with. 


" To the Editor of the Edinburgh News." 

" Sir — In Mr. Simpson's address on dietetic 
reform, as reported in the News of Saturday 
last, the following passages occur : — ' Scripture 
was supposed to sweep away all their arguments 
at once. Flesh-eating had been permitted since 
the flood ; but it would be admitted that a per- 
missive system was inferior to a direct appoint- 
ment.' And, farther on — 'Christ was sup- 
posed to have eaten fish. Some commentators, 
however, doubted what was meant by the word 
rendered 'fish;' and, while he would leave all 
in freedom, he begged to say that the most that 
could be said was, that Christ sat at table 
where this food was ; that he partook of it there 
was no direct evidence.' 

" 'The herb bearing seed and the tree bearing 
fruit ' were certainly given in the beginning to 
man for food, but at the same time there was 
given to every beast, fowl, and creeping thing, 
every green herb for meat ; and so, according to 
Mr. Simpson's mode of argument, no carnivo- 
rous animals were created until a later period. 
The ' permissive system ' introduced after the 
flood may or may not have been the commence- 
ment of flesh-eating, but the permission was 

certainly given as a blessing ; for we find in 
Genesis ix. that ' God blessed Noah and his 
sons,' and a part of the blessing was in these 
words — 'Every moving thing that liveth shall 
be meat for you.' In the institution of the 
feast of the Passover, this positive command is 
given — ' They shall eat the flesh (of the lamb 
appointed to be slain in every house) in that 
night roast with fire.' Again, when Elijah the 
prophet was in hiding by the brook Cherith, he 
was miraculously fed by the ravens with ' bread 
and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in 
the evening ' — a direct sanction, at least, of the 

'"Christ was supposed to have eaten fish; 
but,' says Mr. Simpson, ' that he partook of it 
there is no direct evidence.' But, turning to 
the 24th chapter of St. Luke, we find that the 
disciples ' gave him a piece of a broiled fish and 
of an honeycomb ; and he took it, and did eat 
before them.' And on many occasions he gave 
this food to others. Whatever doubts learned 
commentators may entertain as to the meaning 
of the -word rendered ' fish,' I humbly 
think that very little difference of opinion need 
exist on the subject : for we read of the disciples 
fishing with nets in the Sea of Tiberias and 
elsewhere, and I think it most probable that the 
fishes caught with nets in those days were at all 
events creatures of the same species as the fish 
caught now. 

'■'It appears to me that Vegetarians, in enforcing 
their views, are doing their utmost to inculcate 
error, and are teaching men to be guilty of in- 
gratitude, by rejecting and considering as little 
better than a curse that which has been given to 
us as a blessing. There is a passage in St. Paul's 
First Epistle to Timothy, which I conceive to 
have a very direct bearing on this subject — ' In 
the latter times some shall depart from the faith, 
giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of 
devils ; speaking lies in hypocrisy ; having their 
conscience seared with a hot iron ; forbidding to 
marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, 
i which God bath created to be received with 
thanksgiving of them which believe and know 
the truth. For every creature of God is good, 
and nothing to be refused, if it be received with 
thanksgiving." " I am, etc., 

"Udinburgh, IGth October, 1855." " T." 

" To the Editor of the Edinburgh News" 
" Sir — I beg to address a few remarks, rather 
under a sense of duty then in the spirit of con- 
troversy, with the object of correcting an impres- 
sion into which some of your readers may pro- 
bably have fallen, from the nature and obvious sin- 
cerity of the communication of your correspondent 
' T,' in your paper of Saturday last. In the ad- 
dress at the Queen Street Hall, as given (though 
somewhat at disadvantage) in the condensed 
report of the Edinburgh News of the 13th inst. it 
was attempted to be shown that the Vegetarian 
practice of diet is established in the natural con- 
stitution of man, as the only dietetic system in 
harmony with his physical, intellectual, and 
moral nature. In proof of this, arguments were 
presented in relation to the special instincts of 
man, to anatomy, physiology, chemistry, history, 

and experience, showing that man was not recon- , 
stituted with the permission to eat the flesh of 
animals after the flood, but that there is the 
same wisdom in subsistence upon fruits, roots, 
and grain, now, as there doubtless was in the 
original appointment of the ' herb bearing seed 
and the fruit tree yielding fruit,' in the primitive 
condition of man, when all things were declared 
to be ' very good.' 

"The remarks of your correspondent ' T,' 
would, however, though unintentionally, lead the 
reader to suppose that the Vegetarian system 
had been argued on scriptural grounds, and had 
thus a moral obligation attached to it, which was 
not the case. Scripture only being referred to in 
refutation of the statement that the Bible was 
opposed to Vegetarianism, except so far as to 
point out the history of the appointment of 
man's food, and the history of the question sub- 
sequent to the fall of man, to the sanction of 
which your correspondent refers. 

"I am the more anxious to correct this erro- 
neous impression, because the Vegetarian Society 
is an organization apart from any code of opinions 
whatever, and merely numbers within its ranks all 
who, having abjured the flesh of animals as food, 
are desirous of spreading a knowledge of the prac- 
tical benefit thence resulting. 

" I much regret, that your correspondent should 
have committed the mistake of cohcluding,. 'that 
Vegetarians, in enforcing their views, are doing 
their utmost to inculcate error, and are teaching 
men to be guilty of ingratitude, by rejecting and 
considering as little better than a curse that 
which has been given to us as a blessing.* A 
little consideration and a better acquaintance 
with the objects of the Vegetarian movement 
might, doubtless, have prevented this, as well as 
the offensive reference to the apostacy referred to 
by St. Paul in his epistle to Timothy. Vege- 
tarians, even if the common acceptation of the 
terra ' meats' be permitted, do not ' command ' 
to abstain at all, but simply invite to the con- 
sideration of the system, as more in accordance 
with nature, reason, and enlightened civilization, 
than preying upon the animal creation for what, 
iu sober fact, is vegetable nutriment after all, 
and if philosophically taken from the orchard, 
the garden, and the farm, might be had simply, 
cheaply, at first hand, and without the accidents 
of disease. 

" I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 


''Foxhill Bank, Oct. 25th, 1855." 

"VVe are happy to see that the object of 
Mr. Simpson in his letter, is to prevent 
misconception as to the object of the Vege- 
tarian movement, rather than to enter upon 
expositions of texts, or the theories of Scrip- 
ture, though much might doubtless be said 
upon the subject, were it not one which a 
little careful reading will readily settle in 
the minds of all who look beyond the mere 
letter of Scripture. 

THE "vegetarian HUMBUG " TRACT. 

H. J. — We withhold any further brief re- 

marks upon the tract mentioned in our last,* 
after observing, in accordance with our 
promise, that the gross perversion of the 
chemical statements, made by Liebig in 
speaking of the brine of meat, in his Letters 
on Chemistry, has already been exposed in 
the 3{essenger.f Liebig speaks of salt 
extracting the mineral or inorganic matter 
of meat covered with it, and that the brine 
formed, then contains nearly^all the nutritive 
parts of the meat, and proceeds to call this 
fluid surrounding the meat, " not common 
water, but soup, with all its constituents, 
organic and inorganic." The fallacy of the 
writer of the Vegetarian Humbug tract, 
consists in speaking of the 63 4-lOths of 
common water found in 100 lbs. of butcher's 
meat, as containing the ingredients of the 
brine above referred to, which is not the case, 
the whole available matter in the 100 lbs. 
of butcher's meat, of every kind, being only 
36 6-lOthslbs. 

Parts of three separate sentences of a 
page of Liebig's writing have to be joined 
together, rejecting all intermediate matter, to 
make up this garbled statement, " that the 
water of flesh is nutritive," and thus the 
absurdity is promulgated with the influence 
of a great name falsely attached to it. 

The other glaring misrepresentation con- 
sists in conveying to the minds of strangers 
that there is some religious creed attached to 
Veo-etarianism. The Vesretarian organiza- 
tion having neither creed or moral opinions 
to be subscribed to, but simply abstinence 
from flesh, and co-operation to make known 
its benefits to others " as a bond of union," 
it is needless to say it embraces every one, 
however varied their opinions, and thus does 
practically embrace all classes of religionists, 
without the Society being identified with 
any. The effect of the tract is thus, here 
again, to pervert and mislead. 

We fear the tract in question is not worthy 
of further notice, but shall be glad see what 
H. J. can offer as useful in connexion with 
the subject, if he thinks well to condense his 
remarks to a brief space 


S. J. — We give some comments upon the 
case referred to in our present number^, 
and here present the best notice we have 
seen of the case, for the perusal of S. J. and 
our other readers, from the Daily News, 

Curious Question-— Slaughtering of 
Animals for Food. — A momentous ques- 
tion was on Tuesday submitted for the deci- 
sion of the Lord Mayor's Court — the com- 
parative humanity of Jewish and Christian 

* Controversialist and Correspondent,'^. Q\. 
+ Vol. ill, Controversialist and Correspondent,"^. 2. 
X p. 95. 



butchers. The Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, under a profound con- 
viction that the former are in the habit of 
inflicting unnecessary cruelty upon the bullocks 
they slaughter, have conceived the brilliant idea 
of converting them to the gentler process of the 
latter, by exacting from them the penalties of the 
Act of Parliament passed in 1849. It appeared 
in evidence, that the Jewish and Christian modes 
of slaughtering a bullock — at least in the London 
slaughter-houses — areas follow: — The Jews cut 
the throat of the aiiimal, and allow him to bleed 
to death. The Christiana cleave its skull with a 
pole-axe, and thrust a cane into the aperture, 
"to stir about the brains." As far as we can 
judge from description, we should be disposed 
to say that the spectacle presented by the Chris- 
tian process is the more revolting and brutalising 
of the two. It is, however, possible that it may 

subject the animal to less suffering. But how is 
this to be ascertained ? It is said that the animal 
is longer in dying by the Jewish than by the 
Christian process ; but does it thence follow of 
necessity that the pain suffered is more intense? 
Classical readers will recal the story of the old 
Romans under the tyrant Emperors, who chose 
death by bleeding as the least painful mode. 
The evidence on this point submitted to the 
Court of the Lord Mayor was in a great measure 
hypothetical. Such being the state of the case, 
the decision of Sir Peter Laurie was sensible 
and just — that it did not appear that the mode of 
slaughter adopted by the Jews, inflicted so much 
more pain on the slaughtered animal as to 
warrant the oft'ering of any shock to their 
religious opinions. And, consequently, it is with 
regret that we learn the determination of the So- 
ciety to carry the matter before a higher tribunal. 



to move. A small amount of the food 
being now expended in the production of 
motion, the pig rapidly increases in size.* 
This experiment forms an excellent illustra- 
tion of the theory, that force is produced by 
an expenditure of matter. — Dr. Lyon 

War suspends the rules of moral obliga- 
tion, and what is long suspended is in dan- 
ger of being totally abrogated. Civil wars 
strike deepest of all into the manners of the 
people. They vitiate their politics ; they 
corrupt their morals ; they prevent even the 
natural taste and relish of equity and justice. 
By teaching us to consider our fellow- 
creatures in an hostile light, the whole body 
of our nation becomes gradually less dear to 
us. The very names of affection and kin- 
dred, which were the bonds of charity 
whilst we agreed, become new incentives to 
hatred and rage when the communion of our 
country is dissolved. — Burke. 


Probably none of Liebig's theories may 
appear so problematical as that which asserts 
that every manifestation of force, however 
trivial, is accompanied by a change of matter 
in the body. Yet there is no theory which 
can be more easily proved by reference to 
your own experience. You are well aware 
that poultry feeders confine their poultry 
when it is necessary to fatten them quickly. 
The cruel practice of nailing the feet of 
geese to the ground during fattening is owing 
to the anxiety of avaricious feeders to pre- 
vent the expenditure of a particle of the 
food by the motion of the animal. The 
greatest part* of the food consumed by an 
animal thus deprived of the means of motion 
goes to the production of fat. When pigs 
are put up to be fattened, they are removed 
from the yard in which exercise is permitted, 
and placed in a narrow sty, with little room 

* Not all, because the involuntary motions, such 
as those of the heart and intestines, still proceed, 
and the heat of the body has to be sustained by the 
combustion of a portion of the food. 


The Croat labourers astonish all who see 
them, by the enormous loads they carry, and 
by their great physical strength and en- 
durance. Broad-chested, flat-backed men, 

* An excellent proof of this view has been kindly 
pointed out to me by Mr. W. Stage, of Berwick, 
near Lewes, The experiment was performed by 
Lord Egremont, about the end of the last century, 
and is described in Young's Survey of Sussex, in 
the following "words ; — 

' ' As there were some hogs that we wanted to keep 
over the summer, seven of the largest were put up 
to fat on the 25th of February ; they were fatted 
U! on barley-meal, of which they had as much as 
they could eat. Some days after, the observation 
of a particular circumstance suggested the fol- 
lowing experiment: — A hog, nearly of the same 
size as the seven, but who had not been put up with 
them, because they appeared rather larger, but 
without weighing them, was confined on the 4th of 
March in a cage made of planks, of which one side 
was made to move with pegs, so as to fit exactly the 
size of the hog, with small holes at the bottom, to al- 
low the water to drain from him, and a door behind 
to remove the soil. The cage stood upon four feet, 
about one foot from the ground, and was made to 
confine the hog so closely, that he could only stand 
up to feed, and lie down on his belly. He had 
only two bushels of barley meal, and the rest of 
his food was boiled potatoes. They were all killed 
on the 13th of April, and the weights were as 
follows (8 lbs. to the stone); — 
The hog in the cage . . . 13 st. 2 lbs. 
The average weight of the other hogs, 

all of the same breed . . . list. 3 lbs. 

The hog in the cage was weighed before he was 
put in alive, 11 st, 1 lb. ; he was kept five weeks, and 
then weighed alive, 18 st. 3 lbs. He had two 
bushels of barley-meal, and about eight bushels of 
potatoes. He was quite sulky for the first two 
days, and would eat nothing." 

round-shouldered, with long arms, lean 
flanks, thick muscular thighs, and their calf- 
less legs — feeding simply, and living quietly 
and temperately — the Croats perform daily 
an amount of work in conveying heavy 
articles on their backs, which would amaze 
any one who has not seen a Constantinople 
hamal. Their camp, outside the town, is 
extremely picturesque, and, I am bound to 
add, dirty. A rich flavour of onions impreg- 
nates the air for a considerable distance 
around, mingled with reminiscences of an- 
cient Parmesan, and the messes which the 
nasty-handed Phillises dress for themselves 
do not look very inviting, but certainly con- 
tain plenty of nutriment, and are better, I 
dare say, than the tough pork and tougher 
biscuit of our own ration. The men are like 
Greeks of the Isles in dress, arms, and car- 
riage ; but they have an expression of honest 
ferocity, courage, and manliness in their 
faces, which at once distinguishes them 
from their Hellenic brethren. "We have also 
a number of strong hamals in our service, 
who are very useful as beasts of burden to 
the commissariat. — Times^ Correspondent, 
March 2nd, 1855. 


African epicures esteem as one of their 
greatest delicacies a tender young monkey, 
highly seasoned and spiced, and baked in a 
jar set in the earth, with a fire over it, in 
gipsy fashion. — A Month at Algiers. 


The poorest and humblest amongst us, who 
has his own little earnings to spend, devotes 
a small part of it to the purchase of tea or 
coffee. He can barely buy bread and milk, 
or potatoes and salt, yet the cup of tea or 
coffee is preferred to the extra potato or the 
somewhat larger loaf. And if thereby his 
stomach is less filled, his hunger is equally 
stayed, and his comfort, both bodily and 
mental, wonderfully increased. He will 
probably live as long under the one regimen 
as the other ; and while he does live, he 
will both be less miserable in mind, and will 
show more blood and spirit in the face of 
difficulties, than if he had denied himself 
his trifling indulgence. Besides the mere 
brickwork and marble, so to speak, by Avhich 
the human body is built up and sustained, 
there are rarer forms of matter upon which 
the life of the body and the comfort of ani- 
mal existence most essentially depend. This 
truth is not unworthy the consideration of 
those to whom the arrangement of the 
dietaries of our prisons, and other public 
institutions, has been intrusted. So many 
ounces of gluten, and so many of starch and 

fat, are assigned by these food-providers as 
an ample allowance for everyday use. From 
these dietaries, except for the infirm and the 
invalid, tea and coffee are for the most part 
excluded. And in this they follow the 
counsel of those who have hitherto been re- 
garded as chief authorities on the chemistry 
of nutrition. But it is worthy of trial 
whether the lessening of the general bodily 
waste which would follow the consumption 
of a daily allowance of coffee, would not 
cause a saving of gluten and starch equal to 
the cost of the coffee ; and should this not 
prove the case, whether the increased com- 
fort and happiness of the inmates, and the 
greater consequent facility of management, 
would not make up for the difference, if any . 
The inquiry is an interesting one in physio- 
logical economics, and it is not undeserving 
of the serious attention of those benevolent 
minds which, in so many parts of our islands, 
have found in the prisons and houses of cor- 
rection their most favourite fields of exer- 
tion. — Johnston's Chemistry of Common Life. 


These plants are rarely grown in England, 
and then only as food for cattle. In most 
parts of the Continent they are cultivated 
for the use of man, and the seeds are made 
into soups, or become an ingredient in other 
culinary preparations. They are readily 
softened by, and mixed with water, forming 
with it a pottage of a chocolate colour. In 
Catholic countries, where the formulary 
enjoins a number of meagre days, such 
plants as the kidney bean, and the lentil 
are more cultivated than they are in coun- 
tries where the religion of the people does 
not prescribe the same observances. In 
England there are no fasts scattered through 
the year, on which the people are expected 
to subsist upon pulse, with the addition of 
vegetable oils. The use of haricots and 
lentils is therefore but little known in this 

According to the analysis of Dr. Play- 
fair, the lentil contains more nitrogenous 
matter than any of the leguminosse, and 
consequently is more nutritious where 
digested than any of the other forms of 
leguminous seeds.* The lentil is con- 
sumed in the East in considerable quanti- 
ties, and a curious proof of its value as 
a nutritious diet is afforded by the use 
which is made of it amongst the Hindoos, 
who always have recourse to lentils in addi- 
tion to their rice when engaged in laborious 
work, such as rowing on the Ganges, etc.— 
H. C. in Family Friend. 

* See Vegetarian Messenger, vol. iii. Contro- 
versialist and Correspondent, p. 25. 




The whole proceedings in connection with 
the recent Festival in Birmingham, have, 
we learn, proved highly satisfactory to all 
present, whether as guests or as Vegetarians, 
interested in the success of the undertaking. 
The appearance of the Town Hall, highly 
decorated as it is, with its nine long lines of 
tables decorated with bouquets of flowers 
and evergreens, was at once striking and 
beautiful, and when the seats were filled 
with guests, and the complete provision of 
the entertainment placed before them, all 
doubt as to the practicability of the Vege- 
tarian system of living, seemed, with the 
merest stranger, for the time at least, 
most effectually removed. 

Nor have we reason to say less of the 

reception of the intellectual entertainment 
that followed, interspersed with brilliant 
pieces of music by a large and most effective 
orchestra, and received with the liveliest 
interest by the audience, largely increased 
after the Banquet was over, by the admis- 
sion of strangers to the great gallery, and 
side galleries of the Hall. 

On the whole, we remember no entertain- 
ment so complete in arrangements as this, 
and with the able assistance rendered from 
a distance, think the promise of a festival, 
"on a scale of magnificence" hitherto un- 
surpassed, was amply redeemed by our 
Birmingham friends, and that its influence 
must tend considerably to the advancement 
of Vegetarianism in the midland counties. 


We have little to intimate to our subscribers 
and friends, in relation to the close of 
another period of our labours in their ser- 
vice, and that of the Vegetarian cause, 
beyond the fact that we hope to continue 
our efforts to extend the knowledge of Ve- 
getarianism, as usual, with the commence- 
ment of the coming year. 

In reviewing the period since the Annual 
Meeting, it is encouraging to notice the 
number of large and important meetings 
that have taken place both in Scotland and 
England, as well as the Banquets given 
in Glasgow and Birmingham, and with a 
proposed visit of the President of the So- 
ciety to Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Essex, 
if not to London also, during the course of 
the present month, we think there is encou- 
raging evidence of activity, such as affords 
the best earnest of usefulness during the 
approaching year. 

The season, however, is one of profitable 


reflection for all, and especially so if the 
short comings of each during the past year 
be carefully reviewed, in the honest purpose 
of discharging many obligations to the 
world in the coming year, which have been 
permitted either to lie over, or have only 
received a very limited share of our atten- 
tion during the present year. We have, 
doubtless, many zealous friends and earnest 
workers in the spread of Vegetarianism, and 
others who subscribe liberally of their means 
to this end ; but what we seek, and hope 
for, is a still more extended service of our 
cause, both in money and advocacy, than we 
are now favoured with, and such as shall 
bring out and absorb the power for useful- 
ness of many who are not now active co- 
workers with us. May we not reasonably 
hope that the year 1856 will call into acti- 
vity this comparatively unproductive capital, 
and from this time make it abundantly pro- 
ductive in the service of humanity ! 


It is singular that so many pertinent facts, 
illustrating the sufficiency and complete- 
ness of the Vegetarian practice of diet, 
should so constantly present themselves 
to every observer in every country of the 
world, including those the most flesh-eat- 
ing, without these appearing to have their 



due weight, or, indeed, to have been noticed. 
A small section only of the people of the 
earth, amounting only to from a fourth to a 
third of the whole, consume flesh habitually, 
whilst the remaining two-thirds to three- 
fourths subsist upon the products of the vege- 
table kingdom. But still the popular con- 



viction is anything but in accordance with 
this ; and though in every country of Europe 
most advanced in arts and civilization, the 
notion prevails that *' everybody eats meat," 
we find that these even are no exceptions, 
but that here, as elsewhere, the great bulk of 
the hard work of the world is done upon a 
diet ranging between the various articles of 
vegetable food, the flesh of animals being 
rarely used. 

An interesting incident of the observations 
of Professor Cubi, of Barcelona, a distin- 
guished mental philosopher, amply corro- 
borates these conclusions in relation to 

" In the province of Spain, called Ya- 
lencia, we find a race of men and women, 
celebrated for strength and beauty beyond 
those of other parts of the country ; this is 
a fact so well known that I need make no 
comment upon it. These people live en- 
tirely upon rice and other vegetable products. 
In Gallago, also, you find a very strong 
race of men. If you wish a proof, I refer 
you to the documents of "Wellington, who 
speaks of them as the finest and bravest race 
in Spain. Ninety-nine out of every hundred 
of these live on bread made of Indian corn ; 
and, if they eat anything else, it is the leaves 
of turnips boiled with this bread. In the 
province in which I was born, again, the 
people live upon vegetables, and chiefly 
upon Indian corn, not made into bread, but 
simply boiled ; and, certainly, I never saw a 
race of men finer, gayer, or more pleased 
with their work. When I arrived in Eng- 
land, some three years ago, having been ac- 
customed to hear it spoken of as ' the garden 
of the world,' I was very much surprised 
to see the greatest portion of the land em- 
ployed for raising food for cattle. Can a 

nation be called great which fills its fields 
with food for animals chiefly ^ In Spain 
you will find scarcely a field that is not filled 
with the produce of grain for the food of 

" Until visiting England, I had no know- 
ledge of a higher principle of living than 
that which commonly prevails ; but now I 
see that this principle was held by men of 
ancient times. It is not a question of to- 
day merely ; I see that all men, and animals 
too, in proportion as they rise in morals and 
excellence, are distinguished by adherence 
to Vegetarian diet. AVhich is the largest 
animal in the brute creation .►> Is he not a 
Vegetarian } What are the most useful 
animals ? The horse, and camel, and others 
of that kind. These, too, are Vegetarians. 
Which are the most destructive and merci- 
less ? Are they not the carnivorous tribes ? 
This is right: it is correct; just as it 
ought to be." 

Another striking fact overlooked, is the 
small amount of the flesh of animals con- 
sumed, as compared with the bulk of other 
vegetable matter*; whilst, notwithstanding, 
the fiesh-meat has the credit of doing n'early 
everything in supplying the wants of the 

Professor Cubi remarks, that until visiting 
this country, and having his attention 
directed to the subject, " the higher principle 
of living" had not engaged his attention; 
and it is just here, no doubt, as everywhere 
else, the force of habitual thinking and 
acting has to be arrested, to give time for 
new perceptions and reflection, before the 
truths which prevail around us can be dis- 
cerned, and again serve as guides in the 
paths of nature and of happiness, from 
which we have wandered. 



J. B. — The newspapers that presented con- 
troversial articles after the visit of the Pre- 
sident of the Society to Scotland and New- 
castle, were the Glasgow Examiner^ the 
Edinburgh Weekly Herald, the Gateshead 
Observer, and the Newcastle Chronicle. In 
each of the three first, the prominent cha- 
racter of the leading article was adopted, 
and, in the last, a secondary notice similar 
to what was adopted in the leading weekly 
communications of interest and novelty. The 
writing of the Glasgow Examiner, as before- 
time, was an attempt at severe criticism, espe- 
cially upon the address of Mr. Pillsbury, 
under the assumption of false conclusions of 
its own invention. The other three articles 
are best characterized as " harmless attempts 
to say something, without knowing precisely 


what to be at," much of which would pro- 
bably have been spared if the writers had 
only either not felt obliged to write, or 
had known more of the subject in question. 
We give one of the articles from the Weekly 
Herald, the most respectable of the three 
in point of matter, save for its absurd heading 
of " The Modern Nebuchadnezzar s," to serve 
as a specimen of the three referred to : 

" Societies and movements have been organized 
in our day for every conceivable cause under the 
sun; and, of course, some thorough reform is 
contemplated in every cause. What formerly 
was a mere idea, obtruding itself as an oral or 
written advice to a limited circle of acquaint- 
ances, and seeking to cure some foolish or per- 
nicious habit, now gets consolidated into a 
palpable and bulky association, consisting of a 
staff of office-bearers, a code of laws, and as 
large a bag of funds as can be obtained by beg- 



ging. The number of such societies is im- 
mense, and you can scarcely name a thing to be 
avoided but you will find some pompous organi- 
zation expressly framed and worked to put it 
down. Whilst some are urgently needed, and 
admirably and successfully conducted for the 
reduction of great social evils, not a few are 
ludicrously trifling, as if their projectors and 
supporters meant to caricature the idea of all 
societies, and to quiz the public. Men and 
women are banded together in hundreds of 
thousands, pledging themselves to abstain from 
intoxicating drinks, and striving to banish in- 
temperance from the land ; but immediately 
alongside there is a company of highly fastidious 
and delicate folks, who live in imitation of Nebu- 
chadnezzar when he was insane, refuse to eat 
animal food, and seek to convert mankind to an 
exclusively vegetable diet. In an age when so 
much necessity and so many opportunities exist 
for assailing the overwhelming mass of physical 
and moral evils all around, when there are ample 
scope and irresistible motives for every well-doer 
to set about primary reforms, it is surely worse 
than ludicrous to see earnest apostles of Vegeta- 
rianism, and sworn enemies of animal food, the 
use of which no moralist or theologian can show 
to be in the least improper, nor medical men to 
be in the least hurtful to health. In our own 
city, a large and important public meeting is 
held one day to consider measures bearing upon 
the reduction of our crying national intempe- 
rance; and here, too, on the day following, a 
gathering of the Edinburgh Vegetarian Associa- 
tion took place to do battle against a diet of 
fish, flesh, and every dish got by slaughter. The 
evil, physical, moral, and mental, is surely so 
infinitesimal, that, in the presence of manifold 
and palpable wickedness, it may well be left 
alone until the Millennium ; and then, in a 
restored paradisaic state, it may be asked if 
Adam did not subsist entirely on fruit, and if 
we may not follow his example. 

"All the speakers at the Edinburgh meeting 
expatiated on their high state of health person- 
ally. They were in a splendid sanitary condition, 
for which Vegetarianism got all the praise. 
There is no bore like the person who is ever 
talking either of his good or his bad health. 
He carries the atmosphere of a hospital about 
with him ; and, when he opens his hps, you 
fancy a castor-oil bottle uncorked and brought 
under your nose to afflict you with squeamish- 
ness. His conversation is nothing but a lengthy 
medical bulletin, telling of headaches, stomach- 
pains, etc. etc., either endured or escaped. The 
Vegetarian is such a bore of the first magnitude. 
If he talk about the system advocated, it is 
always in gross and morbid connection with his 
own system, especially in the abdominal region. 
He cannot mention apples, and still more 
pleasant fruit, without a reference to his bowels ; 
and the branches and foliage vanish in a world 
of 'tripe.' And yet, Vegetarians, who make 
everybody near them so squeamish, pretend, 
like Mr. Simpson, to view ' raw-flesh as offen- 
sive to the sight and touch of man,' and the 
'odour of burned flesh [Mr. Simpson's would- 

be sarcastic phraseology for roast beef] as " 
disgusting.' Yet, after some slight experience, 
we would rather pass an hour in a butcher's 
shop, or in the close neighbourhood of cooking, 
than in a Vegetarian's drawing-room, especially 
if he were present to descant upon his health. 

" Mr. Simpson, from Lancashire, was one of 
the principal speakers. He gave statistics and 
details of the progress of the cause. Seventy- 
nine members of the Society in England ' had 
been Vegetarians ail their lives ! ' Save us from 
meeting, either in public or in private, with any 
of that number, for with what a forty-horse 
power would they speak of their health, with 
what an infectiously vivid disgust would they 
discourse upon 'burned flesh,' and with what 
revolting minuteness would they show how every 
particle of their own sweet and pure bodies was 
composed of ' split peas, Spanish beans, and 
lentils ! ' We shall not follow Mr. Simpson 
into his proofs that a vegetable diet is the more 
humane, nutritive, and cheap. He cannot annihi- 
late every day experience that the use of animal 
food does not infuriate or debase heart and in- 
tellect, nor poison and injure the body. He 
states that no Vegetarian has ever died of 
cliolera. We overlook the fact that, generally, a 
free use of vegetables superinduces tendencies to 
cholera, and the inference that an exclusive use 
should give more decided tendencies, and con- 
tent ourselves with hinting that the very, very 
small number of Vegetarians may furnish the 
true reason of the non-mortality. We daresay 
that, if a society were formed of men who chose 
to walk on their heads, it would be found, after a 
general visitation of cholera, that they had escaped. 
" Another speaker was Mr. Nelson, from 
Manchester, who sought to show, by actual 
instances, that a vegetable diet is favourable to 
the growth and cultivation of the intellect. 
Pythagoras, Swedenborg, and John 
Wesley, were adduced. Why was Nebu- 
chadnezzar, as both a scriptural and royal 
example, omitted ? 

" The meeting was then favoured with addresses 
from two members of the Society in our own city, 
giving valuable information- — as we formerly re- 
marked that all Vegetarians were prone to do — 
about their own physical system and state of 
health. The one communicated to the public 
what his exact weight, imperial standard, for the 
last twenty years had been, adding the cheering 
fact that his adoption of Vegetarianism had not 
subtracted a single ounce ; and the other 
revealed that, by becoming a Vegetarian, he had 
succeeded in getting rid of a * pain in his sto- 
mach," which had been a troublesome lodger 
there for the long lease of twenty years, and 
that now 'he could not tell in what part of 
his body his stomach lay.' His squeamish 
hearers would have thanked him had he kept 
them in ignorance of his ' stomach ' altogether." 

Our impression on reading such an eiFu- 
sion as the above, is, first, one of regret that 
any one should feel obliged to write such 
matter ; and next, that something less gratui- 
tous and inventive should not have been 



■ dwelt upon. All the speakers did not expa- 
tiate upon, or even refer to personal health, 
and if they had done so, the reference 
would have been by no means out of place. 
We need hardly say that the remarks about 
Vegetarians boring others with communica- 
tions and conversations about their health 
are absurd, and that they no more rejoice in 
the reference imputed to them, than in the 
matter suggested by it, which, unfortunately 
for propriety, in more respects than one, is 
still a common article of diet amongst more 
than the lowest classes in Scotland. 

The reference to the history of Nebu- 
chadnezzar will, of course, be good only 
when we advocate the eating of grass, and 
thus can be left in its absurdity. The evils 
of error in diet are by no means " infini- 
tesimal," but, we argue, are at the root of 

the larger social evils of society. Had our 
critic not better, therefore, have waited and 
reflected before writing ! Temperance cannot 
hold her own without our system ; and 
before the "Millennium" can arrive, the 
practice of men must harmonize with the 
state so typified — " when nothing shall hurt 
or destroy," — with the practice of which 
the slaughter of animals and preying on 
their flesh is, of course, incompatible. 

The above will serve as a comment on an 
article, the result, we incline to think, rather 
of the error of writing too soon than of any 
thing less favourable ; and we trust that a 
future time may prove to the writer, that 
the principles he has mistaken are essential, 
or have at least certainly much to do with 
the removal of the "great social evils" of 
the world, for which attention is claimed. 



"As horses start aside from objects they see 
imperfectly, so do men. Enmities are ex- 
cited by an indistinct view ; they would be 
allayed by conference. Look at any long 
avenue of trees, by which the traveller ou our 
principal highways is protected from the 
sun. Those at the beginning are wide 
apart ; but those at the end almost meet. 
Thus happens it frequently in opinions. Men 
who were far asunder, come nearer and 
nearer in the course of life, if they have 
strength enough to quell, or good sense 
enough to temper and assuage, their earlier 


In addition to the illustrations presented of 
the LiEBiG theory of the production of 
force,* we have an ample and most forcible 
illustration of the want of consideration and 
cruelty which characterize the acts of man, 
when once he has resolved to have the bodies 
of animals to meet the demands of appetite. 
In the abstract, men are ready to claim credit 
to themselves for causing temporary periods 
of satisfaction to numbers of animals, that, 
without the demand for their flesh as food, 
would not be called into existence ; and, 
whilst the abnormal states which such ani- 

*p. 101. 


mals have to encounter in one period or 
other of their lives, on reasonable considera- 
tion, amply balances these accidental plea- 
sures referred to, it is obvious that there 
is no calculation or consideration for them 
whatever, as the above experiments amply 
attest, beyond what the direst self-interest 
can suggest. The argument otherwise, too, 
is spurious, it being no part of the object 
of meat-eaters to produce these happy re- 
sults ; but, as above seen, to have the de- 
mands of an artificial appetite satisfied, 
without any regard to considerations in- 
volving the sufi'ering and death of animals. 

J. S. J. 


" Men of thought ! be up and stirring 

Night and day : 
Sow the seed — withdraw the curtain— 

Clear the way ! 
Men of action, aid and cheer them. 

As ye may ! 
Aid the dawning — tongue and pen ; 
Aid it, hopes of honest men : 
Aid it, paper — aid it, type — 
Aid it, for the hour is ripe ; 
And our earnest must not slacken 

Into play. 
Men of thought, and men of action. 

Clear the way! " 





On Friday evening, December Stli, a lecture 
on Flesh JSatinff, Its History, Defenders, and 
Defences, was given by Mr. Wm. Sandeman, 
Secretary of the Association, in the New 
Jerusalem School Room, Accrington. 

James Simpson, Esq., President of the 
Association, occupied the chair, and in in- 
troducing the subject of the lecture, said — 

He feared that if he spoke more than gene- 
rally, he might anticipate some feature of the 
lecture. He would therefore make only a few 
brief remarks, and then they would proceed to 
the principal feature of the evening. It was a 
very strange world in which we lived. He did 
not, however, believe in the denunciations of 
evil sometimes indulged in concerning it. Man- 
kind did not mean to be in error : people lived 
in error rather through a species of blindness 
than from voluntary wrong-doing. He liked to 
regard the world in this aspect, since he be- 
lieved it accounted for much of the want of 
obedience to moral and physical laws we saw 
around us, but which, certainly, loudly pro- 
claimed the world to be in error. If, then, there 
was so much error, and if this, again, kept 
people from seeing their true position, we must 
all admit that questions of diet might be in- 
volved in this disorder. They had, therefore, on 
that occasion, again invited attention to another 
feature touching dietetic reform, or the Vege- 
tarian question. They did not reproach the world 
for wrong doing in this direction. Nothing could 
be farther from his mind than to speak of flesh- 
eating as a " moral otfence " ; for, since nine- 
tenths of society had never had two thoughts 
upon the subject, and had been brought up in 
the custom of flesh-eating, this would be ob- 
viously wrong. Supposing, however, for the 
sake of argument, that the meat-eating system 
was a mistaken one, they had a great deal to 
contend with before they could enlighten the 
world upon this subject. All truth had to 
battle with error. In former times, the world 
persecuted men for stating new truths, or even 
put them out of the world altogether. It was in 
this way that Copernicus was near being 
treated, when he stated that the earth turned 
round the sun, instead of the sun turning round 
the earth, as was then supposed — he had to 
leave the world in haste, to avoid the persecu- 
tion that awaited him. We saw, indeed, how 
he would have been treated, had his life been 
continued, from the fate of his successor Gali- 
leo, who was brought before the Inquisition, 
and on his bended knees made to say the 
truth referred to was a lie, and that the sun 

did really move round the earth. We had 
happily got beyond these follies now ; and thus, 
now-a-days, if a man could even give more rea- 
sons for wearing the hair on the face, where 
nature obviously intended it to grow, than for 
putting a lather of soap upon it every morn- 
ing, and scraping this off again along with 
the fresh growth of hair, he could do so, 
whilst those who still pleased to scrape, were 
likewise at liberty to do so. The illustra- 
tion served to show that there was thus much 
more personal freedom in the present than in 
former times, and where they used to persecute 
we now contented ourselves with merely laugh- 
ing a little. If, then, the foolish "cabbage- 
eating" Vegetarian system, as it was often con- 
sidered, would not stand a laugh, backed, it 
might be, by the dictum of some medical man, 
who could not reasonably be expected to un- 
derstand one half so much of the question at 
issue as any real experimenter in Vegetarianism 
(not having examined and studied it, and, above 
all, practically tested it, as he had), it would be 
a poor system indeed, and could not be expected 
to progress. Let them not, then, be deterred 
by the reception of new truths, since the Great 
Propounder of Christianity itself was said " to 
be mad," and " have a devil." One great reason 
why the world did not progress faster than it 
did, in relation to morals, as well as physical 
well-being, was, that people did not like to take 
the trouble to change their personal habits. A 
great number of people were guided in their 
practices by the " I like it " declaration, which 
had been so well rebuked by Dean Swift. How 
few persons, on being convinced of an erroneous 
practice, had the honesty and the resolution to 
acknowledge and carefully carry out a different 
practice ! How many months, and even years in 
some cases, were allowed to elapse before the 
convictions of the understanding were reduced to 
practice ! Who would dare to depart from pre- 
vailing practice, though erroneous, themselves 
embrace the truth, and lead the way to others ? 
It needed a little moral courage to enable an in- 
dividual in this way to depart from prevailing 
custom, and devote himself to the interests of 
high and noble truths ; but, at the same time, it 
was seen that this separation from the ordinary 
thinking and acting of the world, was an essen- 
tial of all moral progress. He thought, thus, it 
was mistakes that led to error, rather than the 
desire to do wrong, and it was in this way only 
that he believed people were wrong on the ques- 
tion of diet. They all, then, required forbearance 
in dealing with each other on these questions, and 
need not be surprised at the slow progress of a 

given truth, since eveu Christianity, in 185i, had 
by no means converted the earth, and after more 
than eighteen hundred years had been spent in 
teaching its principles, how far was even the 
professedly Christian portion of it from its high 
and pure spirit. He thought the errors in rela- 
tion to eating and drinking, and their associated 
practices, had much to do in maintaining that 
broad disparity that unfortunately existed be- 
tween the high professions and exceedingly de- 
fective practices of men. It was happy, therefore, 
as well as wise, to meet to hear a lecture on this 
subject about to be addressed to them, in order 
that an opportunity might be given for inquiry 
in this direction, and with a view to ascertaining 
how much external habits, commonly overlooked, 
had to do with this serious result. (Applause.) 
Mr. Simpson then called upon Mr. Sandeman 
to deliver his lecture, who spoke as follows : — 

Mr. Chairman and Friends — Before pro- 
ceeding with this evening's lecture I would 
make one or two preliminary remarks. In the 
first place, it will be observed that the facts and 
arguments to be presented to your notice, are 
not entirely new, but that they have, for the 
most part, been either written or spoken upon 
before. The apology for this, it appears to me, 
lies in the fact, that seven years since the Vege- 
tarian Society was formed, and during that time 
many lectures have been delivered, meetings held, 
and publications issued from the press, upon the 
subject of Vegetarianism. If, however, I am not 
able to present facts entirely new, I may, perhaps, 
place the old facts in a new light. No man 
occupies precisely the same spot of ground that 
another does at the same time, and hence, a 
number of persons will view the same object 
from different points of observation, and will 
each give different descriptions of it, yet all of 
them correct : so, in like manner, I may give you 
fresh descriptions of old objects, which you may 
have often heard described before. You will also 
observe, that the two first divisions of the lecture 
are chiefly descriptive, and you must not, there- 
fore, be disappointed should you not find an 
argument in every sentence. In the third part of 
the lecture, which will be argumentative, I shall 
apply the facts narrated in the first two parts. 
You, no doubt, have remarked that the title of 
the lecture is "Flesh-eating," and not "Vegeta- 
rianism." Though to superficial observers it may 
appear a matter of indifference which term is 
used, it is not really so. The term Vegeta- 
rianism, is applied to the practice of using 
vegetable food, and Flesh-eating, to the prac- 
tice of eating flesh. To consider the one, then, 
is not necessarily to consider the other, and the 
word Vegetarianism, in no way suggests any 
thoughts of flesh-eating, excepting in its antago- 
nistic position to it. It is no part of my inten- 
tion to quarrel with the name of the Vegetarian 
Society, but I may remark that logically it is not 
suggestive of its object, the name Vegetarian 
suggesting only the idea of vegetable food, 
whereas, the object is, really, to dissuade from 
the practice of flesh-eating. It appears to me 
that it would be well if the object of the Society 
were more kept in view. It is officially declared to 

be " to induce habits of abstinence from the flesh 
of animals as food " — all other objects, such as 
the dissemination of information upon the sub- 
ject, and showing the advantages of a Vegetarian 
diet, are only subsidiary to it. People usually 
proceed on the assumption that it prescribes 
Vegetarian food alone, because the name of the 
Society is Vegetarian, whereas it prescribes no 
food whatever, but merely forbids the use of 
flesh to its members. Logically stated, then, 
the name of the Society is the Anti flesh-eating 
Society ; in other words, though the name is 
Vegetarian, its object is to induce anti-flesh-eating 
habits. This simple statement completely does 
away with many objections often urged to the 
eating of eggs, butter, and cheese, and the use 
of milk, by Vegetarians ; and in order to pre- 
vent any cbjections of the kind which might 
have been urged against the present lecture, I 
have chosen for my subject that which it is the ob- 
ject of the Society to discountenance, rather than 
the mere name by which that object is indicated. 
Without further occupying your time, I shall 
now proceed to the subject of the lecture ; that 
is, as you are aware, Flesh-eating, its history, its 
defenders and defences. In pursuing the inquiry 
into the history of flesh-eating, I shall endeavour 
first to answer the question. Who are the flesh- 
eaters? Amongst the lower animals, we have 
lions, tigers, leopards, etc., which are purely car- 
nivorous, and there are also other animals that 
might be termed mixed-diet eaters, such as the 
swine. It is with man, however, as a flesh-eater, 
that we have chiefly to do. Among the purely 
carnivorous tribes may be ranked the Patago- 
nians, who inhabit a country at the most southern 
point of South America. I refer to them, because 
we have been often told that they are the tallest 
men in the world. Early accounts have described 
them as tfen or eleven feet in height, but later 
ones reduced this to seven feet six, and measure- 
ments later still have reduced them to six feet 
four ; some, indeed, say that five feet ten inches 
is about the average height. However this may 
be, it is unquestionable that they are a very tall 
people, and also strong and tolerably well made. 
The chief point of interest to us is, that they 
live chiefly upon flesh, and flesh-eaters would 
have us believe that this is the reason of their 
superior height. Now, before I believe this, I 
want to see the reason why it should be so. If 
the tendency of flesh is to make men grow tall, 
no doubt we shall find it so in the case of others 
besides the Patagonians. Before attempting to 
decide this question, however, it will be well to 
examine into the condition of other flesh-eating 
tribes. To the south of Patagonia, and very near 
to it, is an island called Terra del Fuego, the 
inhabitants of which live almost entirely upon 
flesh and fish, and very few vegetables are grown 
upon the island. These men present a perfect 
contrast to the Patagonians ; instead of being 
tall they are short, instead of being well developed 
they are almost monsters in appearance. Their 
shoulders and chests are large and bony, while 
their arms and legs are very slender, and so 
disproportionate, that you could scarcely believe 
they belonged to their bodies ; their heads are 


very large and their mouth and nostrils much 
dilated. They are also remarkably dull and 
stupid, and as Captain Cook remarks, "They are 
a little, ugly, half-starved race." Now you will 
observe that there is no great distance between 
these two places, yet the two tribes are as differ- 
ent in physical development as they well can be. 
Amongst flesh-eaters, also, we have the Green- 
landers and Esquimaux, who live chiefly upon 
whales and seals ; they even drink the blood of 
the seal while warm, and eat dried herrings and 
whale oil. Captain Ross relates that "their 
breakfast consists of from five to six pounds of 
fish " ; and in another place he says, " Each man 
had eaten fourteen pounds of raw salmon (given 
them to see how much they would eat), and it 
was probably but a lunch after all, or a super- 
fluous meal for the sake of our society." Dr. 
LowNE says : " The miserable timid inhabitants 
of Northern Europe are as remarkable for their 
moral as well as physical and mental debility." 
The Laplanders live chiefly on the flesh of the 
reindeer, and are described as a puny race, weak 
both in mind and body; feeble, awkward, and 
helpless. The New Zealanders are another race 
of flesh-eaters, and have the reputation of being 
cannibals : whether this is so now or not I 
cannot say ; but some of you no doubt remember 
the story of the missionary, that when the queen 
was sick, she was asked if there was anything 
she could fancy to eat, and that she replied, she 
thought she could suck the bones of a white 
baby's fingers. Then there are the Hottentots 
and Bushmen of South Africa, respecting whom 
the historian Gibbon says that they are the con- 
necting link between the rational and irrational 
creation, so degraded and sensualized are they in 
every respect. Moffat, in his Missionary 
Labours, relates, that every kind of living creature 
is devoured by them, lizards, locusts, and grass- 
hoppers not excepted; and that._they even eat 
serpents, first cutting off the heads of the 
poisonous ones. The Bushmen often kill their 
own children without remorse, and sometimes 
throw them as a peace-olfering to the hungry 
lion. In some few instances, however, you meet 
with a spark of natural affection, such as only 
places them on a level with the brute creation. 
These are a few instances of tribes whose chief 
diet is flesh, and without referring to others 
whose history would only be a repetition of what 
you have already heard, I think we cannot be far 
from the truth in concluding, that the flesh- 
eating tribes of the world are degraded, sensual, 
cruel, and blood-thirsty, while their physical de- 
velopment is generally of an inferior character. 
It ought also to be noticed, that the purely car- 
nivorous tribes are only tribes, i\\txe are no great 
nations of such degraded beings : they are few 
in number and must necessarily remain so, so 
long as they live upon flesh, because the animals 
upon which they live require vegetable suste- 
nance, and it requires a vast extent of ground to 
maintain a tribe of men who live by the chase. 
As an illustration of this, the Patagonians, before 
noticed, form a case in point : for, although they 
have been known to exist as a distinct race for 
hundreds of years, yet one part of Patagouia, of 

which observation has been taken, though capable 
of supporting millions of inhabitants, contains a 
population under one thousand. 

It may be, however, and it is argued, that man 
is intended to hve upon a mixed diet of flesh and 
vegetable food, and that it is unfair to take those 
tribes who live upon flesh alone as a sample of 
flesh-eaters. Without discussing what force 
there may be iu this remark, I shall now proceed 
to notice the mixed diet nations. To save time, 
I shall take our own country as a specimen of 
other flesh-eating countries, and in doing so 
believe that no complaint of unfairness will be 
made. The kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
is made up, properly speaking, of three countries, 
which at one time were under three distinct 
governments, though now happily united under 
one. Each country, however, still retains many 
of its peculiar habits. In England there is more 
flesh consumed than in Scotland, and in Scotland 
there is more than in Ireland. In England espe- 
cially is the opinion grounded of the superiority 
of a flesh diet. In Scotland this opinion is not 
so prevalent, oatmeal being the staple article of 
diet. In some parts of the Highlands, however, 
potatoes are considered essential to give the 
necessary support in hard labour. I may relate 
an anecdote as an illustration of this, which was 
related to me by a relative of my own. A party 
of Forfarshire gardeners were engaged by a 
Highland gentleman to do a piece of work on 
his estate, and as you know a Scotchman will 
generally argue if he has a chance, these men 
and the Highland people were soon engaged in a 
discussion as to the comparative merits of oat- 
meal and potatoes, when, after each had tried his 
prowess, an old Highlander exclaimed as a finisher 
to the debate, " Ye may crack aboot parritch and 
brose as ye like, but there is nothing a man can 
do a day's work aff like taties" (potatoes). In 
Ireland the same opinion holds in favour of po- 
tatoes. An Irish charwoman working at ray 
house one day, seeing my little boy eating dry 
potatoes with great gusto, exclaimed in her de- 
light, " Why he is a little Irishman, you should 
give hira plenty of roasted potatoes and butter, 
they are so strengthening." You see people have 
their opinions on diet, but opinions do not guide 
us to a solution of the question. Let us, there- 
fore come to facts. I regret that I have not so 
many as I should like, but I have selected the best I 
could get. The most important is a table of 
Professor Forbes, of Edinburgh, who instituted 
a number of experiments extending over a series 
of years, as to the comparative height, weight, 
and strength of a number of Englishmen, Scotch- 
meti, and Irishmen. He compared these different 
people at the same age, the Irishman at twenty 
or twenty-five, with the Scotchman and English- 
man at twenty or twenty-five. According to the 
first of these tables, the Irishman is the tallest, 
the Scotchman next, the Englishman least of all. 
Keep in mind that the Irishman eats least flesh, 
the Scotchman next, the Englishman most of all. 
In constructing a table in accordance with popu- 
lar opinion upon this subject, you would have 
made the Englishman the tallest, because he 
eats the most beef; and the Irishman least, be- 


cause he eats least beef; but popular opinion, in 
this case, is just the reverse of popular facts. 
As to weight, here again the Irishman is first, 
the Scotchman next, and John Bull, with all 
his beef, brings up the rear. I must, however, 
notice that up to seventeen years of age the 
Englishman is heavier than the Scotchman, but 
at that age they become equal, and weigh 133| lb., 
whilst the Irishman at the same age weighs 
1361b. The third table relates to strength, and 
is perhaps the most interesting and instructive 
of the three. It is very difficult to make a 
popular audience understand statistics, or at 
least carry these away with them. I shall try, 
however, to make this matter as clear as I can. 
The Englishman at twenty-five was able to 
raise a weight of 403 lb., the Scotchman 423 
lb., the Irishman 4321b. ; the difference in 
strength between the Englishman and the Irish- 
man being equal to 29 lb. These experiments 
were carried out during a lengthened period 
and with large numbers of men, as many as 
eighty Scotchmen and thirty Englishmen being 
measured, weighed, and tested, at one time. It 
was not a comparison of individuals but of num- 
bers, and was carried on with strict accuracy 
throughout. Up to the age of eighteen the 
Scotchman is not so strong as the Englishman, 
the Englishman's strength at that age being 
represented by 352 lb. and the Scotchman's by 
340, while at the same age the Irishman is 
26 lb. stronger than the Scotchman, or 14 lb. 
stronger than the Englishman. At nineteen the 
Englishman and the Scotchman are both alike, 
but the Irishman is still ahead, and exceeds them 
by 26 lb. It also interesting to observe the 
rate at which each progresses in strength at 
different ages. Between the age of sixteen 
and seventeen the Englishman gains 16 lb. 
strength, the Scotchman 26, and the Irishman 
26. Between the age of seventeen and eigh- 
teen, the Englishman gains 12 lb. of strength, 
and the Scotchman 20, and the Irishman 2'J. 
Between the age of eighteen and nineteen, the 
Englishman gains 14 lb., the Scotchman 18, and 
the Irishman 15 : and it is remarkable that from 
this age up to twenty -five (beyond which the 
table does not extend) the Scotchman gains more 
strength per annum than either the Englishman 
or Irishman ; in one year he gains nearly as 
much as both, in two others exactly the same as 
both, and in one other twice as much as both : 
thus from the age of twenty-one to twenty-two 
the Englishman gains 5 lb. and the Irishman 
4, while during the same year the Scotchman 
gains 8. From twenty-two to twenty-three the 
Englishman gains 4, the Irishman 3, and the 
Scotchman 7. From twenty-three to twenty-four, 
the Englishman gains 1 lb., the Irishman 1, and 
the Scotchman 4; and from twenty-four to 
twenty-five, the Englishman gains 1, the Irish- 
man 1, and the Scotchman 2. I am inclined to 
think, therefore, that as the Scotchman continues 
to add to his strength in a much greater ratio 
than the Englishman or Irishman, after he has 
reached the age of twenty, that if the experi- 
ments were continued to the age of thirty or 
thirty-five, it would be found that the Scotchman 

is not only stronger than the Englishman, hut 
also stronger than the Irishman, and this supe- 
riority is to be expected from the superior cha- 
racter of the oatmeal, either as compared with 
flesh or potatoes. One other point worthy of 
notice is, that the strength of the beef-eating 
Englishman is developed more rapidly before 
the age of sixteen than afterwards. From the 
age of sixteen to twenty-five, the total number 
of pounds of strength gained by the Englishman 
is 67 lb. whereas the Scotchman, during the 
same period, gains 109 lb., and the Irishman 
89. In other words, at the age of sixteen, the 
Englishman is within 67 lb. of his full strength, 
while the Scotchman is not so mature, but has 
109 lb. to gain before reaching that point. 
These figures, then, corroborate the fact so often 
referred to by Vegetarians, of flesh-meat being 
so stimulating, and that those brought up with it 
come sooner to maturity as well as to old age and 
death. They also place before us in a striking 
light, the decided inferiority of the flesh-diet, 
inasmuch as in this comparison of the three 
countries, strength, height, and weight decrease 
just iu proportion to the quantity of flesh con- 
sumed. In speaking of England as a flesh- 
eating country, we are apt to suppose that every 
one gets flesh as a regular article of diet, whereas 
many families use it very rarely. In proof of this I 
may narrate a circumstance which occurred in 
our own neighbourhood. Some time ago I engaged 
a number of men to do some hard work ; it was 
trenching a plot of ground for garden purposes. 
One of these men brought his dinner with him 
because he came from a distance, and I, noticing 
this, was induced to ask him what he lived upon, 
when he told me flour-porridge and " butter- 
cake " (bread and butter). In pretended sur- 
prise I asked him if he could do this hard work 
without flesh-meat. He laughed in ray face at 
my supposed ignorance in asking this question, 
and told me that he did not see flesh-meat in his 
house above two or three times in the year. In 
agricultural districts, the labourer's wages only 
amount to 7s. or 8s., or 10s. at most, a week. 
These people cannot get flesh-meat often ; I do 
not say they would not like it, but only they do 
not get it. It is interesting to inquire, then. 
Who eats most flesh? If it is not the labouring 
class it must be the middle and higher classes ; 
and if flesh be necessary, and intended for sup- 
porting the strength of the labouring man, is it 
not strange that he should get least of it, for we 
find it to be a rule in nature that the most neces- 
sary things are the most plentiful, the cheapest, 
and the most easily attained; but regarding 
flesh we find just the contrary ; and are led irre- 
sistibly to the conclusion, that since Nature 
cannot supply flesh plentifully enough and cheap 
enough for the labouring man, either that she is 
mistaken in making flesh necessary, or man is 
mistaken in thinking it so. I shall not detain you 
at this time with any comparison of the intel- 
lectual capabilities of the three nations ; the 
question is a difficult one, and I do not think I 
could discuss it either with profit to you or 
satisfaction to myself. 

Let us now glance at the second topic in the 


syllabus — The cause, origin, and progress of ' 
flesh-eating. Here, again, I would remark that 
you must not expect to find an argument in 
every sentence, as a great part of this portion of 
the lecture must, like the preceding one, be 
necessarily descriptive. In examining this part 
of the subject it is necessary to go to the earliest 
records we can find, and this leads us to the 
Bible. There is no direct evidence as to the 
origin of flesh-eating, but I can present you with 
some valuable indirect evidence. We find that 
the Creator, in appointing man's food, said : 
" Behold, I have given you every herb bearing 
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree 
yielding seed ; to you it shall be for meat." 
Now, if you go to any doctor or physiologist in 
the present day, and ask him to give you a 
dietary table of the best food for keeping up the 
health and strength of the body, would he not 
give you flesh as the article most fitted to do 
this? Most assuredly he would. Yet, in the 
passage I have read, there is no reference to flesh 
as food, only to the vegetable. Now, is it not 
most extraordinary, if what doctors and physi- 
ologists say of flesh is true, that God in appoint- 
ing man's food takes no notice of it whatever ? 
Nor is it an omission ; for in the subsequent refe- 
rences to man's food we have no mention of 
flesh. Thus, " Out of the ground, made the 
Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant 
to the sight, and good for food." " Cursed is 
the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou 
eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns also and 
thistles shall it bring forth to thee ; and thou 
shalt eat the herb of the field ; in the sweat of 
thy face shalt thou eat bread." It is very re- 
markable that there is no mention of flesh, if 
man ate this at the beginning. We do not, till 
the time of Noah, find any reference to flesh as 
food ; we then read that God said to Noah : 
" Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat 
for yoa ; even as the green herb have I given 
you all things. But flesh with the life thereof, 
which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." 
We shall have something to say about this pas- 
sage before the close of the lecture, we only 
quote it now in tracing the history of flesh- 
eating. It is the opinion of some commentators 
that flesh was permitted by God to shorten 
man's life, but whether it was so or not, certain 
it is that the lives of men became rapidly reduced 
after the flood. There is nothing further on this 
subject worthy of notice till the time wlien 
Moses led the people of Israel out of the land 
of Egypt. When they had gone a few weeks' 
journey, then they began to complain of the 
scarcity of provisions. "Would to God," said 
they, "we had died by the hand of the Lord 
in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the 
flesh-pots, and when we did eat bread to the 
full; for ye have brought us forth into this 
wilderness to kUl this whole assembly with hun- 
ger." It seems that God did not think that 
flesh was necessary for them, or he would have 
given it to them. In reply to their murmurings 
he sent them quails. There was no miracle here, 
for these birds were abundant : whether the 

bringing of them to the place where the people 
were, was a miracle, I cannot pretend to deter- 
mine. But not only were quails sent, but 
manna also, and it is worthy of notice that the 
manna was supplied to them during all their 
wanderings in the wilderness for forty years, 
while the quails seem to have been supplied only 
fora very short time. Accordingly, in about twelve 
months after, it is recorded, " And the childre n 
of Israel wept again, and said. Who willgive us flesh 
to eat? We remember the fish we did eat in 
Egypt freely, the cucumbers and the melons, 
and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlick. 
But now our soul is dried away, there is nothing 
at all besides this manna before our eyes." Their 
murmuring displeased God, who, however, 
promised Moses to give them flesh, not for one 
day or two, but for a whole month, until it be- 
came loathsome unto them. Moses seems to 
have been considerably astonished at this promise 
— and he began to number the people, who 
amounted to 600,000 footmen — and to wonder 
where all the flesh was to come from, to feed 
such a multitude for a whole month : and he 
said unto God, "Thou hast said I will give them 
flesh that they may eat a whole month. Shall 
the flocks and the herds be slain for them to 
suffice them ? or shall all the fish of the sea be 
gathered together to suffice them?" There is 
something very instructive in these questions of 
Moses. They show very conclusively, first, 
that the Israelites had flocks and herds, without 
eatuig them ; and second, that they had not 
supplies of flesh from any other quarter. This 
last is indeed obvious from the question of the 
Israelites, " Who shall give us flesh to eat ? " A 
short time before Moses died, and just as the Is- 
raelites were about to enter the promised land, he 
addressedhis partingadviceto them, and respecting 
flesh he thus spoke : " When the Lord thy God 
shall enlarge thy border, as he hath promised 
thee, and thou shalt say I will eat flesh ; be- 
cause thy soul longeth to eat flesh, thou mayest 
eat flesh, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after : only 
be sure that thou eat not the blood : for the 
blood is the life, and thou mayest not eat the 
life with the flesh." This passage reveals to us 
pretty clearly the cause of people eating flesh. 
Whatever other reasons they may give, the true 
one is, "I will eat flesh, because my soul longeth 
to eat flesh." The Bible is a wonderful book 
for telling the truth, if people would only listen 
to it. Blood in this passage is prohibited to the 
Jews, and we have seen that it also was to 
Noah. In the New Testament, likewise. 
Cliristians are enjoined to abstain from things 
strangled, and from blood. Most Christians, 
however, pay no attention to this prohibition, 
but obey custom and appetite, as if no such 
prohibition existed. I might trace the custom 
of flesh-eating down to the present time, and 
show that it is accompanied by a vast amount of 
cruelty even in our own country, and that al- 
though much of this is unnecessary, yet that it 
is not accidental to the custom, but forms part of 
it, and invariably accompanies it ; but I think 
enough of narrative has been given for once, and 
I shall therefore pass on to the third part 



of the lecture — namely. Its Defenders aud De- 

The defenders of flesh-eating are of course 
those who eat flesh, abstahiers seldom defend it. 
One of their most favourite strongholds is the 
Bible, and one of their most powerful batteries in 
that stronghold is the passage I have already 
referred to : " Every moving thing that liveth 
shall be meat for you, even as the green herb 
have I given you all things." Now, in order that 
we may understand the bearing of this passage, 
and find out where the balls of the battery hit, it 
is obviously necessary to examine the positions 
occupied by the Vegetarian and flesh-eater. Does 
the Vegetarian say that flesh- eating is a sin, that 
it is an immorality to eat flesh-meat ? I do not 
say so, and I do not know any Vegetarians who 
do. In such a case this passage would be con- 
clusive in the mouth of a flesh-eater, and com- 
pletely destructive of the Vegetarian position. 
What, then, you may ask, does the Vegetarian 
say ? It amounts to this : " I am at liberty to 
choose the very best food, the same as I am at 
liberty to select the very best drink, and I may 
lawfully abstain from that food which experience 
tells me is injurious. Experience testifies that I 
am in much better health without flesh than with 
it ; chemistry informs me that flesh contains 
nothing but what can be found in vegetable 
food ; and anatomy and physiology testify that 
vegetable food is the natural food of man." Now, 
allow me to ask, in what way does this passage 
invalidate any of these propositions ? Does it 
say that every moving thing that liveth will suit 
my stomach better than vegetable food ? Does 
it say that flesh in its chemical constituents is 
more perfect than vegetable food ? or that man 
was originally intended to live upon flesh, aud 
that his structure is iu accordance with tliat in- 
tention ? Certainly not, it says none of these 
things, and consequently fails even to touch, let 
alone destroy, the Vegetarian position. Now 
examine the position of the flesh-eater. He says, 
" Man is omnivorous, and was naturally designed 
to live upon flesh and blood ; the composition 
of flesh and blood, and the teeth, stomach 
and intestines of man prove this ; and, accord- 
ingly, I eat flesh and blood, oxen, sheep, and 
pigs, and also animals that are killed and die with 
the blood in them." Now look at the passage 
again, and see how it affects the flesh-eater's po- 
sition. I like to take a passage in full, and 
therefore will give it entire : " Every moving 
thing that liveth shall be meat for you, even as 
the green herb have I given you all things. 
But flesh, with the life thereof, which is the hlood 
thereof, ye shall not eat." If the flesh-eater will 
likewise quote the entire passage, he will at ouce 
destroy one half of his own position; his famous 
battery, instead of knocking down the Vegetarian, 
explodes of itself, aud at once renders part of his 
own position untenable. He then pretends that 
he had good reasons for eating blood ; that the 
passage is no authority to the Christian to deny 
himself the use of blood, that what was forbidden 
to Noah was not forbidden to him ; he lives 
under a difi'erent dispensation, and so on. But 
in answer to this, it is enough to say, that if the 

passage is no authority to the Christian iu for- 
bidding him the use of blood, neither can it be any 
authority in permitting him to eat flesh; for if what 
was forbidden to Noah is not forbidden to him, 
neither is that which was permitted to Noah per- 
mitted to him. Let him get out of this difficulty 
if he can. Let us, however, examine what this 
passage amounts to. Some have called it a 
command, but seeing that the thing commanded 
is, to eat every moving thing that liveth, I think 
he must be a bold man indeed who would attempt 
to carry this definition into practice. Others 
say it is a gift, quoting, " even as the green herb 
have I given you all things." Now, I contend 
that God would never make a gift of bad food 
to man, and that every gift of God is good and 
to be received with thanksgiving. Now, besides 
sheep and oxen, there are other moving things 
that live, yea thousands of them, too numerous, 
and some too loathsome to mention, and no one 
in his senses will maintain that these are the 
gift of God for food. O, but it may be said, it 
is an appointment. What ! a second appoint- 
ment ? Do you mean to tell me that when God 
appointed man's food at first, he made a mistake, 
and required to rectify what he had done? Such 
a supposition is at once condemned by the state- 
ment which follows immediately after God's 
appointment of the food of man. "And God 
saw every thing that he had made (done) and 
behold it was very good." The omniscience of 
God also condemns this supposition, for he 
undoubtedly knew what was best for man from 
the beginning, and appointed what was best too. 
The same objection also occurs to this being an 
appointment, as to its being a command or a gift, 
viz., that there are many " moving things that 
live," that are wholly unfit for food, even accord- 
ing to flesh-eaters' ideas. But if it is neither a 
command, a gift, nor an appointment, what is it? 
it may be asked. Having already seen what it 
is not, we are the more prepared to understand 
what it is, and I have no hesitation in affirming 
that it is a permission to eat flesh, and a per- 
mission only, while at the same time it positively 
forbids the eating of blood. It ought to be 
remembered, that being in the list of permissions, 
the practice of flesh-eating can no longer be 
looked upon as equal to that which has been ap- 
pointed. I am permitted to fight the Russians 
or any one else should I feel justified in doing 
so, but then it was never intended that I should 
fight at all. I am permitted to be a slave-holder 
for anything to the contrary you can point out in 
the Word of God, yet God never appointed me 
to be a slave-holder. Not only so, but the 
patriarchs and kings of old were permitted to 
have a plurality of wives, and for anything you 
can prove to the contrary this permission exists 
till this day. Yet no one dreams that God ap- 
pointed men to act so. In the beginning God 
appointed peace, liberty, aud Vegetarianism, and 
gave to Adam one wife, but in the latter days he 
has permitted war, slavery, flesh-eating, and a 
pluraHty of wives. No one, then, can be mistaken 
as to the character of permissions, they are 
things to be avoided as much as possible, and 
the more the better. Having thus combated and. 


as I believe, annihilated the greatest stronghold 
of the flesh-eaters iu the Bible, I think it unne- 
cessary to take up j'our time with any other 

Amongst the other defences of flesh-eaters, we 
have the opinions of doctors, physiologists, and 
anatomists, set in array against us. As to the 
value of mere opinions, the more we examine them 
the less important do they appear. Opinions 
are only admissible where facts are unattainable. 
Allow me to illustrate this in a familiar way. 
Suppose I am walking out with a friend in this 
neighbourhood, and when at a particialar plare, 
he propounds the question to me, Is there a bed 
of coal under our feet ? As to the positive fact, 
you will observe, I am ignorant, and I therefore 
answer, I do not know, but as there are coal 
pits all round, it is my opinion there are coals 
beneath our feet. An opinion you perceive is 
given, when the individual is ignorant of the 
fact. A learned geologist may give his opinion 
as to the existence of coal iu a district, but the 
knov;ledge of the collier who has been iu the 
pit is of far greater value. Keeping these 
remarks iu view then, do not think I am assum- 
ing too much importance in attacking the 
opinions of men greater than myself, for the 
knowledge of a fool is superior to the opinion of 
a wise man. 

I shall first refer you to the opinions of Dr. 
Pereira. He says : " Man obtains his food 
from both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 
This is almost universally the case, and is a 
strong confirmation of the correctness of the 
inference drawn by the anatomist from the struc- 
ture of the entire human digestive apparatus, 
that man is omnivorous." Now I have no objec- 
tion to the statement he makes here, that man is 
omnivorous, if you take the words as they stand, 
and not what the writer means by them. He 
means to say that anatomists infer from man's 
structure that he is naturally omnivorous. He 
only says, however, that man is omnivorous, of 
which there can be no question, as man does eat 
both the flesh of animals and vegetable food. 
There is a great difference, however, between 
saying that man is omnivorous in his habits, and 
that he is naturally omnivorous. We are often 
deceived by words upon this subject ; for when it 
is said that man is omnivorous, and facts are 
quoted to prove that in his habits he is so, we 
are apt to suppose the question settled ; by and 
by, however, we shall see it is not so. 

Dr. LowNE says : "In respect to food man is 
omnivorous, even cannibal in the uncivilized 
state." Tf Dr. Lowne here means that man is 
naturally omnivorous and cannibal, he makes a 
statement which few flesh-eaters will endorse, 
and every Vegetarian deny ; but if he means 
that man is omnivorous and cannibal in his 
habits only, he utters nothing but a truism. 

Dr. Pereira again says : " Animal flesh is a 
plastic element of nutrition." By this he means 
a kind of food that can be converted into the flesh 
of our bodies, as distinguished from vegetable 
food, the starch of which does not become flesh. 
He then adds : " Flesh being identical in compo- 
sition with our own flesh and blood, it requires 

neither addition nor subtraction to render it 
nourishing, but in order that it may reach the 
different organs, it is necessary that it should be 
reduced to a liquid form." If, then, flesh be 
what he says — "requires neither addition nor 
subtraction," it is perfect, and a man requires 
nothing else for supporting the strength of his 
body; and if anything else be required, Dr. 
Pereira ought not to have used these words. 
He afterwards says : *•' The nutritive principles 
of animal foods are intermixed with a much 
smaller proportion of non-nutritive substances 
than those of vegetable foods. Hence animal diet 
yields a much larger amount of nourishment than 
vegetable diet." A statement to the same effect 
is made by Professor Johnston: "The main 
differences between beef and bread are, first, that 
the flesh does not contain a particle of starch, 
which is so large an ingredient in plants ; and, 
second, that the proportion of fibrine in ordinary 
flesh is about three times as great as in ordinary 
wheaten bread, or a pound of beef-steak is 
as nutritive as three pounds of wheaten bread 
in so far as the nutritive value of food 
depends upon this one ingredient." Both 
Dr. Pereira and Professor Johnston agree 
that there is a much larger amount of nutriment 
to be got from flesh than from vegetable food. 
Assuming these gentlemen to be correct, the in- 
ference to be drawn from their statements evi- 
dently is that flesh food in practice will go three 
times farther than vegetable food ; whereas in 
practice, the reverse is just the case. Flesh- 
eaters who live on flesh alone, consume from four 
to six times the weight of food in flesh which 
is necessary on a vegetable diet. For instance, 
a man at Liverpool, while walking a thousand 
miles in a thousand half-hours not long ago, was 
said to consume 5 or 61b. of flesh per day, be- 
sides a portion of vegetable food ; and in every 
case which can be referred to of the purely car- 
nivorous tribes, 8 lb. a day is a very moderate 
estimate of what they consume. According to 
this a Vegetarian ought to eat 24 lb. of vegetable 
food per day, if Dr. Pereira and Professor 
Johnston's statements are to be taken as cor- 
rect. The fact, however, is, that practically, 1 lb. 
of wheat-meal, oat-meal, or peas-meal will yield 
more support to the body than three or four 
times that weight of flesh. Hence we find men, 
all over this country, and Scotland, who live 
principally upon vegetable food, require no more 
than 2 lb. weight per day to maintain them in 
perfect strength. The reason of this is supplied 
by Dr. Pereira himself. He goes on to say, 
" Bulk is perhaps nearly as necessary to the 
articles of diet as the nutrient principle. They 
should be so managed that one shall be in pro- 
portion to the other. Two highly nutritive a 
diet, is, probably, as fatal to the prolongation of 
life and health, as that which .contains an insuffi- 
cient quantity of nutriment." Now, the fact of 
the matter is just this, he means to say that 
flesh does require something added to it, or 
what is meant by his saying that bulk is neces- 
sary. It contains three times more gluten 
or nutritious matter for building up the body 
than some kinds of vegetable food, and thus 


flesh is too nutritious, as Dr. Perkira ex- 
presses it, or ill other words, the nntriinent in 
flesh ought to be mixed with a certain portion of 
innutritious matter, and if it is not thus mixed, 
Dr. Pereira himself says that it will probably 
prove as fatal to life and health as food which 
contains an insuthcient quantity of nutriment. 
What then becomes of the former statement 
that flesh requires neither addition nor subtrac- 
tion to render it nourishing ? It is clear that 
this is an exaggeration. The term " too nutri- 
tious " appears to be a very objectionable one, 
and apt to mislead, for most people will regard 
it as synonymous with " too good," whereas Dr. 
Pereira admits the injurious character of flesh 
under the term " too nutritious ; " and its unfit- 
ness for sustaining health without a proportion 
of innutritious matter. Vegetable food, he him- 
self informs us, contains a much larger propor- 
tion of non-nutritive substances than flesh ; 
that is, it possesses the bulk requisite, and which 
the flesh wants ; but not only so, it possesses 
nutriment also along with its bulk, which is just 
the condition Dr. Pereira considers necessary 
for the maintenance of health. Had he spoken 
of vegetable food as requiring neither addition 
nor subtraction, then, he would have only spoken 
the truth, which he himself tacitly admits. Dr. 
Pereira's statements may be thus summed 
up. 1. Flesh is a perfect article of diet, and re- 
quires no addition or subtraction. 2. Flesh is 
an imperfect article of diet, and requires bulk 
added to its nutriment. 3. Flesh is too nutri- 
tious. 4. Too nutritious a diet is fatal to the 
prolongation of life and health. What need is 
there then for Vegetarians saying any more as to 
the injurious character of flesh ? Here is enough 
admitted to save them the trouble of further 
argument. Further he says. 6. Bulk as well 
as nutriment is necessary. 7. Vegetable food 
contains both bulk and nutriment ; and my in- 
ference therefore, is, that, according to Dr. 
Pereira's own showing, it is the most perfect 
article of diet, notwithstanding all his efforts to 
prove the contrary. 

Professor Lawrence says : "From his struc- 
ture, actions, and habits, we conclude man to 
be naturally omnivorous." This is very difi"erent 
from simply saying that man is omnivorous. 
We shall speak presently as to man's structure, 
but first let us see what kind of evidence his 
actions and habits afi'ord, from which to judge of 
what is natural to him. Man's habits and 
actions are two-fold, the one part good, the other 
bad. According to Professor Lawrence's 
reasoning, his good actions denote that he 
was naturally formed for doing good, and 
bis bad actions denote that he was natu- 
rally formed for doing evil. Man would 
thus appear omnivorous, morally as well as 
physically. Take another illustration or two 
of this mode of reasoning. Everybody admits 
that man is a sinner, and because he is so, ac- 
cording to this way of reasoning, God intended 
him to be a sinner, and he was naturally 
formed for committing sin. Again, we find that 
a particular tribe " the Ottoraaques, on the 
banks of the Meta and Orinoco, feed on a fat 

unctuous earth, or a species of pipe clay, tinged 
with a little oxide of iron. They collect this 
clay very carefully, distinguishing it by the taste; 
they knead it into balls of four or six inches iu 
diameter, which they bake slightly before a slow 
fire. These clods are soaked in water when about 
to be used, and each individual eats about a pound 
of the material every day." Because these people 
live in this way, we might with as much reason say 
that man was naturally intended to eat a pound 
of pipe clay per day. Now for man's structure. 
We shall see how unsatisfactory the arguments 
in favour of flesh-eating are. I really feel 
ashamed at having to meet such poor defences, 
and am sure I could say something better in 
favour of it myself. I like, if I have to conduct 
an argument, to meet with an opponent who can 
say something for himself. But let us hear 
Professor Lawrence again. He says: "The 
teeth of man have not the slightest resemblance 
to those of the carnivorous animals, except that 
their enamel is confined to the surface. He 
possesses, indeed, teeth called canine, but they 
do not exceed the level of the others, and are 
obviously unsuited to the purposes which the 
corresponding teeth execute in carnivorous ani- 
mals." In other words, that the four teeth 
that are called canine, do not answer the 
same purposes in man that these teeth do in 
carnivorous animals. The carnivorous animal 
seizes his prey with his claws, and tears 
it with his canine teeth. But man does not do 
that, his mouth is not fitted for such a process, 
and when he eats flesh, he cuts it with a knife, 
and puts it into his mouth with a fork, and passes 
it by these so called canine teeth and chews it 
with his grinders ; so that he not only does not 
tear flesh with his canine teeth, but does not 
even use them at all in the mastication of flesh. 
Professor Lawrence then speaks of the intes- 
tinal canal, and says, " When the legs of man 
are not measured in, man will be placed, by the 
length of his intestines, nearly in the same line 
with the monkey race, and will be removed to a 
considerable distance from the proper carnivorous. 
The form of the stomach and coecum, and the 
structure of the whole alimentary canal, are very 
much alike in mau and the monkey kind. Thus 
we find, that whether we consider the teeth and 
jaws, or the immediate instruments of digestion, 
the human structure closely resembles that of 
the simise ; all of which in their natural state are 
completely herbivorous Man possesses a toler- 
ably large coecum, and a cellular colon, which I 
believe are not found in any carnivorous animal." 
Now with the statement of facts that Professor 
Lawrence has made, I do not quarrel, and 
I do not need to tell you that they are on the 
side of Vegetarianism, but having given these 
excellent Vegetarian facts, he adds, " I do not 
infer from these circumstances, that man is by 
nature designed to feed on vegetables, or that it 
would be more advantageous to him to adopt 
that diet." We do not want his inferences, 
however; we have got the facts, of which we 
will make a right good use, and we can now 
afford to say " good day " to him. Before 
doing so, however, let us again review his 



system of logic. He founds his opinion that 
man is omnivorous upon man's habits and 
actions, which I have shown to be the most 
erroneous method of reasoning possible, and 
leading to the most absurd and contradictory 
conclusions. He also founds this opinion 
upon man's structure, and he shows us that 
there is nothing in that structure which proves 
man to be a fiesh-eating animal, but that, on 
the contrary, his teeth and jaws, his stomach, 
his ccecum, and his cellulated colon, all closely 
resemble the monkey tribes, all of which he ex- 
pressly says are strictly herbivorous. Having 
thus shown that man is herbivorous in his struc- 
ture, he refuses to infer that he is herbivorous in 
his nature, but comes to the marvellous conclu- 
sion that he is naturally omnivorous ! If man 
is herbivorous in the structure of his body, and 
that structure is given him by nature, then 
nature has made him herbivorous, and it is as 
plain a contradiction of facts and common sense 
to say that man is omnivorous, as it is to say 
black is white. How necessary does it appear, 
the more we examine, to take only the facts of 
philosophers, and to leave their opinions to 

BuFFON says : " The Pythagorean (or Vegeta- 
rian) diet, though extolled by ancient and modern 
philosophers, and even recommended by certaui 
physicians, was never indicated by nature. If 
man were obliged to abstain totally from flesh, he 
would not, at least in this climate, either exist or 
multiply." " An entire abstinence from flesh 
can have no eff'ect but to enfeeble nature. To 
preserve himself in proper plight, man requires 
not only the use of this solid nourishment, but 
even to vary it." Buffon, and others, who 
remark that in this climate men could not exist 
and multiply on vegetable diet, I suppose never 
knew there was such a place as Ireland, where the 
people subsist mainly on the potato, and within 
the last hundred years have multiplied themselves 
four times ; which is a most remarkable fact, 
and a complete refutation of the opinion of the 
learned Buffon, though stated by a humble 
man like myself. 

I will now refer you to another point which I 
regard as of considerable interest. We find 
that doctors are very much given to prescribe 
flesh-meats to their patients as necessary to 
restore them to health and strength. We find 
in cases of consumption that doctors are par- 
ticular in recommending the best of beef, for it 
must be "good," as they call it, and cooked in 
a particular way. On this subject I shall take 
the liberty of referring you to a fact that is not, 
perhaps, generally known, it is recorded by Dr. 
Pereira himself. "Mr. Spalding, a diver, 
found that he consumed more atmospheric 
oxygen in his diving bell, when he had used a 
diet of animal food, or drank spirituous liquors ; 
and his experience therefore had taught him 
that vegetable food, and water for drink, were 
best adapted for the performance of the duties 
of his business. Dr. F\fe also found that the 
consumption of oxygen was greatly reduced by 
the employment of vegetable diet." If this had 
been a crowded room, then, and you all flesh- 

eaters, the air would have become foul in much 
less time than it would have done had you been 
Vegetarians. The importance of this matter, as 
regards workshops where large numbers of work- 
people are congregated for many hours at a time, 
and where the supply of fresh air is often very 
deficient, must be very great. Take the case of 
a man with diseased lungs, portions of which 
are perhaps destroyed, and are thus rendered in- 
capable of performing that complete action so 
necessary to perfect health. A necessary con- 
seqiience of this is, that the blood has not a 
sufficient quantity of oxygen supplied to it ; yet 
the doctors prescribe for him a diet that requires 
more oxygen. Under the influence of a flesh- 
diet, his pulse may beat faster, but it is only 
febrile excitement ; his lungs will breathe more 
laboriously, but they could not overtake their 
work before, and are less likely to do so now. 
Injury to the lungs, and impurity of blood, will 
be the necessary result of feeding a man with 
flesh under such circumstances, and how 
that which is injurious to men in health is to 
promote their health of body when diseased, is 
beyond my comprehension to understand. Dr. 
Pereira, you will recollect, speaks of fatal con- 
sequerrces resulting from too nutritive food — 
that is, flesh food — and shows the necessity of a 
proper proportion of non-nutritive matter; but 
doctors generally prescribe the so-called too 
nutritive food, and pay no attention to whether 
their patients get a supply of innutritions matter 
or not. As to the injurious consequences of this, 
I pray you to consult Dr. Picreira. 

Having now occupied a considerable portion of 
time, I shall come to a conclusion : and reviewing 
the arguments of flesh-eaters, that flesh is neces- 
sary for man's food, and that he is naturally om- 
nivorous, let us compare such assertions with 
the facts of history which I have placed before 
you. God acted as if flesh was not necessary, 
for in the beginning he gave him only vegetable 
food. The Israelites only had flesh when they 
asked for it during their long juurney of forty 
years in the wilderness, which makes me think of 
children who are often asking for things neither 
intended nor good for them. To contrast these 
ancient facts with the modern opinions and 
practice of even the greatest physiologists and 
medical men, is to find the flattest contradictions. 
The former says flesh is unnecessary, and man 
shall not have it ; the latter say, man can 
neither exist nor propagate without it, and would 
cram it down your throat whether you want it or 
not. I thiidi we may safely conclude from the 
whole subject that flesh is unnecessary and in- 
jwrious to health, and that though it was per- 
mitted as food to man, it was not the appointed 
food of man ; man lusted for flesh, but God 
appointed the vegetable food, that is all we 
can say on the subject in relation to the 
Scriptures, With these remarks I beg to con- 
clude. (Applause.) 

After some remarks from the Chairman on 
the principal points of the Lecture, and 
replies to various inquiries, a young man, 
who had sought information at previous 



meetings, expressed the satisfaction lie had 
derived from two months' trial of the Vegeta- 
rian system. He had found no difficulty in 
making the ' change, could do his work 

equally well without flesh, and went home 
at night less fatigued than formerly. 

A vote of thanks to the Lecturer and 
Chairman terminated the proceedings. 



The Glasgow Association. — B. J. — The Glas- 
gova Association is organized and conducted on 
the sarae principles as the other active Associa- 
tions. The rules for its government will be 
found in the Supplement to the fourth volume 
of the Messenger, p. 16. They seem to have 
been formed upon the model of the rules of the 
Liverpool Association, but have been further im- 
proved, and these last with some further im-. 
provements, again, have been embodied in the 
rules of the Accrington, and also of the Darwen 

The great advantage seciired to the Glasgow 
Association by the publication of the several 
papers referred to is, we consider, entirely due 
to the intelligent and steady procedure of the 
Association, in carefully regarding the improve- 
ment of its members, as a primary consideration 
in relation to public usefulness. It will be 
seen from their reports, that " a paper is read 
each month," as " a suhject of conversation or 
discussion." The arguments of Vegetarianism 
thus come to be studied by those who have 
subsequently to apply them, and we see the 
fruits of this in the able, temperate, and con- 
vincing papers recently placed before the public. 
John Andrew, Jun., Secretary. 


Operations. — We continue to hold our monthly 
meetings, and with increasing interest to those 
who attend them. Many are inquiring on the 
subject, and some are carrying out practical 
experiments in our way of living. 

Lectures. — We have had two lectures since 
our last report, one at Church by the President 
of the Association, on the Natural and Best Food 
of Man; and the other at Accrington by the 
Secretary, on Flesh Bating, its History, Defen- 
ders, and Defences. A report of this last will be 
forwarded for insertion in the Messenger. W. S. 


Distribution of Tracts, Sfc. — Since our last re- 
port, about a hundred tracts have been distri- 
buted. We also circulate copies of Fruits and 
Farinacea, Science of Human Life, Messenger, 
and Hydropathy for the People, which are silently 
producing a spirit of inquiry amongst their 

Progress. — The progress of Vegetarianism in 
this town resembles that of teetotalism some 
years ago. There is great reluctance in coming 
forward and encouraging others by public ex- 
ample, on the part of those who quietly adopt 
our views and practice. At the same time, we 
are not without under currents that show we are 
moving. I am grieved each month that I cannot 
send more encouraging reports ; but I do all I 

can in the way of example, and may God send 
his blessing, for a great deal depends on the pro- 
gress of our movement ! One person here is 
giving up the use of flesh-meat by degrees. J. B. 


Operations. — A number of tracts have been 
distributed. We feel encouraged by the 
impression already produced, and hope the 
lecture recently delivered by the Presi- 
dent may be eminently useful in estab- 
lishing those who have begun the practice, and 
also in inducing others to make a trial. The 
spirit of inquiry set on foot in this locality 
has been greatly increased since the visit of 
Mr. Simpson, and our bookseller, has had 
applications to supply several copies of Fruits 
and Farinacea. Twenty-one persons are trying 
the system. 

Meeting. — On Monday, Dec. 11th, a meeting 
was held, at which addresses were delivered by 
the President of the Vegetarian Society, Mr. 
John Chalk, Mr. William Hoyle, and Mr. 
Robert Maden, in the Holly Mount School, 
Rawtenstall. J. B. Whitehead, Esq., pre- 
sided, and the subject evidently excited great 
attention and interest. We find many persons 
are investigating the system, and believe this 
is all that is needed to carry conviction to the 
mind of the careful inquirer. W. H. 

On Wednesday, October, 25th, the Rev. 
G. B. Watson delivered the fourth of a 
course of lectures on Anthropology, in which he 
sought to establish, by a copious induction of 
argument, the fundamental law of dietetics — 
that the constitutional food of every animal is 
designed and adapted by God to nourish and 
develop the respective characteristics of their 
entire being. In proof and illustration of this 
great primordial principle of nature, the lecturer 
drew a striking contrast between those nations, 
ancient and modern, by whom farinaceous food 
has been employed as an article of diet, and those 
living largely on flesh. This contrast is very 
conspicuous when the comparison is instituted 
between the Egyptians and the Hebrews, be- 
tween the Japanese and the New Zealander, and 
between the Indian and the Hindoo. It is, 
therefore, not for a moment to be questioned, 
that flesh-eating nations have manifested in a far 
greater degree the lower propensities of human 
nature, than those nations or tribes who have 
subsisted on farinaceous food, and that, conse- 
quently, were men to yield compliance with the 
laws of their constitution, by living on food 
derived exclusively from the vegetable kingdom, 
they would never fail in the realization of a most 
majestic blessing — the enjoyment of far greater 
health — mentally, morally, and bodily. G. B. W. 




The usual monthly meeting was held at the 
Burlington Lecture Hall, 21 b, Saville-row, 
Regent Street, on Thursday, December 7th. 
A repast of fruits and farinacea was provided, 
neatly arranged, thus presenting the appear- 
ance of abundance, and testifying to the 
minds of those present that there is no lack 
of variety and nutrition, without having 
recourse to the flesh of animals. In the 
course of the evening several talented musi- 
cians belonging to the Humanistic Society 
delighted the audience with specimens of 
choicest music. 

F. TowGooD, Esq., occupied the chair, 
and opened the proceedings with a brief but 
comprehensive and appropriate address. 

Several members and friends related their 
personal experience. One person said he was by 
trade a bell-founder, and subjected to the severest 
labour in every extreme of temperature ; and 
since he had left off eating flesh, he felt much 
better able to do his work than ever he had done 
before ; he was a teetotaler as well ; and instead 
of his teetotalism or Vegetarianism in any way 
disagreeing with him, he felt far more vigorous 
and able to perform his labours than his fellow - 
workmen did, who used alcoholic liquors and 
ate flesh. 

Mr. Garland said he had been both a teeto- 
taler and a Vegetarian for nearly twelve years ; 
and he appealed to the audience if his personal 
appearance did not betoken robust good health. 
He was a boot-maker by trade, and he believed 
there was no one in London laboured harder or 
more uninterruptedly than he had done. He really 
felt a pleasure in doing his work ; he had never ex- 
perienced a day's sickness in all his life ; but since 
he had become a teetotaler and a Vegetarian, he 
had not only felt a happier man, but his strength 
and agility were greatly promoted. He would 
undertake to walk twenty miles in four hours 
and a-half, and had done so many a time. 

The Chairman regretted they had not had 
a more numerous audience. Several persons 
whom he expected would have addressed them 

were not present. He thought it likewise well 
to mention that they thought it would be prefer- 
able for all parties, in future, to have their repast 
quarterly instead of monthly as heretofore. This 
would be more convenient for many friends who 
lived at a distance, who could not attend every 
month. The ordinary lectures would be con- 
tinued as before. 

Mr. Houghton had been seventeen years a 
Vegetarian, and during that long period, had en- 
joyed uninterrupted good health. He worked 
very hard, but his constitution was so vigorous 
that he really felt a pleasure in labour. He 
strongly recommended the universal adoption of 
the principles of Vegetarianism and Teetotalism, 

A gentleman whose name we did not learn, 
bore testimony to the excellence of the Tempe- 
rance and Vegetarian principles. He mentioned 
that as science became more known, the most 
delicious food would be prepared from the cereal 
productions of the earth. 

Dr. Viettinghoff adverted to the delightful 
music to which they had just listened. The 
gentlemen were fellow members of his own in 
the Humanistic Association, founded in the me- 
tropolis by his friend Johannes Ronge, whose 
zeal for the amelioration of the social and reli- 
gious condition of his own countrymen had com- 
pelled him to leave Germany. He was now per- 
severingly engaged in his labours of humanity in 
London ; and his friends, believing that their 
labours in the Vegetarian cause were of kindred 
tendency, had wilHngly lent them their assistance 
on the present occasion. He (Dr. Vietting- 
hoff) thought there was much identity in the 
purposes of both associations. Through igno- 
rance men went astray in the physical as well as 
in the moral world ; and no law either physical 
or moral could be violated with impunity. The 
Vegetarian, as well as the Humanistic Society, 
endeavoured to bring men back to nature ; thus, 
uniting God and ISTature to reproduce upon 
earth the paradise which the Creator intended 
it should be. 

Mr. HoRSELL also delivered a short and ap- 
propriate concluding address, and the proceed- 
ings terminated shortly after ten o'clock. 



The Publication of the New List. — We have to 
thank our friends for the communication of in- 
formation tending to improve the new list, and 
shall be still further obliged to any who, on its 
issue, will continue to give their attention to this 
important and interesting document, by forward- 
ing any information whatever, of which they 
may be possessed, tending to secure the correc- 
tion of any errors it may be found unavoidably 
to contain. J. Andrews, Jun., Secretary. 


Lectures. — Three lectures on Man and his 
Body have been given here by Mr. W. G. Ward, 
the last of these being delivered on Monday 


evening, January 8th. The subjects treated in 
the first lecture were — Man Anatomically and 
Chemically considered : How is his Body formed, 
and what are the Elements of its Composition ? 
The second took up — Man Physiologically con- 
sidered: What are the Organs, and what do 
they do ? The third considered — Man in relation 
to Sanitary Movements : How to keep the Body 
in Health. Air, exercise, diet, vegetable diet, 
and cleanliness, were dwelt upon as the great 
means in man's power to enable him to keep 
his body in health. W. G. W. 


Public Meeting. — We are glad, at length, to be 
able to report some public effort in connection 

with the teaching of our priuciples here. On 
Wednesday evening, December 27th, a Vege- 
tarian meeting was held in the Public Hall, 
Colchester, when addresses on the Principle and 
Experience of the Vegetarian Practice of Diet 
were delivered by the President of the Society, 
and Mr. Nathaniel Griffin, of Birmingham. 
There was a very numerous and respectable 
attendance, and a most useful impression has been 
produced in the town generally, as well as upon 
those who were present. The meeting was also 
noticed at length in the local and neighbouring 
county papers, and thus the influence exerted will 
be extended far beyond our own locality. J. B, 


Operations. — We have not had any meetings 
lately. Most of our members take little interest 
in these efforts to spread our principles. Many 
working men, however, have been induced to try 
some of the receipts for the preparation of 
Vegetarian dishes, and some of these have Vege- 
tarian dinners two or three times a week. One 
man, with a wife and four children, says they 
can now live better than before and on from four 
to five shillings less money. The children never 
ask for bread between meals now they have 
crowdie, potato pies, barley puddings, etc. 

Distribution of Tracts. — We continue to dis- 
tribute tracts, and find them productive of good, 
and Fruits and Farinacea, with the Messenger, 
and the Science of Human Life, are frequently 
recommended, and lent to those seeking informa- 
tion on the system. We know of between thirty 
and forty persons trying the practice, but there 
is great difficulty in inducing those who have 
practised it for some time and fully approve of it, 
to take the declaration of the Society. 

Soiree. — We think some further demonstration 
is required to rouse the parties practising the 
system, who approve of our principles, but with- 
out connecting themselves with the movement. 
Perhaps a soiree would be the best for this pur- 
pose, for the cry is, " Why ! what do you live 
upon?" and although we frequently describe 
the kind of food used by Vegetarians, and in- 
vite such persons to a Vegetarian repast, this 
is not so effective as a simple, cheap Soiree 
might be. T. D. H. 


Annual Meeting. — Our Annual Meeting for 
the election of officers was held on the 20th of 
October, when the election of our committee 
and officers was made. Their names will be 
found on the cover of the Messenger. G. B. 


Agency. — We have much pleasure in furnish- 
ing a brief notice of a series of lectures by Mr. 
BoRMOND, in connection with our Association, 
and to state that there is a growing disposition 
on the part of the public to listen to the ques- 
tion of mercy and truth we teach. 

Vegetarian Meetings. — On Monday, 'Jan. 1st, 
a lecture was given in the Temperance Hall, 
Tottenham, by Mr. Bormond, on Temperance 
in regard to drinks, which will, we trust, open 

up the way for a hearing of the question of tem- 
perance in eating., so far as this relates to the 
kind of food we consume. The people here are 
anxious to hear this subject treated, aud we 
hope shortly to report a series of lectures given 
in this neighbourhood. 

Tuesday, Jan. 2nd. — Mr. Bormond delivered 
a lecture in Ebenezer Chapel, Shoreditch. The 
subject was Man., his Capabilities and Tenden- 
cies, Physical, Mental, and Emotional : the Effect 
of Flesh Meat on his Entire Nature. The audi- 
ence were deeply interested by the address, 
which occupied two hours in the delivery. 

Thursday, Jan. 4:th. — Another interesting 
lecture was given at Ebenezer Chapel, when a 
much larger audience assembled than on the 
previous occasion. This is one feature of our 
movement, that the extent and interest of the 
audience ever increase as they become acquainted 
M'ith the arguments of the system. The lecture 
this evening was devoted to a notice of some of 
the popular delusions that prevail respecting the 
superiority of flesh food, and to nutrition, aud 

Friday, Jan. 5th. — Mr. Bormond was favored 
with a large audience, at the same place, to hear 
his concluding lecture. The subjects treated 
were, Human Food considered in relation to 
Chemical Facts and Comparative Anatomy. This 
was decidedly the most impressive and useful 
lecture ; several important questions were put 
and answered at the close of the address, which 
rendered the proceedings more interesting and 
instructive. Before separating, several persons 
of the audience spontaneously rose to propose a 
vote of thanks for the important lectures they had 
heard, which was promptly seconded and carried. 

Monday, Jan. 8th. — The first of a series of 
four lectures was given in the Good Samaritan 
Hall, Saffron Hill. This is a place numerously 
attended by the working classes, and a large and 
enthusiastic audience listened, with great ear- 
nestness and undiminished attention, to Mr. 
Bormond during an address of more than two 
hours. At the close several working men stated 
that they had adopted Vegetarian habits of diet 
some months ago. When men get to know that 
the flesh of animals can be done without as food, 
they are freed from much anxiety which they 
were subject to before becoming acquainted with 
the true nature of human diet. 

Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
Jan. 9th, lOth, 11th, and 12th. — Besides the above, 
a series of four lectures was given in the large 
and commodious ^Temperance Hall, Woolwich. 
The audience on each occasion was large and 
thoughtful. At the close of the last lecture 
several questions were sent up to the speaker, the 
replies to which excited much interest. B. J. 


Secretary. — It is with much regret we report 
the loss of our late Secretary's valuable assist- 
ance, he having been compelled, by the pressure 
of business engagements and other circumstances, 
to retire from the office. Mr. J. W. Betteney 
has been appointed his successor. J. W. B. 




A MEETING Avas held in the Temperance 
Hall, Middleton, on Saturday, the 17th of 
Fehruary, for the purpose of advocating 
Dietetic Reform. Mr. James Gaskill, 
Mr. J. W. Betteney, and Mr. J. Hall, of 
Manchester, attended as a Deputation from 
the Manchester and Salford Vegetarian 
Association. The audience was not nume- 
rous, but, despite the chilling influence of 
the weather, manifested considerable and 
encouraging interest in the question. 

Mr. Holt, of Middleton, was called to 
the chair. 

Mr. J. W. Betteney, in a lucid and eloquent 
manner, showed that the instincts of our nature 
were entirely opposed to the killing and eating 
of the animal creation. 

Mr. Jas. Gaskill said, he had been a Vege- 
tarian upwards of forty years, and had, in his 
own experience, fully proved the advantages re- 
sulting from correct habits of diet. Habit too 
frequently led to indifference in reference to diet, 
and erroneous practices were thus perpetuated, 
even when contrary to the instincts of nature, 
and the recognized facts of science. The ques- 
tion raised by dietetic reformers was not, what 
man could exist upon, but what was the hest 
food to sustain the body in the most perfect 
health. Facts proved the advantages of absti- 
nence from the flesh of animals as food, and the 
opinions of the most celebrated of scientific men 
(some of which Mr. Gaskill quoted), based 
upon a variety of data, all harmonized with the 
practical results attendant upon Vegetarian 

habits of diet. Flesh contained no elements in 
any way superior to vegetable food, and in form, 
even, possessed no advantage. Where, then, was 
the reason of obtaining nourishment through 
the secondary medium of an animal, subject to 
the known contingencies of prevalent disease? 
It was time, he argued, that the working-classes 
of this country paid that attention to their 
dietetic habits which the importance of the 
subject required. Working-men should remem- 
ber that these were not the times for useless 
expenditure, and he could not call that good 
management which led so many people to give 
sevenpence and eightpence per pound for nutri- 
ment from flesh, when this was obtainable at 
much less cost, and in a superior and more direct 
form, from the vegetable kingdom. It seemed, 
for instance, to him, bad policy to give " sixpence 
per pound for bones one day, and the next day 
to exchange them for sand and rubbing-stones." 
It was of vast importance to the working-classes 
to lay out their means to the best advantage. 
The speaker, who was listened to throughout his 
address with the greatest attention, then con- 
eluded by hoping that the important subject of 
dietetic reform would meet with the considera- 
tion its benefits merited. 

Mr. J. Hall then briefly addressed the 
meeting, after which several questions were 
asked, Avhich were answered by Mr. Gas- 
kill apparently to the satisfaction of the 
meeting. Mr. Ogden Clegg proposed a 
vote of thanks to the Chairman and speakers, 
which being carried, the meeting separated 
a little before ten o'clock. 



The List of Members. — If members will kindly 
criticize the new List of Members recently issued, 
and give information respecting any errors or 
omissions that may be discovered, they will con- 
fer a benefit, not merely upon themselves, but 
on others, who are all interested in such cor- 
rections being made in future issues of the List. 
With a view to the most efficient rendering 
of the assistance solicited, we would suggest, 
first, that each member should check the entry 
of his or her name and address in both the 
general alphabetical and geographical lists ; 
next the entries of the subscription department ; 
then the same particulars in relation to their 
families or circle of acquaintance, so far as these 
may be known to them ; and, lastly, that they 
should put the Secretary in possession of any 
information arrived at, otherwise tending to 
secure correctness, and add to the general value 
of the List as an important document of the Society. 
John Andrew, Jun., Secretary. 


Change of Secretary. — The local secretary here 
is contemplating resigning his office, as he is 
about to leave the town. With a Uttle delay, we 


have fouud some one to recommend for appoint- 
ment to his place ; the reluctance to accept the 
office not proceeding from want of sympathy 
with the movement, but from the fact of our 
being such an inactive set of people in Birming- 
ham in all that belongs to strict organization. 
When I read the Messenger, and see what is 
being done in other quarters, I, for one, certainly 
feel ashamed that we have not a more acknow- 
ledged existence. R. R. C. 

Social Advocacy. — Though we cannot point to 
any public labours systematically carried on in 
our town, perhaps few other places come up to 
Birmingham in the extent of the private advocacy 
of our views. Numbers are constantly becoming 
acquainted with our principles in this way, and 
many are led to try, approve of, and permanently 
to adopt our system of living. The effect of an 
Annual Meeting and Banquet in Birmingham 
would, no doubt, be to assemble all those adhe- 
rents of the system, and to add their strength to 
that of the public movement. G. N. 


Operations. — The cause of Vegetarianism in 
this neighbourhood still continues to progress. 
We are now placing the Association on a proper 



basis, and establishing' more complete organiza- 
tion, which will doublless add to its stability. 
About twenty-four persons are practising the 

Meetings.-^We have had three meetings since 
I wrote last, all of them private ; the first was 
addressed by Mr. W. Hoyle, on The Evidence 
of Analogy in favour of a Vegetarian Diet ; the 
second by Mr. T. Nowell, on The Use of Vege- 
tables in Medicine; and the last by Mr. W. 
Chalk, on The Influence of a Vegetarian Diet 
upon the Mental Powers. W. H. 


Operations. — Our proceedings for a long pe- 
riod have been very quiet, the continued absence 
of Mr. R. HiNDLE, the active Secretary of our 
Association, having paralyzed o\xr efforts, whilst, 
I regret to say, my numerous and growing 
duties prevent me from giving that attention to 
the affairs of the Association which I could 
desire. I pen this brief notice in my sick room, 
to which T have been confined for a few days, by 
what my medical attendant describes as sympto- 
matic fever, but I am happy to say that I am 
now almost well. W. T. A. 


Operations. — We continue to lend the Mes- 
senger, Fruits and Farinacea, and Science of 
Human Life; and between thirty and forty 
persons are trying the system. 

Return to the Practice. — One man who had 
been trying the practice for three years, discon- 
tinued it by the advice of his medical attendant. 
He was suffering from drowsiness, but on taking 
to flesh, he became much worse, and was very 
ill. He has now returned to our system, and 
his health is improving. T. D. H. 


Operations. — We have had no meetings since 
my last. Several persons are trying the system 
in Woodhouse and Leeds, and about a dozen 
copies of the Messenger are lent for reading. 
One of our members has given up the practice 
through opposition at home. We are contem- 
plating some more active proceedings. There 
is considerable inquiry as to the merits and 
advantages of Vegetarianism, but it requires 
much effort and reading to bring many to a 
decision. J. A. J. 


Vegetarian Lectures. — Mr. Bormond's lec- 
tures, in and about London, continue to draw 
inquiring, and, in some instances, large audiences, 
several series having been given in various 
districts of the city. 

Saffron Hill. — A series of four lectures has 
been given here, and much interest has been 
excited, and earnest inquiries called forth. At 
the close of the last lecture a number of questions 
were sent up to the platform, couched in courteous 
language, and dictated mainly by a kindly spirit, 
when much useful information was elicited. The 
assembly spontaneously tendered a vote of thanks 
to the lecturer, and at the same time expressed 

their satisfaction with the manner in which the 
questions had been met. 

Chelsea. — A course of three lectures was 
given at Chelsea, in the very elegant and 
commodious Temperance Hall. These lectures 
were highly appreciated by large and attentive 
audiences, and. many minds doubtless quickened 
in reference to this and other kindred subjects. 

Little Portland Street. — Two lectures were 
delivered in the Fitzroy Hall, on Thursday, 
January 25th, and Thursday, February 15th, 
before intelligent and thoughtful audiences. The 
subject of the first lecture was, Man, his capabi- 
lities and tendencies, physical, mental, and 
spiritual — The effects of food and drink on the 
entire nature. The second treated of the lan- 
guage of the special senses as to the originally 
constituted food of man — The products of the 
vegetable kingdom versus the flesh of animals as 
food. These subjects were listened to with candour 
and earnestness, and doubtless left the people 
less disposed to carp at the Vegetarian system, 
than when they viewed its claims from a distance, 
through their prejudices and artificial habits. 

Aldersgate Street. — A series of three lectures 
has been given in the Educational Institute, to 
increasingly large audiences. 

Greenwich. — Three lectures have been given 
here, the first on February 1st, in the Girls' 
British School, adjoining Lewisham Road Chapel, 
the Rev. Thomas Timpson of Lewisham pre- 
siding ; the second and third lectures were given 
in the Temperance Hall, Roan Street, on the 8th 
and 9th of February, when the chair was taken 
by W. Sturton, Esq., M.D. These lectures 
have elicited candid inquiry, and earnest thought, 
on the part of those who seek to be right in their 
day-by-day practice, in reference to the sustaining 
of the body, and " keeping it in subjection," 

Bethnal Green Road. — Four lectures have been 
delivered at Zion Chapel, on February 6th, 13th, 
20th, 27th, the Rev. T. G. Williams presiding on 
each occasion. In the first lecture the human 
body in its connection with the spirit, the brain, 
its machinery and furniture, the mind, its facul- 
ties and wisdom, and the results of food on 
both, were ably treated. The second included 
the balance-power of food, stimulative and nu- 
tritive, the character of true health, the influence 
of fruits in time of cholera, and the philosophy 
of prescribing a fruit diet. The third treated of 
the food of man, viewed through the medium of 
the special senses and comparative anatomy. In 
the last, man's original and proper food was 
demonstrated to be fruits, roots, and grain, from 
an examination of the facts of nature, and the 
deductions of chemistry. 

Vegetarian Soiree. — We anticipate holding a 
Soiree on the 28th of February, when we hope 
to have a good gathering of the Vegetarian 
friends in and about London, to hear Mr. 
BoRMOND, many of these not having had an 
opportunity of hearing him during his recent 
labours, through the great distance preventing 
many from attending the lectures. B. J. 




On Thursday evening, March 8th, a Vege- 
tarian Meeting was held in the New Jeru- 
salem School Room, Accrington, when ad- 
dresses in support of the Vegetarian system 
Avere delivered by James Simpson, Esq., of 
Fox-hill Bank, Mr. George Clarke, of 
Rishton, Mr. G. Pollard, of Padiham, and 
Mr. "W. Sandeman. The audience was 
not very numerous, probably through the 
announcements of the meeting not having 
been issued sufficiently early, but those who 
were present manifested the greatest interest, 
and the proceedings were continued to a late 
hour. At the close of the addresses several 
objections were submitted by one of the 
audience, to which replies were offered by 
the Chairman and others. 

James Simtson, Esq., occupied the chair, 
and, after some preliminary remarks, said, that 
it would be well if more persons were interested 
in such an inquiry as that proposed for their 
attention that evening ; but, unfortunately, the 
great mass of people did not inquire into the 
reasons, real or supposed, for their daily habits, 
but were content to follow what they liked. It 
was, however, true that the world was ruled by 
a minority of those who thought more for them- 
selves on all matters than people generally were 
inclined to do. There was thus no need to be 
discouraged in relation to any subject that was 
worth anything, by the small number of its 
adherents to begin with ; for there was once a 
time, as all would remember, when the Gospel 
itself had but the Saviour and a few fishermen to 
proclaim it to the world. All would probably 
admit the force of habit; but if any doubted 
the difficulty of changing long-established habits, 
let them set to work by beginning upon the smaller 
matters first, and they would find it a difficult 
task to overcome even slight peculiarities of speech 
or action. And when to this was added the 
influence of prevailing custom, and especially if 
the practice were not a correct one, it exerted a 
blinding influence upon the perceptions of those 
who were in the practice. People had, therefore, 
a great difficulty in estimating the errors of pre- 
vailing custom, and especially if they happened 
to have been trained in them for generations. 
The Creator had given us power to attain to 
truths, if we would only have them ; all spiritual 
philosophy went to prove that, if men were 
active, they could, by earnestly striving, become 
converted from those practices that were erro- 
neous; but if, liie the carter in the fable 
(who, when the cart got into the ruts and stuck 
fast, fell on his knees, and merely prayed to 
Jupiter to lift the cart out, without "putting 
his shoulder to the wheel"), they did not 
exert their own moral and human strength, — 
pray in act as well as word — they must necessa- 
rily fail to raise themselves out of evil, though 
with these efforts they could, as things were con- 
stituted, secure progression in what was good in 

relation to time, as well as to the great interests 
of eternity. The process was a slow one, but it was 
safe, and certain to result in increased usefulness 
and consequent happiness. Being in an evil 
course darkened the mind, and led to mistakes, 
because the Creator had established everything 
in relation to principles of truth, and if we 
were in complete truth, we should the more 
readily see the evil. It was not necessary to 
be in the evil to see it; but if in an evil 
practice, it was not easy to see out of the bad 
into the good, for people were blinded by the bad 
habit, whilst in truthful courses they could see 
the deformity of the evil without needing to go 
into it. This was true of greater things as well 
as the smaller ones, just as some who were now 
teetotallers, before becoming such upon the total 
abstinence question, looked upon that practice 
unfavourably, and despised it. Some present 
were teetotallers, and others were not, and this 
reference might serve as a simple illustration of 
what he meant. Whilst people were in drinking 
habits it was impossible for them to see the 
beauty of teetotalism ; but they got into trouble 
by drinking, and were induced to become total 
abstainers, and they could now see the evil and 
mischief of the drinking customs far more clearly 
than they ever saw these before. The teetotaller 
after five years' abstinence saw this evil quite 
distinctly ; but after twenty years' abstinence, 
supposing he had progressed otherwise in good 
practices, he would see this question more clearly 
than after five years' abstinence. But he con- 
tended that the person who had never been in 
the habit of drinking at all, saw its evil clearest of 
all. For the sake of illustration, they would 
see, that, he was begging the question that the 
drinking system was an evil one. The history 
of the world showed, that the higher the truth, 
the more bitter was the hostility of those who 
were opposed to it. When Christ propounded 
his system of truths, the Pharisees said he was 
mad and had a devil, and gnashed their teeth at 
him ; and who could be further removed from 
the truth than these people were, in their pride 
and hypocrisy, saying, " I thank thee that I am 
not as other men " ? The world had in this way 
taken hold of the men who propounded new 
truths, and the man who first said the earth 
turned round the sun, instead of the sun round 
the earth, as was then supposed, happened to 
sicken and die immediately, or he would have 
been persecuted. For we find, vrhen the man 
who followed him said, " Copernicus was 
quite right, the earth does go round the sun," 
they got hold of him, and made him go down on 
his knees before the Inquisition, and say that 
this was a lie, and that the earth did not turn 
round the sun ; but he got up again, and said, 
"but it doth turn, though." This was the 
philosopher Galileo. There had been many 
martyrs to truth in this way in the past, but 
they did not now thus treat those who taught 
new truths ; the most they did was to laugh a 
little at them ; and this they could stand, for if a 



system would not bear a little laughing at, it 
must be a poor one, and the sooner it was put an 
end to, the better. They could not take a step 
heavenward without departing from the great 
mass around them, but they need never feel 
ashamed at this, and if they could give a good 
reason for their practice, need not be afraid of a 
little laughter. Philosophy declared that we 
came into the world for useful ends — to receive 
truth — to help others — what a thing it 
was then to be afraid of a little laughter ! It 
was a counterfeit sort of happiness they would 
obtain if they were seeking happiness for itself; 
they would thus miss their way, but if 
diligently engaged in carrying out the great 
purposes of existence, they would incidentally 
secure real happiness at the same time. The 
question of diet was one of difficulty, because 
people have got "meat" in their stomachs, and 
in their heads, and eyes even. The goodness of 
the Vegetarian system, or what was called Dietetic 
Reform, could well support this misfortune, how- 
ever, and he did not think any man could hear 
its arguments without getting good impressions, 
and especially if he would only inquire into it. 
There was a class, however, who were chiefly 
guided by the " I like it " feeling ; and these were 
the most unfortunate of all, since they were con- 
tent, without inquiry, to follow prevailing customs 
and acquired tastes. People sometimes said, 
" What fools these Vegetarians must be, not to 
touch a bit of butcher's meat ; " and they said 
many other such things upon the subject; but 
though people had to judge of this question 
somewhat at disadvantage, they could all get out 
of that disadvantage in a little time, if they would 
only undertake to examine and reason upon the 
subject. The subject of eating and drinking was 
one of so much interest to most persons, that any 
one might talk as long as he pleased upon it, 
touching upon the various parts of the ox, 
from the tips of its horns to its tail, and others 
would listen with the greatest pleasure to remarks 
in relation to the best mode of cooking and 
stewing. He contended that, however absurd the 
question of Vegetarianism might appear at first 
sight, an examination of its claims would demon- 
strate its importance to all classes. Whilst 
addressing a large meeting at Birmingham, the 
other day — not on Vegetarianism, however, but 
on the drinking system — there was a Vegetarian 
standing by his side, and either himself or his 
friend was greeted with the cry of " Cabbage ! " 
for people thought Vegetarians lived upon this 
article, though they ate less of it, probably, than 
flesh-eaters, and lived chiefly upon fruits, roots, and 
grain. When people made use of snch remarks 
as the one he just alluded to, he knew at once 
they had not examined the question. The object 
of the Vegetarian movement .was, to lead to the 
examination of the dietetic question ; and, if on 
inquiry, it was found to be better than the mixed 
diet system, people might adopt it if they pleased, 
or continue their old practice, if this appeared the 
wisest course. It was a great thing in this world 
to be left in freedom, on this and other questions, 
to follow that which, on examination, presented 
the greatest amount of evidence in its favour. 

People were at liberty, if they pleased, to eat 
donkeys and horses, and he had heard that there 
was now a Frenchman recommending the use of 
horse-flesh for food, as had been done in Berlin. 
And why not ; if they ate other animals ? Cus- 
tom was varied in this respect ; they saw the 
Frenchman eat frogs, and huge snails ; at par- 
ticular seasons they would see large numbers of 
these last in the windows of the cafes and 
restaurants. He had known an Englishman who, 
in his morning's walk, could swallow a fat snail; 
but they would most likely regard that as a very 
peculiar taste for an Englishman. They were 
met to inquire into this question of diet. The 
Vegetarian's was a benevolent mission ; in short, 
— to use the words of a friend of his who had 
written a beautiful essay on the subject, most 
aptly entitled. What is Vegetarianism ? — " the 
mission of Vegetarianism has reference to a 
principle and practice, which emphatically pro- 
tests against the necessity of taking away 
the life of any animal for the purposes of 
human sustenance. It is a positive, not a 
negative principle. * * It says. We can not 
only do without flesh-diet, but we can do 
much better without. It offers, for everything 
others bring forward in point of theory or fact, 
to produce a higher law, a deeper and more 
universal fact, and a superior result at last." 
It might be said, that the teaching of the doc- 
trines of Vegetarianism was unnecessary, since 
nobody could change the practice of people ; but 
their object was to convince others, and then 
leave them- to change and alter their practice, if 
they saw it good to do this, for themselves. What 
was to decide the question as to what constituted 
the natural and best diet of man? He had 
referred to the power of reasoning on this sub- 
ject earlier on, and the decision must be arrived 
at by inquiry and the examination of evidence. 
In doing this,it would be necessaryat once to resort 
to history. What, then, did history say upon this 
question of diet ? The time would only allow of 
a rapid glance at a few points, and he must leave 
those gentlemen who were to follow him to speak 
to the rest. When man was at first placed in 
the very circumstances in which God intended 
him to live, he had given him, in the " herb bear- 
ing seed, and fruit tree yielding fruit," the very 
character of diet for which they were now con- 
tending in 1855. After continuing in this state 
for a certain period, man fell into disorder, and 
some time later again, he appears to have fallen 
into the practice of flesh-eatnig. People took it 
for granted that this practice was permitted from 
that time, and no doubt it was permitted now in 
our time too ; but that was not the inquiry. 
There seemed to be another question to be 
decided, and that was, whether the system in 
which man was at first placed, or that into which 
he had subsequently fallen, was the best? In- 
stances were observed where the Jews, as indi- 
viduals, had been abstainers. St. John, in the 
wilderness, fed on locusts and wild honey ; but 
some people, in their flesh-eating practices, 
thought that this was the animal locust ; but if 
they went to Manchester, and other places, they 
would see the vegetable locusts for sale — rich, 



delicious fruit, resemhlini^ t!ie fig iu its nature. 
If St. John had fed upon the animal locusts, he 
would have wanted a pair of wings to fly after 
them, for they came down in great numbers upon 
a tract of land, and destroyed all the herbage, and 
then moved to another place, and this would have 
left him no leisure to preach the gospel to the 
multitudes who flocked to hear him. Commen- 
tators, now, generally inclined to this interpreta- 
tion of the word. The Bible was a grand and 
beautiful book, and all drew views of truth from 
it ; but it was treated so strangely at times — this 
section of professing Christians finding authority 
for quarrelling with that — that we could hardly 
think they got their authority for what they did 
from that book. It was indeed a wonderful book, 
but men perverted its truths, and sought to beat 
the Vegetarians from the Bible ; but there was 
nothing in its teachings on dietetics really 
opposed to their system. It no doubt recorded 
instances of flesh-eating, and other inferior prac- 
tices ; but these were permitted, not appointed, in 
a fallen condition, just as the exaction of " an 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth," and the 
putting away of wives was ; but the real inquiry was 
What prevailed "in the beginning?" If they went 
to history without the Bible, they would find 
that the great mass of mankind were not living 
on flesh, but that from two-thirds to three- 
fourths subisted on vegetable products as the 
main feature of their diet, and only on flesh as 
the great accident of the time, some races living 
from generation to generation entirely without it. 
Some of the greatest works of antiquity had 
been carried out in Vegetarian practice. Cyrus 
and his followers lived in this way ; and Greece 
and Rome in their happiest days were supported 
on simple vegetable products. Rye was used in 
large quantities by these people, aud an admi- 
rable article of diet it is. The men of most 
muscular frames, and who carry the greatest 
weights, amounting to 700 or 800 pounds, upon 
their heads and shoulders, never taste flesh, but 
live on this black 'bread, and fruit, and drink only 
water. Mr. Fairbairn, the celebrated engineer 
of Manchester, was over in the east a few years 
ago, and he was quite struck with this fact ; our 
beef-fed porters never dreamed of lifting the bur- 
dens these men carry. In short, history, wher- 
ever they might go, was in favour of this system. 
Look at the two American tribes living almost 
side by side in South America ; the Carib of 
Venezuela, the most savage creature in the world, 
he even ate human flesh, and thought that all 
other races were made to be eaten by him. Not 
far distant from this tribe, they would find a 
moral and well-conducted race of men, the 
Araucanian Indians, and any person who had paid 
attention to mental philosophy, as made known 
in the teachings of phrenology, would find that 
these people had a grand development of benevo- 
lence, and ought to be civilized men. These 
people, indeed, in some respects acted in a man- 
ner worthy of imitation by civilized people, and 
they would have no money amongst them since 
they saw the the cheating and dishonest conduct 
of the Spaniards who visited them ; they con- 
ducted all their exchanges by barter. Contrast 

these people with the Carihs, and they would see 
these last with a low receding forehead, and 
heads almost overhatiging their shoulders. The 
question of diet was a very interesting one, and 
worthy of the attention of every one ; and they 
would find that they had something to inquire 
into, and perhaps to alter, in their personal 
habits. The facts of history were very impor- 
tant, but God spoke to them in other ways, and 
one of these was iu science, or the interpretation 
of the laws of nature. Look at the teeth of 
man, for example, those teeth that, as people said, 
" showed he was intended to eat meat," but with 
which he really never ate meat at all. Other 
animals had got these teeth longer than man ; 
the monkey tribes, which came nearest to 
man in physiological structure. He did not 
mean the monkeys we saw in this country, but 
those of Africa and India, which approached 
man in stature, such as the ourang-outang ; ajid 
yet these animals lived on fruits and vegetable 
products, aud did not eat flesh at all. These had 
got the " eye-tooth," or " dog tooth," longer than 
man had. The greatest naturalists that ever 
lived had declared, that the natural food of man 
was fruits, roots, and grain ; but those who tried 
to please the people said, that man was intended 
to eat meat. Those persons who said this, had 
never examined the question thoroughly, and did 
not know what the real authorities upon the 
question had long since declared. It was very 
foolish to be eating the flesh of animals, since 
this was only eating vegetable substances at second 
hand. And then how much of this flesh was 
diseased — they knew how to judge of that in 
Accrington. He had lately elicited from the 
butchers of Accrington, in a case that came 
before him, that the best way to tell whether 
meat was diseased was, that diseased raeiit 
did not look bright when it was cut, whilst 
"good meat," though old and dark looking, 
would look bright inside. It might also 
be detected by its low price, and the absence of 
the usual qsiantity of fat ; aud some of the most 
skilful market inspectors in London declared, 
that they could only judge of it iu this way. 
When they came to look into the question, they 
would see it was foolish to eat meat, since they 
gave a shilling for what they could have for two- 
pence or threepence in some other way, and more 
digestible and healthful at the same time. He 
did not, then, see the wisdom of poor men with 
hard-earned money, giving 6d., 7d., or 8d., per 
pound for meat and bone, and then selling the 
bone, which was often a large part of their pur- 
chase, a few days after, in exchange for sand aud 
other things, at Id. per pound. Providence never 
intended man to eat meat, or it would not have 
been made so dear. If they were workmen, they 
would find they could live cheaper without flesh- 
meat, and when they came to individual expe- 
rience, they would maintain their health better, 
and their lives happier, on the Vegetarian system 
than the other. He was obliged to draw upon 
their credence upon this subject, but he appealed 
to those who knew both sides, having tried both 
systems, and in this way the question commended 
itself to all inquirers. Why did the Vegetarians 



live in this way but because they had found a 
better system, — the best system, in short, for in 
the meat-eating system they went roundabout 
for their food, and only got vegetable principles 
at last. He would say, therefore, "just get these 
first principles at once, and let the flesh of 
animals go." He might appeal to their benevo- 
lence, since there was not one who was not 
disgusted by the scenes incident to the slaughter 
of animals for food. The tiger and other animals 
of prey did not feel this in relation to procuring 
their food ; all was natural to them, and they 
were delighted in seizing their prey, and expe- 
rienced a gush of saliva that showed all »vas in 
harmony with their natures. The smell of cooked 
flesh was associated with our meals, and thus 
became grateful to us ; but let any abstaiu from 
flesh for a time, and the odour would become 
off"ensive to them. The flesh of our own bodies, 
if burned, would smell just the same ; and a 
gentleman had told him, in relation to this point, 
he was quite right, for when he was living in 
India, and riding out early in the morning in the 
neighbourhood of some large city, he sometimes 
came upon men burning the dead, and the smell 
was just the same. They got accustomed to these 
odours, however, and other modes of preparing 
flesh, and called all acceptable — " the smell of 
their dinner " ; but this was merely the result of 
acquired habit, and in the same way the sheep 
had been educated to eat mutton until it refused 
grass. When they came to inquire further into 
this subject, they felt compunction at getting 
their food in this way ; and this was, again, to his 
mind, a strong proof that the flesh-eating practice 
was not a natural one. In these few remarks, he 
could only present a few thhigs for their con- 
sideration ; others would follow him, and in this 
way be hoped the inquiry would lead to some- 
thing, even on a first hearing of the question. 
There were, however, he thought, many in Accring- 
ton who had had more than a first hearing of 
the subject, and these persons ought to take up 
the system and join the Society, and in this 
way do their duty to the public. (Applause.) 

Mr. J. Clarke said he felt rather diffident at 
rising to speak on Vegetarianism, for this would 
be his maiden speech on the subject ; but as he 
had been invited to state his experience, he could 
not refuse to do this. In June next, if spared 
till then, he would have been a Vegetarian four 
years, or perhaps rather longer, for when he first 
commenced the practice he was from home, and 
lived without flesh-meat during the week, but on 
going home to his family on the Sunday, he took 
meat along with them. This went on for a few 
weeks, and he then said he did not care about 
the meat, and his family ate their meat, and he 
did without. He was then, and had been for 
some time, in a bad state of health, though up 
to the age of thirty he had never known anything 
of a sense of pain or weariness from ordinary 
labour. He had followed the brick-making busi- 
ness up to the age of thirty-six, though he had 
not now worked at this for some time, and 
twelve years ago, he became a teetotaller. Some 
time afterwards, he had read an excellent sermon 
on Redeeming the Time, by John Wesley ; in 

which he stated that he regularly rose at four in 
the morning, and had thus repaired his health, 
and as he (Mr. Clarke) was anxious to find 
time for self-improvement, he adopted this prac- 
tice of early rising, and with advantage for some 
time. After a while, however, his health again 
failed him, and a friend told him that if he were 
made of iron, he might stand this wear and tear, 
but that, unless he gave up, he would soon wear 
himself out. This medical man recommended 
him to take porter, a little at first, and gradually 
increase this as he could take more. He also 
advised him to take meat again, to eat it for 
breakfast and dinner, and again at supper, and 
also to rest from mental exertion of all kinds. 
He tried this for a time, with great reluctance, 
however, and at length he was directed to another 
medical man, who had been staying for some 
time in his neighborhood, and who was recom- 
mended as a clever man, and also a teetotaller. 
He waited upon him, and though the doctor at 
first refused to give him advice, he was afterwards 
induced to do so. The doctor gave him such 
directions as he required, and he went home with 
a lighter heart than he had had for some time. 
This medical man said he could hardly bear the 
name of flesh-meat, but if he would eat any, it 
should be a little mutton, and he was to take 
cocoa. He thought if he could live cheaper and 
better without meat, he would do so. He was 
ordered to follow the water-cure treatment, and 
had found so much advantage from this, that he 
continued to wash in cold water every morning 
since, the first thing on getting out of bed. He 
did not jump into the Vegetarian practice at 
once. He heard of Mr. Simpson, of Fox-hill 
Bank, and as he did not feel quite sure about 
this Vegetarian practice, he went over to see 
Mr. Simpson ; he was kindly received, and had 
Smith's Fruits and Farinacea lent him to read. 
He then saw his way clear, went to Manchester, 
bought the book, and lent it to a lady to 
read. He now commenced eating a few raisins 
at his meals, giving up the use of butter, and 
tea and cotfee, and using milk and raisins 
instead, the bread he used, he would remark, 
was the brown bread A person said to him 
one day that if he knew what the miller put 
in the brown flour he would not use it. He told 
the person that he did not trust to the miller, 
but prepared this himself. A friend on the 
platform had bought a mill, and that was an 
excellent plan to grind their own corn, and thus 
avoid any mixture with the flour they used. 
Since resuming his Vegetarian practice he had 
gradually improved in health, and had now 
for some time been as well as ever he was in his 
life. He could work as well as he ever could ; 
preach twice or thrice on the Sabbath day ; and 
rise every morning, when the little alarum awoke 
him, without any unpleasant feeling or disagree- 
able taste in the mouth, as used to be the case 
before becoming a Vegetarian. He might be 
asked how he lived, and would just state that he 
had the wheat ground, and then made into bread, 
without barm, or salt, or anything, but mixed 
with cold water. [Mr. Clarke presented a 
piece of this bread, for the inspection of the 



audience after the meeting;, which was found to 
be of excellent flavour and quahty.] This was 
then taken out of the oven and put to cool, and 
half a pint of milk and oatmeal porridge, and a 
piece of this bread, served him for breakfast. 
This porridge was prepared over night, and set 
in the coolest part of the house till the morning. 
In the morning he rose at a quarter past four, 
washed all over from head to foot in cold water ; 
he then went to work at his books, or employed 
his time otherwise till breakfast, when he had the 
porridge and milk, and a piece of the bread, with 
a few raisins, perhaps. He was lately told by a 
gentleman, that if he did not eat flesh-meat he 
ate eggs, or something of the kind to keep him 
up. He told the gentleman that he had not 
eaten twelve eggs since he had been a Vegetarian, 
and he could do without them. For dinner he 
had cold rice-pudding, some potatoes, a piece of 
bread, and a lump of raisins. And on this diet 
he could walk twenty or even forty miles a day. 
Mr. Clarke then related the way in which he 
had cured a young woman who was supposed to 
be dying of consumption, by simple water-cure 
applications and Vegetarian diet, and concluded 
by stating that he left the audience to eat and 
drink as they pleased, as he thought he had said 
enough to show that Vegetarianism did well for 
him. (Applause.) 

Mr. PoLLAKD spoke for some time on the 
importance of using brown bread, and said that 
to meet the demands of his neighbours for the 
flour, he had to work his hand-mill almost day 
and night, but he hoped soon to have an engine 
to relieve him of his labour. He then urged the 
importance of cleanliness in the house, cleanliness 
of person and linen, end explained some plans he 
was about carrying out, to facilitate the washing 
of clothes by a machine, without the necessity of 
manual labour. After contrasting the ofl'ensive cir- 
cumstances in connection with flesh-eating with 
the beauty and purity of Vegetarian diet, he con- 
cluded with some remarks on the economy of the 
latter system, audits sufficiency to sustain health 
under severe toil. 

Mr. James Randles had been a Vegetarian 
since 1846, wken he was led to reason on the 
question of diet. He had found that a Vegeta- 
rian diet was not only cheaper, but that he could 
live better upon it, and build up the body in 
greater strength than on the mixed-diet system. 
He concluded by recommending the reading of 
the Messenger, Fruits and Farinacea, and other 
Vegetarian publications, which had directed him 
to a far more healthful and happy mode of life than 
the common one. 

Mr. Sandeman considered it would be un- 
wise in him to detain the meeting, as it was 
already late. He would, therefore, only dwell 
for a few minutes upon one or two subjects 
presented in a letter he had received from a 
friend in Scotland. The first point urged by 
this friend was, that it was not morally wrong 
to eat flesh, and thus it was useless to abstain 
from it. He remembered once hearing a tem- 
perance advocate use this argument in relation to 
intoxicating drinks, that drinking was either right 
or wrong — if right, then to abstain was a sin ; if 

wrong, then abstinence was right, and drinking 
a sin. When at school, his master would some- 
times say, " William, that sum is wrong." Now 
there were many things that we did that were 
wrong, that could not be called sins. We might 
make a wrong sum, or take a wrong position, 
and say the sun revolved round the earth, but 
neither of these would be morally wrong. It 
was only in moral questions that we were morally 
wrong. If by eating flesh he injured his body, 
this was not morally wrong, it was dietetically 
wrong, but that was another matter altogether. 
He considered this was a point worth attending 
to. He could not say it was morally wrong to 
eat flesh, but he would say it was dietetically 
wrong, just as he might say it was mathema- 
tically wrong to say that two and two made 
six. His friend said again : " You appear 
satisfied with the good results received from the 
adoption of Vegetarian principles, and your good 
health confirms you more and more." He had 
told his friend that he had experimented upon 
the system : he had not fixed the opinion in his 
head, and taken up the idea that it was a fine 
thing to be a Vegetarian, but practically tested 
it. He adopted Vegetarianism because he found 
it good for him. He was ill, and gave up flesh, 
and got well without making any other change. 
His friend, therefore, naturally thought his faith 
in Vegetarianism would not be easily shaken. 
The next argument he had to meet was this, 
that " the English are the greatest flesh-eating 
people in the world, and yet they are the 
strongest, healthiest, and longest livers." It 
was very easy to draw general results from 
general facts in this way, but he liked to take 
things by piece-meal, and in this way they 
could more easily be examined. How often 
did they hear of the piety of the Scotch, and 
yet that they were the greatest whisky drink- 
ers in the world ; or it might be reversed, 
and the statement made, that they were the 
greatest whisky drinkers in the world, and 
yet how pious they were ; as if the piety was the 
result of the drinking. They thus saw how easy 
it was to make arguments for the purpose, to 
take general facts, and draw general conclusions. 
Some present might remember he had shown, in 
a lecture he delivered lately, that the English 
were not the strongest people in the world. 
Whether they did eat more flesh than any other 
people, he did not know ; but, admitting that 
this was the case, and that they were the strong- 
est also, it did not follow that this was the result 
of flesh-eating. The Scotch were said to be the 
most pious people in the world, and also the 
greatest whisky drinkers : admitting that this 
was so, were those who drank the most whisky 
the most pious ? So he said, granting that we 
had the strongest people in the world in Eng- 
land, was it those who ate the most flesh ? That 
was the point, for there were many people in 
England who ate very little meat, and perhaps 
it was amongst these that the strongest men 
might be found. His friend went on to say : 
" What is the ox but a huge machine for 
converting grass into food for man ?" He might 
as well say, "Man was a huge machine for 



converting oxen (if man ate these) into food for 
worms." This argument was just as good as 
that of his friend. It was next said, that " in 
cold countries it is necessary to eat fat to main- 
tain the heat of the body." This was not the 
case. How did tlie Vegetarians manage to 
maintain their heat during the late severe wea- 
ther ? They bore the cold as well as the flesh- 
eaters. His friend said again, that the Vegeta- 
rian question would not gain anything by going 
to the Bible, and that the only good the Society 
would do would lie in England, and not in Scot- 
land, by lessening the enormous consumption of 
flesh in the former country, and to show to the 
working classes that it was possible to live with- 
out flesh, and yet be cheerful. His friend, in 
this, supposed it would make progress only in 
England, for he saw that every Scotchman 
brought up in his native country, was able to, 
and did, live without flesh as food. But he took 
it for granted that the English people were igno- 
rant of this. If he (Mr. Sandeman) had been 
told, when he first came to England, that he 
could live without flesh, he would have laughed 
at the idea, for he had lived without it for 
months at a time, as most of the Scotch people 
did, at least in the agricultural districts. Whether 
it was better to live in this way, without the use 
of flesh, was another matter, and to be settled 
afterwards. He would not, however, detain 
them by any further remarks, but reserve these 
for some future occasion. (Applause.) 

Mr. Parkinson wished to ask a few questions. 
Was it a sin to slaughter animals ? If man was 
not intended to live upon animal food, because 
this was injurious, and the Word declared "Thou 
shalt not kill," how was it that Christ gave 
fish to his disciples ? might he not have provided 
them a better food? If Vegetarianism prevailed 
to a great extent, would it be right to cease to 
prey ? Would man be justified in destroying 
animals if they were too many ? 

The Chairman replied, that in regard to the 
first inquiry. Vegetarians did not apply the 
sixth commandment in the way supposed. As 
to the sinfulness of eating flesh, it might be 
answered, "He that knoweth to do well, and 
doeth it not, to him it is sin." To the great 
mass of people, however, who had never inquired 
into the matter, there could not be this sense of 
wrong. Mr. Sandeman had already partly 
illustrated this. For himself, with his knowledge 
upon the question, he should consider it a physio- 
logical wrong. The Creator set up a difi'erent 
system, and man fell from it, though he should 
be the last in the world to say that men live in 
sin in this respect ; what they said was, that the 
eating of flesh was against the dietetic laws of 
man's nature, his physical, intellectual, and moral 
nature being most in harmony with the Vege- 
tarian system. In regard to Christ's practice, 
there was some doubt and uncertainty as to 
what he did in this matter of diet. The utmost 
that could be said was, that he sat at table where 
broiled fish and honey-comb, or bread and fish, 
formed part of the provision. There was also 
some doubt as to what was meant by the word 
rendered "fish." One commentator (not a 

Vegetarian) saying that it meant something else. 
Christ took men as he found them; but he left 
on record the notable saying, ' I have many things 
to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now." 
And, no doubt, this included many principles 
which were to come upon the world in its after 
progress, and, among the rest, perhaps, this 
question of dietetics. If any, however, thought 
Christ did eat fish, and that his example was 
binding upon them, they were at liberty to adopt 
this interpretation ; but if inclintd to take up 
Vegetarianism practically on other grounds, this 
would not prevent them, any more than the tee- 
totallers were prevented adopting that practice, 
by the supposed fact that Christ made fermented 
wine at the marriage in Cana of Galilee. They 
bad thus a right to suppose that Christ, who 
created man's nature, did not make fermented 
wine, because this would injure his own work. In 
the same way at least, it might be doubtful whether 
Christ ate flesh-meat at all ; but if it were 
supposed he did, it might still be said he took 
men as they were, in subordination to the great 
end of the Gospel redemption, and left this and 
other questions to be settled afterwards. As to 
the questiou, what was to be done with the num- 
bers of animals ? this arose from the misconcep- 
tion that people were all to become Vegetarians 
in a little time, or at once. This was not likely 
to occur, since all reforms were slow in their 
progress, and as the demand for animals fell off, 
the supply would fall off in proportion, the graz- 
ing lands being progressively converted into corn 
lands, and in this way no inconvenience would be 
felt. In a natural state, these animals did not 
exist in such large numbers ; their excess was the 
result of the demand for their flesh as food, and 
in this way all kinds of means were resorted to 
to increase the supply. The matter was thus a 
mere commercial question, and could well be left 
to be settled as such questions always were. 
As to the increase of animals making the slaugh- 
ter of these necessary for the preservation of 
man, if this should ever occur, man had un- 
doubtedly a paramount right over animals. All 
he need say, however^ on this question was, as he 
had sometimes said when asked what Vegeta- 
rians would do with bugs and fleas (though he 
thought cleanliness was the best means of avoid- 
ing this last difficulty), that if they found it 
necessary to destroy animals, they need not eat 
them. (Laughter and Applause.) 

Mr. Parkinson explained, that in asking the 
questions just answered, he was not opposed to 
Vegetarianism. He did this for the benefit 
of others, who did not possess the Vegetarian 
Messenger, and Smith's Fruits and Farinacea. 
These difficulties occurred to many persons, and 
he thought it desirable that they should be 
explained from the platform, and satisfactorily 
cleared up. He was a Vegetarian in principle, 
and had practised the system six months, and 
would probably now be a practical Vegetarian, 
but for circumstances which need not be ex- 
plained to the meeting. (Applause.) 

Mr, Clarke, wished to remark, in further 
illustration of what had been said, that though 
God rained the manna from heaven to feed the 



Israelites (in which they at first delighted, and 
sought to gather two days' supply at once), in 
a little time, when they loathed it and murmured 
for flesh, God gave them this, though it 
was followed with a curse. The same reason 
might apply to Christ's feeding the multitude 
with fish, if this were really the case ; he saw 
they would seek it, he tlius dealt with them 
as they were, just as was the case with the Jews, 
who were allowed to put away their wives : 
it might be said, it was better they should do 
this than to make the unwelcome woman misera- 
ble; but, as Christ remarked in explaining 
this, these things were " not so in the begin- 

Mr. Sandeman suggested, that, supposing 
flesh-meat did him a bodily injury, and he knew 
it, if he looked to Christ's example, supposing 
him to have eaten fish and flesh of all kinds, 
this presented no argument, whatever, why he 
should eat these things, knowing them to be 
injurious to himself. 

The Chairman remarked, that there were 
certain questions in philosophy and Scripture 
that were not quite cleared up in relation to 
facts. He thought the meeting was indebted to 
the gentleman who had put these queries for the 
sake of others. A Scotchman once said to him, 
he was held in difficulty about adopting Vege- 
tarianism, seeing that Christ created "fish" 
with the " barley loaves " ; and on his replying 
that he was not quite sure that Christ par- 

took of the latter, this gentleman said, "Well, 
if you get over the difficulty on this subject, you 
will perhaps let me know." He, of course, at 
once explained that he had no difficulty about 
the matter, and asked the objector if the sup- 
posed fact of Christ converting water into fer- 
mented wine, had prevented his being a teeto- 
taler. He said, " No" ; and he then begged to 
tell him, that difficulties of this kind never pre- 
vented any from practically adopting any system, 
of the truth of which they were otherwise con- 
vinced ; and, in proof of the correctness of this, 
this objector was now a Vegetarian. At a future 
period, they would, perhaps, have a wiser way 
of looking at things, distinguishing between ap- 
pointments and permissions, and not being so 
ready finally to settle everything at the moment, 
but leaving anything of difficulty, real or appa- 
rent, that could be drawn from the authority of 
Christ, to a future and wiser period. 

The Chairman then directed attention to 
the excellent specimens of whole-meal bread sub- 
mitted to their notice by Mr. Clarke and Mr. 
Pollaijd. Its value in relation to health was 
far beyond the white bread, which should only 
be used to a small extent, and that rather for a 
medicinal purpose than anything else. 

Mr. Pollard tlien sang two Vegetarian 
melodies, the audience joining in the cho- 
ruses, and the meeting Avas then concluded, 
about a quarter to eleven. 


vegetarian society. 

Joining the Society. — We have many adherents 
who do not yet consider tliemselves called upon 
to make their declarations, and join the Society, 
and thus best of all tend to help on the public 
influence of Vegetarianism. This is no doubt 
due, first, to the apathy of Vegetarians who 
arc members of the Society themselves, but 
omit to explain the advantages of membership 
to others ; and next, to the isolated, if not selfish, 
consideration which leads people to forget that 
each person has public as well as private duties to 
perform, in promulgating and supporting the 
truth. Once satisfied of the goodness of the Vege- 
tarian system, our regard for the well-being of 
others should lead us to adopt all means reason- 
ably within our power of drawing the attention of 
others to it, and these will be found to consist 
in the influence of private example and discus- 
sion, and aid in securing a complete public im- 
pression of its importance, through an extensive 
organization of its adherents, in which the influ- 
ence of numbers is extensively felt. Some of the 
most earnest and useful of the present members 
of the Society were formerly apathetic adherents 
of their dietetic practices, but membership, and 
the awakening of their sympathies in contact 
with others, have had the happy efl'ect of 
making them extensively useful in spreading 
their principles for the benefit of others. They 
thus acknowledge it to have been most happy to 
have "Joined the Society." 

Vegetarian Bands of Hope. — It has frequently 


been inquired, whether Bands of Hope could not 
well be formed, so as to add materially to the 
growing strength of the Vegetarian Movement. 
In prescribing the time of fourteen years of age 
as the earliest period when young people can 
join the Vegetarian organization, it was con- 
sidered that there was a great diff"erence between 
the working of the Temperance and the Vege- 
tarian movements. In the adoption of Tempe- 
I'ance principles, the question is made one 
depending on the will, and, where this is in 
favour, there is rarely difficulty experienced in 
carrying it out. Intimately associated, however, 
as the consumption of the flesh of animals is 
with the ordinary routine of cookery, the adop- 
tion of Vegetarianism necessarily suggests diffi- 
culties of a more comprehensive and serious 
aspect, involving a considerable amount of moral 
courage, necessary to procure a change in the 
routine of domestic avocations, which cannot 
fairly be looked for in young people under the 
age above referred to. 

J. Andrew Jun., Secretary. 

Operations. — Our meetings and lectures here 
have been suspended for a time, from anti- 
cipations of our services being required in 
raising the Vegetarian question in some 
neighbouring localities. We, however, see 
from matters as they have fallen out, that 
the proverb of the " two stools " is verified at 
our expense and that of the public, since our 
friends failing to make the arrangements pro- 

posed, further discussion and consideration of 
our views have been lost to both districts. It is 
obvious that it is best to regard neighbouring 
efiforts of all kinds, at least generally speaking, 
as supplementary works, and thus, by adhering 
to the monthly meeting 'plan, the question will 
not decline for want of the due application of 
organization. It will, however, be seen from the 
report in the present number of the Messenger, 
that we have again resumed our activities in the 
public teaching of our principles, and trust that 
these will now be more regularly carried out, 
either here or in the neighbourhood. J. S. J. 


The Recent Meeting. — Again and again do the 
effects of the recent meeting show themselves. 
Many who least expected to be favourably im- 
pressed with the subject brought before their at- 
tention, now acknowledge not only the surprise, 
but the pleasure and profit experienced in being 
present ; and others will, no doubt, have 
their dietetic habits influenced by what they 
heard, and the reading and reflection to which 
this will lead. Mr. Simpson, if ever he should 
visit Colchester again, cannot fail to have 
ample support, in the character and influence of 
both chairman and gentlemen to accompany him 
to the platform. We were shown, however, that, 
in case of emergency, all these could be dispensed 
with, and thus, from the real intrinsic value 
of the subject introduced, and the way in which 
it was handled, the success of the meeting was, 
no doubt, the more surprising. C. S. 

Domestic Difficulties. — One of our members 
has judged it best, after persevering for about 
seven years in attempts to induce his wife to 
follow his example in regard to diet, to yield 
to her wishes that he should partake of flesh 
when he returns home, but says that he shall 
not taste any when from home, and that his 
convictions of the truth of our principle are as 
firm as ever. J. B. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — A lecture has been de- 
livered here, by Mr. Thos. Taylor, on Reasons 
for being a Vegetarian. 

Proposed Public Meeting. — ^We hope to have 
a public meeting in the Wesleyan Chapel, which 
has been kindly promised, before the end of 
March, and will forward a notice for insertion 
in the Messenger. The Vegetarian cause daily 
becomes more interesting and important, in the 
estimation of those who carry out the practice. 

W. H. 


Monthly Meetings. — We have had the attend- 
ance of several influential persons at our meetings 
lately, and the numbers have been maintained 
far beyond our expectations. The meetings have 
been very lively, and we have generally been 
short of time, or the conversation has been 
kept up longer, perhaps, than the keepers of 
the hotels where we meet would have desired. 



Individual Effort. — No public meetings have 
been held here, but I take advantage of occasional 
interviews with parties to speak of our princi- 
ples, and hope in this way to produce favourable 
impressions in some minds. The tract matter on 
the cover of the Messenger is also freely distri- 
buted by me, both in this neighbonrhood and also 
when travelling, and the Messenger, Fruits and 
Farinacea, and Vegetarian Cookery, lent for 

Experimenters in the Practice. — Eight or nine 
persons with whom I am acquainted, are trying 
the system, and others are so favourably im- 
pressed with its arguments, that they will 
probably submit to this practical test before 

Return to the Practice — I am happy to be able 
to report that two members, who some time since 
abandoned our practice through domestic incon- 
veniences, have now resumed their Vegetarian 
habits, and trust that they will by and bye see it 
good again to join the Society, and thus aid in 
extending its influence. H. M. 


Social Meeting. — The Committee of our Asso- 
ciation, and a few others not members of our 
organization, met a fortnight ago at a delightful 
social repast, after which a valuable and interest- 
ing paper was read by Mr. G. Perkins, one of 
our Vice-Presidents. This led to conversation 
and discussion for about two hours, and a more 
agreeable and profitable meeting could not have 
been desired. Such meetings are calculated to 
do much good, and tend to promote the stabihty 
of the members, as well as to secure new ad- 
herents. We hope to hold them more frequently 
during the next winter. J. A. J. 


Operations. — The agency of Mr. Bormond 
has been made exceedingly useful, and termi- 
nated with a soiree given at the Hall of the 
Humanistic Society, on the 28th of February, 
Mr. Bormond being the principal speaker. 



Proposed Operations. — Since the meeting at 
Middleton, our members have made no arrange- 
ments for operations in Manchester and Salford, 
though the renewal of our activities has for some 
time been proposed. Want of time, and close 
engagement in connection with the Alliance and 
other active philanthropic movements, with 
change of some of our officers, have been the 
principal causes of our inactivity during the past 
months. R. M. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — ^We are expecting to be 
favoured with a lecture on the Vegetarian system 
here during the present month, and trust it will 
be the means of usefully drawing public attention 
to our principles. I hope to see some notice of 
this effort in a future number of the Messenger. 

W. J. 




A PUBLIC meeting in connection with the 
Rawtenstall and Crawshawbooth Vegetarian 
Association was held in the Wesleyan Chapel, 
Crawshawbooth, on Thursday evening, the 
29th of March. The audience was highly 
respectable, though not very numerous, and 
many persons have been favourably impressed 
by the arguments then advanced in support of 
the principle and practice of Vegetarianism. 

Mr. Robert Maden was called to the 
chair, and opened the proceedings in a few 
appropriate remarks. 

Mr, Chalk argued that, when man was in his 
primeval and happiest state, the food appointed 
for him by his Creator, was derived solely from 
the vegetable kingdom, and therefore must have 
been best for him, and if best then, must be so 
now, since there had been no change in his 
physical structure. He then went ou to show 
that the slaughter of animals was a violation of 
man's feelings, and therefore this could not be 
the way in which nature designed him to procure 
his food. The opinion that hard work could not 
be done without resorting to the use of flesh as 
food, and that the structure of man's teeth indi- 
cated his being intended to eat flesh, were shown 
to be mistaken. Mr. Chalk contended from 
his own experience and that of others who were 
living upon an exclusively Vegetarian diet, that 
both health and strength could be better sus- 
tained in this way than on a mixed diet, and, 
after other observations, tending to prove the 
siiperiority of the practice, concluded by urging 
all present to make a trial for themselves. 

Mr. W. HoYLE (the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion) remarked, that truth was not always "with 
the multitude, and drew attention to the rapid 
progress in the arts and sciences, and the slow 
progress made in reference to a general knowledge 
of the laws of health, arguing that if man had 
been in the right path, he must have progressed 
in this as well as other branches of knowledge. 
Every disease was the result of a violation of 
Nature's laws ; and the prevalence of a large 
amount of disease in our own, as well as other 
countries, showed that the habits of society were 
far removed from harmony with the laws of 
health. One of the violations of Nature's laws, 
and a fertile source of disease, was the use of the 
flesh of animals as food. Different conditions 
and avocations of life required food containing a 
larger or smaller amount of nutritive principle 
in relation to the expenditure of the vital powers. 
In a Vegetarian diet, wisely selected, there was 
sufficient to meet all the wants of man in the 
different extremes of labour. It was also best 
adapted to maintain the heat of the body, and in 
other respects was f^ superior to flesh-meat, as 
well as tending to preserve the system from the 
attacks of disease. After showing the fallacy of the 
notion that consumption was induced by a Vege- 
tarian diet, he concluded a somewhat lengthened 
address, by urging a personal trial of the practice, 
as by far the most satisfactory way of testing its 

The proceedings then terminated, all 
present being obviously much interested by 
the facts and arguments to which their at- 
tention had been directed. 


On Tuesday Evening, the 3rd of April, an 
interesting lecture, on Fruits and Farinacea, 
not the Flesh of Animals, the Froper Food 
for 3fan, was delivered by Mr, C. R. King, 
Secretary of the Birmingham Vegetarian 
Association, in the Temperance Hall, Ann 
Street. The Hall, which will accommodate 
between three and four hundred, was com- 
pletely filled, whilst many others were 
unable to gain admission, and the lecture, 
which occupied about an hour and a quarter 
in the delivery, was listened to with the 
deepest attention ; the audience, for the most 
part, consisting of respectable mechanics, 
with a few ladies and gentlemen. Mr. W. 
G. "Ward, Mr. J, Palmer, Mr. J. Whvte, 
and Mr. A. J. Sutton, members of the Bir- 
mingham Association, were present. 

Mr. "Ward presided, and introduced the 
lecturer, who spoke as follows : — 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen — As 
there cannot be any great amount of knowledge 
communicated in one lecture, it will be well for 
my hearers to remember, that the principal 
object of lecturing is to call attention to im- 


portant subjects, and thus, if possible, to lead to 
serious thought and study ; but above all, to 
correct action. How diflicult a matter it is to 
get men — aye ! and women too — to think beyond 
their preconceived notions, especially in matters 
which appear to upset their early teachings and 
prejudices. What I shall advance to-night will 
be spoken with a desire that you may receive 
with kindliness of spirit that which you may not 
agree with ; and should you have an objection 
which you deem important to make to my 
opinions on the subject of human food, I shall 
take it as a favour if you will set me right. It 
is my opinion, — and I am supported in this by 
some of the best authorities that have ever 
written on the food of man, — that the consump- 
tion of the flesh of animals as food is one of the 
most fruitful sources of disease and premature 
death that has ever been known to man, and the 
best that can be said of the flesh-eating habit is, 
that it " is a remnant of savage life," or man in his 
degraded and depraved state ; for I believe that 
man has fallen. There can be little doubt, 
according to the earliest record we have of man's 
history, as given in the book of Genesis, that he 
was then in a more perfect state of being and 
happiness, and that not flesh, but the fruits and 



herbs of the earth, were the resources of his 
manly strength and pristine beauty. It is 
recorded (Gen. i. 29) that God said to man 
— " Behold, I have given you every herh hearing 
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding 
seed ; to you it shall be for meat." " It seems 
from this," says an eminent philosopher, " that 
man was originally intended to live upon vege- 
tables only; and as no charge was made in the 
structure of men's bodies after the flood, it is 
not probable that any change was made in the 
articles of their food." We thus see that, though 
man had dominion given him over all creatures, 
he was confined to the green herbs for food. 
Dr. Cheyne supposes that animal food and 
strong liquors were permitted to man to shorten 
life, in order to prevent the excessive growth of 
wickedness. Whatever may be thought of this 
idea, certain it is, man's life became gradually 
shortened with the introduction of the flesh of 
animals as food, of the consumption of which we 
have no account till after the deluge, a period of 
two thousand years. The prohibiting of the 
Jews from eating pork, was certainly a wise in- 
junction, for, in the language of a recent writer 
on Vegetarianism : " Pigs are, certainly, most 
filthy, ferocious, foul-feeding animals ; they are 
the most subject to cutaneous diseases and putre- 
faction of any creature, insomuch that in the 
time of a plague they are universally destroyed 
by all wise nations, as we do mad dogs." The 
same author gives a most amusing anecdote 
of Dr. Adam Clarke's strong antipathy to 
the use of pork as food. He says that the Doctor 
was well known to have entertained strong pre- 
judices against swine's flesh and tobacco, and is 
reported to have said on one occasion, " If 1 were 
to offer a sacrifice to the Devil, it should be a 
roasted pig stuffed with tobacco ; " and at 
another time, being called upon to ask a blessing 
at dinner, where there was a roaster smoking 
before him, he very solemnly said, "O Lord,. if 
thou canst bless under the gospel what thou 
didst curse under the law, bless the pig ! " 
Pork certainly is one of the most heavy kinds of 
meat in the flesh-eater's catalogue, for it lies on 
the stomach like so many ounces of lead, and the 
unpleasant feeling after a dinner of pork, more 
than counterbalances any amount of pleasure 
and benefit to be got from the eating of it. I 
do not remember, in my flesh-eating days, ever 
indulging in a meal of roast pork without having 
to suffer, and that violently, from indigestion and 
constipation, and this sometimes for days together. 
On the other hand, I can say, and that with 
confidence, that on a well-selected diet of fruits 
and farinacea, snch unhappy consequences can 
never arise, simply from the fact that fruits, roots, 
and grain are the original and proper food of 
man, upon which he may — all other habits and 
circumstances being eqiial — arrive at the highest 
amount of vigour, health, beauty, happiness, and 
longevity. How fearfully man's life is shortened by 
the artificial habits and customs of these our latter 
days ! It is said that man's average length of life 
ill this country, at the present day, is little over 
thirty-one years. If his dietetic habits were 

improved, there is no reason why he should not 
live in the enjoyment of all his faculties until a 
hundred years of age and upwards. 

But to return to our Scripture authority, you 
will remember that when King Nebuchad- 
nezzar besieged Jerusalem, he desired to take 
back with him certain of the children of Israel, 
"in whom was no blemish, but well-favoured; 
and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in know- 
ledge and understanding science, and such as 
had ability in them to stand in the king's 
palace, and whom they might teach the learning 
and tongue of the Chaldeans. And the king 
appointed them a daily provision of the king's 
meat and of the wine which he drank : so 
nourishing them three years, that at the end 
thereof they might stand before the king." * 
It is said among the chosen ones were Daniel, 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, of the 
children of Judah. "But Daniel purposed in 
his heart that he would not defile himself with 
the portion of the king's meat, nor with the 
wine which he drank : therefore he requested 
of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not 
defile himself." "And the prince of the 
eunuchs said unto Daniel, I fear my lord the 
king, who hath appointed you this meat and 
drink: for why should he see your faces worse 
liking than the children which are of your sort ? 
Then shall ye make me endanger my head to the 
king. Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom 
the prince of the eunuchs had set over them — 
Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days ; 
and let them give us pulse (which means peas, 
lentils, and similar food) to eat, and water to 
drink. So he consented to them in this matter, 
and proved them ten days. And at the end of 
ten days their countenances appeared fairer and 
fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat 
Ihe portion of the king's meat." f You know- 
now the narrative goes on to say, that God gave 
Daniel and the three that were chosen with 
him " knowledge and skill in all learning and 
wisdom " ; and there can be no doubt that 
Daniel was one of the most wise and holy men 
of his day, as appears in his after history, being 
able to answer all the most abstruse questions 
that the king asked him, even better than all 
the magicians and astrologers that were in his 
realm. John the Baptist, the fore-runner of 
Jesus Christ, had his raiment of camel's hair, 
and his food was locusts and wild honey. The 
locust here spoken of is not, as some erroneously 
suppose, an insect or small animal of that name, 
but the fruit of the locust-tree. Locusts have 
lately been advertised in Liverpool for sale, 
as a kind of fruit from the Holy Land, which 
corroborates this statement. We thus see from 
Scripture, that a diet of fruits and farinacea was 
the originally appointed food of man, and in the 
examples quoted, the use of such diet was asso- 
ciated with the highest physical, mental, and 
moral development, as well as the communication 
of special spiritual gifts. 

" Man, who in the early ages of the world, and 
while he was content to live upon vegetables, 
was seen to spare the lives of animals, has 
• Daniel i, 4, 5. + Daniel i, 8—15. 



gradually accustomed himself to slaughter, until 
he no longer spares the lives of his fellow-men. 
If the Source of all life intended man should 
be an animal of prey, how is it that he has im- 
planted within him an instinctive abhorrence of 
animal torture, and to the shedding of blood ? 
Should not this be man's guide ? Some seek to 
evade the force of this principle, by saying, 
' Animals eat one another, and why may we not 
eat them?' What! if a wolf worried a lamb, 
does that justify us in doing the same ? But it 
is still objected : Nature has furnished us with 
'dog-teeth,' for what purpose? Surely you are 
not justified in doing all you have the means of 
doing! 'But what is to become of the cattle? 
We should be eaten up if we were not to destroy 
them.' I say, Breed less ; and you need not 
fear the consequence. There is land sufficient 
for a large increase of men and animals. Eng- 
land alone, which now contains only about 
fifteen millions of inhabitants, is capable of pro- 
ducing, by spade husbandry, a sufficiency of 
nutritive vegetables for the support of a hundred 
and twenty miUions of human beings ; but if 
every one must consume a pound of flesh a-day, 
there is scarcely enough land for the existing 
population. If tigers, wolves, and vultures 
praise flesh-eating, am I to admit that they 
speak the truth ? Ask a child, even one who 
has been used to animal food, and is rather fond 
of it, whether she will go with you into the garden 
to gather some cherries, or to the slaughter- 
house to see a poor calf hung up by its heels, 
bleeding to death to provide its mamma with 
nice white veal for the next day's dinner ! " 

What numbers of volumes have been written 
on health by the members of the medical pro- 
fession, and what rubbish in the main. We 
sometimes meet with a book written with some 
degree of honesty, giving advice with dis- 
interested motives. But the majority of these 
latter-day pamphlets, advertised in every weekly 
journal, are full of arrant nonsense from be- 
ginning to end, and you always find that they 
end with a strong recommendation of some 
cordial balm for the cure of each and all of the 
diseases by which humanity has been afflicted ; 
but above all, personal advice is essential — the 
asking of which must be accompanied by the usual 
professional consultation fee of one guinea ! 
Now, if man would make life a study, and live 
upon proper food and drink, there would be 
little to fear from disease, but so long as he eats 
food already diseased, and drinks liquors which 
inflame the body and distract the mind, so long 
will he, in his weakness, be duped by those 
Barnums of physic, and led irresistibly to 
swallow their infallible potions. If you are ill, 
do not make yourselves worse by swallowing un- 
limited quantities of Parr's Life Pills, Morri- 
son's Vegetable Pills, or Kaye's Worsdell's 
Pills, all of. which are the vilest compounds; 
but ask advice of a respectable medical pro- 
fessor — if such is to be found. The mass of 
patented medicines are of the vilest sort, and 
instead of being sanctioned in this seemuig en- 
lightened age by " Royal Letters Patent," the 
efi'ects produced by them ought to be made a 

matter of serious inquiry, and if government will 
not undertake to expose such nefarious quackery, 
men of sense and understanding, who have 
suffered thereby, will be obliged to do so. I 
from my very soul do loathe the sight of so 
many advertisements lauding to the skies the 
pernicious mixtures, got up regardless of the 
health of the people, and for the purpose of 
raising funds sufficient to drive a brougham, and 
keep a house in one of the "west end" squares. 
Yet in the medical world we have ample testi- 
mony to the truth, that if man would live on 
proper food, selected from the vegetable king- 
dom, and be temperate in all things, with fresh 
air, pure water, exercise — and, what is very 
essential to health and happiness, as much free- 
dom as possible from excess of sorrow and 
anxiety — he might live and enjoy a long, useful, 
and happy life. I have little sympathy with 
those who are continually wishing that their time 
here was over, and who see only in this world a 
barren waste ; there is a morbid religious feeling 
of this kind, which I feel thankful I do not 
possess. I have felt many sorrows, and no little 
disappointment, yet there is much in the world 
to make me love it and cling to it still. One 
sometimes meets with a choice friend amid this 
everlasting whirl of business and selfishness, 
that makes one feel that it is a joy to live. Then 
there are those dear associations about the old 
house which sheltered us in our childhood, and 
the many pleasant recollections of one's early 
friends, so that I, for one, feel very desirous to 
live to a ripe old age, yes, \intil every hair grows 
grey. Lewis Cornaro, a gentleman of Padua, 
who, from some unknown cause, was banished 
from his friends, and deprived of the dignity of 
a noble Venetian, was in early life very infirm, 
being passionate and hasty in temper. At 
thirty-five years of age he commenced a regular 
mode of diet and correct life, by which means he 
lived more than a hundred years, healthful in 
body and sound in mind. In writing to the 
Patriarch elect of Aquielia, at the age of 91 
years, he says : " Now, my lord, to begin, I must 
tell you, that within these few days past, 1 have 
been visited by many of the learned doctors of 
this university, as well physicians as philoso- 
phers, who were well acquainted with ray age, 
ray life, and manners ; knowing how stout, 
hearty, and gay I was ; and in what perfection 
all my senses still continued ; likewise my 
memory, spirits, and understanding; and even 
ray voice and teeth. They knew, besides, that I 
constantly employed eight hours every day in 
writing treatises, with my own hand, on subjects 
useful to mankind, and spent many more in 
walking and singing. O, ray lord, howraelodious 
my voice has grown ! were you to hear me chant 
my prayers ; and that to my lyre, after the ex- 
ample of David, I am certain it would give 
you great pleasure, my voice is so musical." 

Now I have a great desire to live to a good, 
happy old age, by my mode of life, and though, 
perhaps, ray foundation is not so good to build 
upon as that of Cornaro, and I do not antici- 
pate reaching so great an age as he did, still I 
hope, in no small degree, to realize my desire. 



Dr. Che\ne, in an Essay on Health and Long 
Life, written more than a hundred years ago, 
says, that " The great rule for eating and drinking, 
for health, is to adjust the quality and quantity 
of our food to our digestive powers," and that 
" All crammed poultry and stall-fed cattle, and 
even vegetables forced by hot-beds, tend more to 
putrefaction, and, consequently, are more unfit 
for human food, than those brought up in the 
natural manner. * * * i have sometimes 
also, indulged a conjecture that animal food, and 
made or artificial liquors, iu the original frame of 
our nature and design of our creation, were not 
intended for human creatures. They seem to me 
neither to have those strong and fit organs for 
digesting them (at least, such as birds and beasts 
of prey have, who live on flesh), nor naturally to 
have those voracious and brutish appetites, that 
require animal food and strong liquors to satisfy 
them ; nor those cruel and hard hearts, or those 
diabolical passions, which could easily suffer 
them to tear and destroy their fellow creatures." 
In speaking of the scurvy, as produced by the 
free use of flesh and fermented liquors, he says : 
" There is no chronical distemper whatsoever 
more universal, more obstinate, and more fatal 
in Britain, than the scurvy, taken in its general 
extent. Scarce any one distemper but owes its 
origin to this scorbutic state. To it we owe 
all the dropsies that happen after the meridian of 
life; all asthmas, consumptions of several kinds, 
many sorts of colics and diarrhoeas, some kinds 
of gouts and rheumatisms, all palsies, various 
kinds of ulcers, and, possibly, the cancer itself, 
and almost all nervous distempers whatsoever. 
The reason why the scurvy is so prevalent in this 
country, and so fruitful of miseries, is, that it is 
produced by causes most special and particular to 
this country, to wit, the indulging so much in 
animal food and strong fermented liquors, in 
contemplative studies and sedentary professions 
and employments." Again, he says that "No- 
thing less than a very moderate use of animal 
food, and that of the kind that abounds least in 
urinous salts, and a more moderate use of spirituous 
liquors, due labour, and exercise, and a careful 
guarding against the inconstancy and inclemency 
of the seasons, can keep this hydra (the scurvy) 
under. And nothing else than a total abstinence 
from animal foods and strong fermented liquors, 
can totally extirpate it. And that, too, must 
be begun early, before, or soon after, the 
meridian of life." 

It is said, that in the early part of Dr. 
Cheyne's life he lived freely, and became so 
enormously stout, that he weighed thirty-two 
stones, and was obliged to have the whole side of 
his chariot taken out to receive him. He became 
short-breathed, lethargic, nervous, and scorbutic ; 
he tried the power of medicine in vain, and was 
only cured by resorting to a vegetable and milk 
diet. In this way it is said that he reduced him- 
self to the weight of ten stone. 

Sylvester Graham, M. D., of Boston, 
United States, after forty years' study of the 
physiology of the human frame, and human diet 
in relation thereto, has produced decidedly the 
best work on the subject extant, in which he 

proves that man was intended to live on the 
products of the vegetable kingdom, and that the 
use of flesh is injurious. I think that all who 
regard good health and happiness as the best 
gifts to man for obedience to the highest laws of 
his nature and development, should purchase 
Graham's Lectures on the Science of Human 
Life. In recommending this book to your notice, 
I would not forget to mention that there is 
another work, written by Mr. J. Smith, of 
Malton, entitled. Fruits and Farinacea the Proper 
Food of Man, in which he attempts to prove, 
from history, anatomy, and physiology, that the 
original, natural, and best diet of man is derived 
from the vegetable kingdom ; and I feel quite 
satisfied, that with a careful and candid perusal 
of that book, you cannot come to any other 

As to follow truth to the furthest extent of 
which our minds are capable, is the duty and the 
privilege of every lover of truth, and that which 
is highest and noblest in our nature, I would ask 
you to give this subject your calm and earnest 
attention, and I feel sure that if you do but 
practise the simple mode of life which I advo- 
cate, you will, after a little perseverance, find 
yourself in better health and spirits, than you 
possibly can be on a mixed diet of flesh and 
vegetable food. It may require some determina- 
tion, and not a little self-denial, to commence 
this. Some good folks, no doubt, will be con- 
cerned about you, and may insinuate that there 
are manifest signs of your ultimate insanity ; but 
never mind what they say : you have to be but 
" intelligent and earnest," and you will overcome 
the world and all its difficulties. 

To give you some idea of the importance of 
the Vegetarian movement, and the attention it 
is attracting, I will read some extracts from an 
able article which appeared a little time ago 
in the Westminster Review. "We have never 
done going to and fro upon the earth, seeking 
whom we may review ; and we have of late come 
upon a new and out-of-the-way sign of the times 
we live in. The sign we mean is Vegetarianism, 
(which) claims the possession of a distinct exist- 
ence as a physiological heresy, among the 
militant ideas and practices of the present cen- 
tury. Not only sesthetical young men, with 
their hair divided down the middle, and derai- 
pique beards upon their chins, but sturdy men 
of action — men of the people — have here and 
there begun to take it up. It likewise has its 
votaries among the intellectual classes. Within 
our own limited circle of acquaintance, it counts 
a physician, an astronomer, an electritian, a bar- 
rister, an independent gentleman addicted to 
radical reforms, a lady-farmer, and an authoress. 
Our native root-fruit-and-grain eaters, have 
already formed themselves into a banded society. 
This fraternity held its first meeting at Rams- 
gate, in September, 1847, under the presidency of 
Joseph Brotherton, Esq., M.P. ; no feather- 
head of a parliamentarian, but once a horny- 
handed man of the people, and now an industrial 
chief. It started with 122 mechanics, 110 
ladies, 12 professional men, 9 physicians and 
surgeons, 6 merchants, 3 ministers of religion, 3 



farmers, 2 authors, 2 county magistrates, and 
(will it be believed?) 2 aldermen; of these 1 
had abstained from the flesh of animals for 40 
years ; 71 of them had done so for 30 years ; 58 
for 20 years ; 44 for 10 years ; and 64 for 1 year, 
not to mention other 27 who had abstained a 
month. They held their next meeting at Man- 
chester in July, 1848 " [By January, 1852, the 
membership of this Society amounted to 740 ; 
and 82 of them had never used animal food all 
their lives.] " What with these confederated ene- 
mies of orthodoxy in diet, and what with the 
unregistered reformers, sprinkled all through 
society, and what with nobody knows how many 
thousand considerers, it is not to be doubted 
that Smithfield and all butchers. Billingsgate 
and the fishmongers, stand in jeopardy of their 
very existence — as such. In one word, and 
speaking seriously, it can no longer be concealed 
that Vegetarianism is an embodied power, be it 
for good or for evil, among the elements of 
British and American civilization. It may look 
fantastical, it may be feeble, but it is certainly 
alive. If it is but a puny supernumerary sort of 
thing, it is also very young, and it cannot be 
denied that it is able to boast of as ancient and 
honourable an ancestry as any in the world. 

"The Vegetarians of these times lay a world 
of stress upon the beauty and liveliness of the 
potato-fed Irish in their better days, the solidity 
and intelligence of the porridge-fed Scotch, the 
size and endurance of the Russians with their 
black bread and garlic, the peasantries of almost 
all Europe ; in short, the fine figures of the 
abstemious Persians, and the strength of pro- 
fessed Vegetarians, to say nothing of the Spartan 
heroes, and the corn-grinding cohorts of Rome. 
They cite Old Parrs by the dozen, and show 
that they were all Vegetarians, or something 
nearly as good. Vegetarian writers have tri- 
umphantly proved that physical horse-like 
strength is not only compatible with, but also 
favoured by, a well-chosen diet from the vege- 
table kingdom ; and likewise that such a table is 
conducive to length of days. A well-read mem- 
ber of the Society will point in triumph to 
Newton, who took to Vegetarianism during a 
period of close application ; to Howard the 
philanthropist ; to John Wesley, to Dr. 
Cheyne, to Lam BE, and to a score of other 
notables who were neither horses nor walk- 
ing vegetables, but men of human energy and 
intellect." " In Chili, the people are fed chiefly 
on dried beans, with a portion of bread. Their 
temperament is hilarious, their faces round, 
their figure plump. In La Plata, on the con- 
trary, the everlasting food is animal — chiefly 
beef — and the men are savage-looking and lank- 
loined. Chili overflows with population ; La 
Plata is scant." " All the animal food artificially 
bred by farmers or others is, with little excep- 
tion, unwholesome. Consumption, measles, 
dropsy, liver complaints, and other diseases, 
abound in the animals we eat, and have a ten- 
dency to produce those diseases in our own 
bodies. The poison we take in by the lungs in the 
gaseous form, is not the only poison we imbibe. 
We make an outcry about cleansing the sewers of 

our cities, and yet make sewers of our own bodies. 
The practice of feeding on the flesh of animals — 
entombing their bodies within our own — has 
something in it repugnant to refinement. The 
great majority of mankind abhor killing, save 
under the pressure of passion or hunger ; while 
even the cannibal mothers of the Feejee islands 
will exchange children in order not to devour 
their own. They who hunger for animal food in 
civilized life, rarely like to kill the creatures they 
eat ; and when killed, none like to eat the flesh of 
pet animals they have themselves domesticated. 
To get rid of the distasteful operation of killing, we 
employ butchers — helots of the modern world, 
whose very name \fe employ as a term of vitupe- 
ration. This is not Christian, to say the least of 
it. We have no right to degrade any human 
being, or regard as inferiors, those who prepare 
the materials that enter into the most intimate 
coinbiuatiou with our own persons. There is 
something humiliating in the idea of a delicate 
person who faints at the sight of blood or a 
butcher's shop, and then sits down to eat of the 
carcasses that have there been cut up. If the 
employment of a butcher be of necessity, the 
butcher is entitled to honour as well as the 

" We think we have made clear our conviction 
that this new Puritanism, as we have ventured 
to denominate it, is no trivial fact, when con- 
sidered as a whole, and viewed in relation to the 
prospects of society." " We believe that the still 
obtaining consumption of animal food, is simply 
a remnant of savage life, a custom doomed to 
vanish under the light of human reason." "The 
three-headed anti-poison league ; the huge protest 
against alcohol in all its guises and disguises ; 
the sanitary outcry about filth and foul air ; 
and this Vegetarian summons of the lieges to a 
still purer physical hfe than was ever dreamed 
of by Mesmer, Hahnemann, Priessnitz, 
Combe, or Father Mathew — are all wanted by 
the age, else they would never have arisen upon 
us, suddenly and simultaneously, like the insur- 
rection of citizens against a tyranny grown 
beyond endurance." 

I may here mention, that the Vegetarian 
Society now numbers about 900 members ; it 
issues a monthly magazine, called the Vegetarian 
Messenger, which contains reports of meetings, 
speeches, and other matter of the highest import 
to persons desirous of inquiring into this subject. 
James Simpson, Esq., of Foxhill Bank, near 
Accrington, the President of the Society, is a 
gentleman most indefatigable in his labours to 
promote the public good. I would that men of 
wealth and influence could find their happiness 
in promoting the welfare of humanity as he has 
done, I believe, the whole of his life ; we then 
might sing, most heartily, with the Boatman's 

" This world is full of beauty, 
As other worlds above, 
And if we did our duty, 
It might be full of love." 

If ever Christian virtue, and uprightness of 
conduct, are to " cover the earth, as the waters 
cover the sea," the cruel barbarities practised in 



rearing animals for food, and slaughtering them 
in our large towns and villages, must cease. I 
could tell you of facts connected with this 
matter that would make you blush that such 
things should be perpetrated, to obtain for you 
flesh, on which to feed your bodies ; suffice it to 
say, that all animals fed for your use are either 
cruelly treated for the purpose, or they are tied 
up to the stake, or couhned in the sty, until they 
become bloated and diseased, which renders 
them entirely unfit for human food. How much 
of the mutton sold is brought to market that 
the farmer may not lose his property. This I 
know to be a fact, for I have personally witnessed 
it, having had somewhat to do with farming 
matters myself. I have known farmers who 
were obliged to kill their sheep successively, 
almost the entire flock, to prevent their dying of 
a most loathsome disease, called the rot. Some- 
times the farmer is obliged to plunge the knife 
into their throats whilst lying in the field, for 
fear of their dying before they cau be removed. 
If the mutton be found very bad, and much dis- 
coloured, it is usually sold at a lower price, and 
then, of course, it is purchased by the ignorant 
poor. Cattle, also, are subject to many diseases, 
of which murrain is one of the most destri.ctive 
to their life ; and when such cattle are too far 
gone in disease to be curable, it is very common 
for the farmer to send for his butcher to kill 
them, to send to market, that he may not have 
to sacrifice too much of his property. But who 
are the sufi'erers ? Yourselves, to be sure, and 
all who live in such towns as Birmingham, and 
practise flesh-eating. Then the horribly bar- 
barous manner in which the animals are put to 
death, is destructive of all those fine feelings 
that attend a truly noble and intelligent man ; 
who cau witness the knocking down of a bullock 
in a slaughter-house, previous to having its 
throat cut, or see the innocent lamb go to have its 
little neck pierced, without feeling that the 
flesh-eating system is destructive to all pure and 
humane feeling? If educated people will eat 
beef and mutton, they ought to be made to 
provide it for their own table, and then they 
would feel how barbarous the system is, and 
how fearfully destructive to all that is good 
and true. 

" The flesh of animals cannot be best adapted 
to our constitution, if to obtain it a single feeling 
is violated, kindness hindered in its propagation, 
suffering to any creature wilfully inflicted, or a 
law of nature broken. Otherwise, nature would 
contradict herself, and men would doubt the 
existence of Supreme Benevolence."* 

Sir Richard Phillips, the compiler of the 
Cyclopcedia of Arts, at twelve years of age was 
struck with such horror at accidentally seeing 
the barbarities of a London slaughter-house, that 
from that hour he never ate anything but vege- 
table food. He persevered in spite of vulgar 
forebodings, with unabated vigorous health, and 
at sixty-six found himself more able to endure 
labour, and undergo any fatigue of mind and 
body, than any person of his age. 

The most correct opinions that I have met with 
* Mission of Vegetarianism. 

on this subject, are given by the poet Shelley, 
in his notes on Queen Mah. He must have been 
a Vegetarian very early in life, for I believe he 
wrote this poem before he was eighteen years of 
age. He says : " Man, and the animals whom 
he has infected with his society, are alone dis- 
eased. The wild hog, the mouflou, the bison, 
and the wolf, are perfectly exempt from malady ; 
and invariably die either from external violence, 
or natural old age. But the domestic hog, the 
sheep, the cow, and the dog, are subject to an 
incredible variety of distempers ; and, like the 
corrupters of their nature, have physicians who 
thrive upon their miseries. The super-eminence 
of man is, like Satan's, the super-eminence of 
pain ; and the majority of his species, doomed 
to penury, disease, and crime, have reason to 
curse the untoward event, that, by enabling him 
to communicate his sensations, raised him above 
the level of his fellow-animals. But the steps 
that have been taken are irrevocable. The whole 
of human science is comprised in one question : 
How cau the advantages of intellect and civiliza- 
tion be reconciled with the liberty and pure 
pleasures of natural life ? How can we take the 
benefits, and reject the evils, of the system which 
is interwoven with all the fibres of our being? 
I believe that abstinence from animal food and 
spirituous liquors would, in a great measure, 
capacitate us for the solution of this important 

" Comparative anatomy teaches us, that man 
resembles frugivorous animals in everything, and 
carnivorous in nothing; he has neither claws 
wherewith to seize his prey, nor distinct and 
pointed teeth to tear the living fibre. A man- 
darin ' of the first class,' with nails two inches 
long, would probably find them alone inefficient 
to hold even a hare. After every subterfuge of 
gluttony, the bull must be degraded into the ox, 
and the ram into the wether, by an unnatural 
and inhuman operation, that the flaccid fibre may 
offer a fainter resistance to rebellious nature. 
It is only by softening and disguising dead 
flesh by culinary preparation, that it is rendered 
susceptible of mastication or digestion ; and that 
the sight of its bloody juices and raw horror 
does not excite intolerable loathing and disgust. 
Let the advocate of animal food force himself to 
a decisive experiment on its fitness, and, as 
Plutarch recommends, tear a living lamb with 
his teeth, and plunge his head into its vitals, 
slake his thirst with its steaming blood ; when 
fresh from the deed of horror, let him revert to 
the irresistible instinct of nature, that would rise 
in judgment against it, and say. Nature formed 
me for such work as this. Then, and only then, 
would he be consistent. 

" There is no disease, bodily or mental, which 
adoption of vegetable diet and pure water has 
not infallibly mitigated, wherever the experiment 
has been fairly tried. Debility is gradually con- 
verted into strength, disease into healthfuluess, 
madness, in all its hideous variety, from the 
ravings of the fettered maniac to the unaccount- 
able irrationalities of ill temper, that make a hell 
of domestic life, into a calm and considerate 
evenness of temper, that alone might offer a 



certain pledge of the future moral reformatiou of 
society. Oii a natural system of diet, old aife 
would be our last and only malady ; the term of 
our existence would be protracted; we should 
enjoy life, and no longer preclude others from 
enjoying it ; all sensational delights would be 
infinitely more exquisite and perfect ; the very 
sense of being would then be a continued 
pleasure, such as we now feel it in some few and 
favoured moments of our youth. By all that is 
sacred in our hopes for the human race, I conjure 
those who love happiness and truth to give a fair 
trial to the vegetable system. Reasoning is 
surely superfluous on a subject whose merits a 
six month's trial would for ever set at rest. But 
it is only among the enlightened and benevolent 
that so great a sacrifice of appetite and prejudice 
can be expected, even though its ultimate excel- 
lence should not admit of dispute. It is found 
easier, by the short-sighted victims of disease, to 
palliate their torments by medicine, than to pre- 
vent them by regimen. 

" The advantage of a reform in diet is obviously 
greater than that of any other. It strikes at 
the root of the evil. To remedy the abuses of 
legislation, before we anniiiilate the propensities 
by which they are produced, is to suppose that, 
by taking away the effect, the cause will cease to 
operate. But the efficacy of this system depends 
entirely on the proselytism of individuals, and 
grounds its merits, as a benefit to the community, 
upon the total change of the dietetic habits in 
its members. It proceeds securely from a number 
of particular cases, to one that is universal, and 
has this advantage over the contrary mode, that 
one error does not invalidate all that has gone 

" I address myself not only to the young enthu- 
siast, the ardent devotee of truth and virtue, 
the pure and passionate moralist, yet unvitiated 
by the contagion of the world. He will em- 
brace a pure system, from its abstracted truth, 
its beauty, its simplicity, and its promise of 
wide extended benefit ; unless custom has turned 
poison into food, he will hate the brutal pleasures 
of the chase by instinct ; it will be a contempla- 
tion full of horror and disappointment to his 
mind, that beings capable of the gentlest and 
most admirable sympathies, should take delight 
in the death-pangs and last convulsions of dying 
animals. The elderly man, whose youth has 
been poisoned by intemperance, or who has lived 
with apparent moderation, and is afflicted with 
a variety of painful maladies, would find his 
account in a beneficial change produced without 
the risk of poisonous medicines. The mother 
to whom the perpetual restlessness of disease, 
and unaccountable deaths incident to her 
children, are the causes of incurable unhappi- 
ness, would on this diet experience the satisfac- 
tion of beholding their perpetual health and 
natural playfulness. The most valuable lives are 
daily destroyed by diseases that it is dangerous 
to palliate, and impossible to cure by medicine." 

Shelley further says, "That man is not by 
nature destined to devour animal food, is evident 
from the construction of the human frame, 
which bears no resemblance to wild beasts or 

birds of prey. Man is not provided with claws 
or talons, with sharpness of fang or tusk, so 
well adapted to tear and lacerate ; nor is his 
stomach so well braced or muscular, nor his 
animal spirits so warm, as to enable him to digest 
the solid mass of animal flesh. On the con- 
trary, nature has made his teeth smooth, his 
mouth narrow, and his tongue soft ; and has 
contrived, by the slowness of his digestion, to 
divert him from devouring a species of food so 
ill adapted to his frame and constitution. 

" We carry our luxury still further,by the variety 
of sauces and seasonings which we add to our 
banquets, mixing together oil, wine, honey, pickles, 
vinegar, and Syrian and Arabian ointments and 
perfumes, as if we intended to bury and embalm 
the carcasses on which we feed. The difficulty 
of digesting such a mass of matter, reduced in 
our stomachs to a state of liquefaction and 
putrefaction, is the source of endless disorders 
in the human frame. First of all, the wild mis- 
chievous animals were selected for food, and 
tiien the birds and fishes were dragged to the 
slaughter ; next the human appetite directed 
itself against the laborious ox, the useful and 
fleece-bearing sheep, and the cock, the guardian 
of the house. At last, by this preparatory dis- 
cipline, man became matured for human mas- 
sacres, slaughters, and wars." 

I think I have clearly shown you, from the 
earliest known record of man's history, that he 
originally derived his sustenance from the fruits 
and herbs of the earth, and that flesh-eating 
is a false custom that prevails more particularly 
amongst English people than any other, and that, 
were men to return to the primitive and natural 
mode of living, much of the disease and misery 
that prevails amongst mankind might be eradi- 
cated, that life would be much more agreeable, 
whilst, all other circumstances being equal, we 
might live to a happy old age, and die without 
pain. Several persons in Birmingham have 
abstained from flesh-eating for a considerable 
length of time ; one old friend, Mr. Lee, has 
arrived at between sixty and seventy years of 
age, and, by a proper diet of fruits and farinacea, 
has cured himself of gout and asthma. He is 
now in better health than he has been for years, 
and generally walks sixteen miles before break- 
fast to keep in proper exercise. In conjunction 
with his Vegetarian diet, he practises cold bathing 
every morning, to which he attributes no small 
share of his success. Mr. Griffin has not 
used more than six pounds of flesh in his whole 
life, and it is well known that he works at as 
laborious an employment as any that can be 
found, and is generally in as robust health as it 
is possible to be. This question of abstinence 
from flesh is closely connected with all other 
reforms ; with everything that is calculated to 
advance the highest interests of humanity; to 
hasten the time when " right shall dance on the 
grave of might," and when humanity shall be 
universally free. 

" Yea, what privilege and gladness, 

Dwell with modern men and things ; 
Vainly waited for in sadness 
By old prophets and old kings ! 



Children see what sages doubted, 
Peasants know what patriarch guess'd, 

And the sword of truth has routed 
Every lie from east to west. 

•' Ancient wrongs are being righted, 
Ancient rights lift up the head ; 

Savage realms, and tribes benighted 
Rise to life as from the dead ; 

Ignorance is out of season, 
"Wickedness is glad to hide — 



Loan Libraries. — B. J. — Members of the So- 
ciety desirous of procuring Vegetarian works 
for lending, are requested to communicate with 
the Secretary, as copies of the standard works 
on use are from time to time supplied gratui- 
tously in this way, one member alone having 
provided numerous copies of Smith's Fruits 
and Farinacea. J. Andrew, Jun., Secretary. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — A valuable lecture on the 
proper food of man, iu furtherance of our move- 
ment, was delivered in the Temperance Hall, 
Ann Street, on Tuesday evening, April 3rd, 
by Mr. C. R. King, the Secretary of the Asso- 
ciation. We forward a report for the Messenger, 
which we hope will be inserted in the present 
number. Opportunity was afforded at the close 
of the lecture for the making of inquiries, and 
back numbers of the Messenger and Vegetarian 
tracts distributed to the audience. Three per- 
sons are known to have begun to try the practice 
since hearing the lecture. Another lecture will 
probably be delivered early in May, which will 
doubtless tend to deepen the convictions already 
produced as to the goodness of our system. 

C. R. K. 


Vegetarian Discussion. — A discussion on Vege- 
tarian Diet has recently taken place, in connec- 
tion with the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Society, which extended over three nights : con- 
siderable interest was excited on the question. 

J. N. J. 


Operations. — Our efforts during the past 
month have been limited to the distribution of 
tracts and the lending of Vegetarian works, 
which will, no doubt, tend to maintain the inter- 
est in our movement, excited by the recent public 
meeting. J. B. 


Operations. — We continue to hold our usual 
monthly meetings, and with sustained interest, 
and also take opportunities of bringing our 
principles before the public, as will be seen by 
the following notice of a social meeting held by 
us on the 3rd of April, which we extract from a 
local paper. It is in this way, we think, that 
our practice can be most successfully presented 
to the attention of strangers. 

Vegetarian Dinner Party. — "On Tuesday, a 
large and respectable company of ladies and 

Nothing stands but truth and Reason, 
Nothing faHs but sin and pride." 

At the conclusion of the lecture, a number 
of inquiries were submitted by the audience, 
to which satisfactory replies were offered by 
the Chairman. 

A vote of thanks to the Lecturer was 
unanimously offered, which terminated the 
proceedings at about a quarter past ten. 


gentlemen, members and friends of the Glasgow 
Vegetarian Association, "sat down to dinner at 
five o'clock, in Milner's Temperance Hotel, 
Buchanan Street. James Couper, Esq., the 
Vice-President of the Association, occupied the 
chair. The special purpose of the occasion was 
to show that an elegant, substantial, and palata- 
ble repast can be provided from the products of 
the vegetable kingdom, without recourse to the 
flesh of animals, and, from the evident satisfac- 
tion with all the good things provided which 
appeared to prevail, and which was freely ex- 
pressed by many of the guests — the object of 
the meeting seemed to be completely realized. 
The bill of fare consisted of a variety of soups, 
savoury pies, savoury omelets, minced savoury 
fritters, plum, rice, custard, and other puddings, 
with moulds of Irish moss, etc., and a dessert of 
oranges, apples, etc., tea and chocolate being 
served up during the evening. Letters of 
apology were read from the Rev. Mr. Watson 
of the United Presbyterian Church, Methven, 
and several other friends of the Association at a 
distance, who had been invited, but who were 
unable to attend. Mr. Parker Pillsbury, 
the distinguished anti-slavery advocate from 
America, Mr, J. Davie, of Dunfermline, Mr. 
Allan of Leeds, and other friends from a dis- 
tance, were present, and took part in the pro- 
ceedings, which were all of the most interesting 
and delightful character. The company retired 
at a late hour in the evening, a general wish 
being expressed that the Association would 
undertake a meeting of a similar kind periodi- 
cally, as one of the best ways of presenting to 
the public both the theory and practice of the 
Vegetarian system of living." J. S. 


Operations. — Since my notice of the lectures 
delivered here, our efforts have been limited to 
the circulation of Vegetarian tracts, and the in- 
fluence of example. The cause is unpopular in 
the extreme, and the only adherents, so far 
as I know, are myself and members of my family. 
Could not something be done for the young ? I 
have formed a Band of Hope of 250, on the 
Temperance principle, and have thought that 
possibly something of this kind could be done 
amongst the same class, for a no less important 
movement — the Vegetarian. I suppose, how- 
ever, the constitution of our Society does not 
warrant such an idea. If it did, I feel certain 
something might be done among the young here. 

G. B. W. 





The Annual Meeting. — The advantajres of 
an early communication of the determination of 
those who intend to be present at the Annual 
Meeting and Conference, are various. No doubt, 
in the first instance, the announcements by mem- 
bers of their intention to be present, will again 
influence others, who mii^ht, but for this promise 
of meetins; so much of kindred feeliiio:, have been 
less carefnl to add to the influence of the gather- 
ing. There has, however, always been the 
greatest benefit resulting from the meetings 
hitherto held, at wliich the greatest mimber of Ve- 
getarians M-ere present, in relation to the after 
activities of the year, the Annual Meeting being 
thus a pretty accurate guide to the character and 
influence of after operations. Our friends in the 
towns of Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Hull, aiid 
other places where it is proposed to have Ban- 
quets or Soirees on a large scale, will also, no 
doubt, derive sympathy, as well as other benefits, 
from having first been present at the Conference, 
thus personally enlisting others in supporting 
their after efl'orts. 

We are already forming lists of those friends 
who have declared their intention of being pre- 
sent, and shall be happy to give information, and 
to forward cards of admission, as early as pos- 
sible, to all who make application to us. 

Revision of the Memhers' List. — Each member 
is earnestly requested to give attention to the 
List of Members, and to communicate, as early as 
convenient during the month, all alterations 
necessary to be made, in relation to the 
entries of their own names, or those of friends, 
in connection with which inaccuracies of any kind 
have been detected. Especial attention is also 
called to the column presenting the term of absti- 
nence, as it is very desirable that each meniDer 
should verify the correctness of the respective 
entry made, even to the number of months, where 
this is practicable. At present, the entries have 
been made from the Register, aiul are doubtless, 
in nearly every case, thus far correct ; hut what is 
desirable, is, that each member should, as far as 
possible, add to the entry the addilional months 
which may be found necessary to complete his or 
iier precise term of Vegetarian experience, ft 
will be understood that all entries of new names 
should be made, and tliese particulars above 
referred to forwarded to the Secretary, previous 
to the beginning of July, from which time the 
new List of Members will Ije fnrmed. 

J. Andrew Jun., Secretary. 

Operations. — We are looking forward to a 
lecture from Mr. Cunliffe, of Bolton, on some 
early occasion during the month of June, and 
hope to be less interrupted in our meetings from 
this time to the close of the year ; the absence 
of some of our most active members being the 
principal cause of our not regularly continuing 
to hold some kind of meetings in the locality. 

W. S. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — On Thursday, the 1st of 
May, a lectnre on the Chemical, Economical, and 
Physiological Reasons for Vegetarianism., was 
given by Mr. G. W. Ward, of Handsworth, in 
the Temperance Hall, Ann Street. Dr. G. 
Fearon, a homeopathic physician, presided, 
and the audience, which was very respectable, 
and included many ladies, numbered upwards of 
three hundred persons. The occasion was a very 
exciting one. Indeed, more questions were asked 
than could possibly be answered in the time, 
which cansed a great deal of confusion ; but 
Mr. Ward replied to many of them in a 
masterly style. C. R. 


Progress. — Although the tracts distributed, 
and the publications lent, are failures at present, 
in regard to bringing persons to identify them- 
selves as members of the Society, still, the claims 
of our principles are more fairly acknowledged, 
and a Vegetarian is now looked upon with 
becoming respect, not otdy because his principles 
are based upon scientific facts, but because of 
his courage and perseverance in urging and 
adopting a practice which his reason declares to 
be right. I recollect a time, when, if a Vege- 
tarian ventured to give public utterance to his 
views, he was put down with uncourteous 
clamour and contempt ; but it is not so non'. 

J. B. 


Vegetarian Meetings. — 'We have held two 
meetings since our last report, both of them the 
regular meetings of members. At the first 
of these an interesting address was given by 
Mr. Robert Maden, on The Claims of Vegeta- 
rianism upon the Christian and the Philanthropist. 
The second meeting was conversational in its 
character, such social occasions always proving 
very interesting to all present. 

Public Operations. — In consequence of the 
depressed condition of the trade of this locality, 
we have been unable to prosecnte the good work 
of disseminating a knowledge of our system as 
we have desired, but we keep wotking, and when 
things are again restored to their proper equili- 
brium, we intend to vigorously agitate the 
question, believing it calculated greatly to en- 
hance the happiness of society. W. H. 


Formation of Association. — We have now 
succeeded in forming a Vegetarian Association, 
having held a Meeting for this purpose at 
Sinclair's Temperance Hotel, on Saturday 
evening, the 21st of April. Mr. and Mrs. J. 
Colter, and Mr. and Mrs. J. Smith, came 
from Glasijow on the occasion, and encouraged 
us by their attendance and valuable suggestions. 
We send a list of our officers for the cover of the 
Messenger. R. J. 

Vegetarian Association Sleeting. — I went into 
Edinburgh last night, to the second meeting of 



the Association, and had a very pleasant con- 
versation with those assembled. There were 
only about ten persons present, but most of 
them very enthusiastic in the cause. They have 
got six members, and have begun in a very 
business-like way. One or two of them can 
speak, and Mr. Palmer read a very good song 
on the subject, which I wished very much to get 
a copy of to send to the Messenger ; but he said 
he would improve it, and then he might give it 
me. I think they are likely to get on now, and 
as I have circulated a good many books amongst 
them, both this time and at my last visit, they 
are in a fair way of informing themselves and 
others on the subject. I may perhaps go in 
again next month, and help to keep them 
going. C. J. 


Vegetarian Discussion. — A discussion, extend- 
ing over several weeks, has been kept up in our 
local journals, arising out of the remarks made 
on our movement and the objects of the Society, 
by one of the speakers at the Second Annual 
Soiree of the Glasgow Fleshers. Public atten- 
tion has thus again been usefully directed to the 
consideration of the facts and arguments sup- 
porting our system. 

Publication of Discussion. — Some of the mem- 
bers of the Association, ever ready to implant 
improved thoughts upon diet in the minds of the 
community, have had a small tract of twelve 
pages issued, entitled Vegetarianism Attacked and 
Defended, comprising the matter of the contro- 
versy above referred to. Advantage has been 
taken of the issue of the matter in the news- 
paper, to have the type re-formed for a tract, and 
thus our friends have set an example, and point 
the way to what can be done promptly, economi- 
cally, and usefully, to spread the knowledge of 
their principles. 

Increase of Members. — Our progress with the 
public bears no just relation to the adherents of 
Vegetarianism who become members of the 
Society. The adherents are found wherever the 
question of diet has been raised and fully 
discussed; but there are many lookers on, who, 
as often as not, without a reason to give for it, 
have not joined the public movement. Glasgow, 
with other places we could name, thus holds 
back much from the strength and public 
influence of the movement, that would naturally 
follow through organization. No doubt, the 
time to become a member of the Society is the 
time when each, after due consideration and 
experience, has . fully decided upon contimiivg 
the Vegetarian practice as a habit of life. How 
soon will our friends — some of them almost old 
friends in these arrears of organization — join us 
in the full sympathies and usefulness of mem- 
bership? J. S. J. 


Operations. — We continue to lend copies of 
Vegetarian works, and to distribute tracts, and 
know of more than thirty persons who are try- 
ing the practice. T. D. H. 


Social Vegetarian Meeting. — I held a very 
interesting conference here on Friday, the 30th of 
March, with four individuals who had expressed 
a wish to have conversation with me upon the 
Vegetarian mode of living. I provided a few 
simple dishes for a repast on the occasion, which 
had the effect of bringing that part of the system 
before them in a more practical manner than 
mere words could do. After our repast, we had 
a very agreeable conversation, during which I 
had an opportunity of answering their inquiries, 
in such a way as seemed to satisfy them. All 
expressed themselves very much pleased with the 
interview, and said that they would give the 
system a trial. Since then I have had occasion 
to be a good deal from home, and have not had 
an opportunity of seeing them all, but have 
ascertained that at least two of them are acting 
strictly upon the system, and, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain, the others are acting 
favourably also. H. M. 


Operations. — We are quite stationary here, so 
far as regards public efforts ; but it is, at least, 
a matter of satisfaction that there has been no 
going backward daring the present month, and 
that many persons are making a trial of the 
system. J. A. J. 


Weekly Meetings, — We continue to hold our 
weekly meetings at Vegetarian Cottage, since 
we find it convenient for the sake of inquirers, 
and beginners, in trying the system. Con- 
stantly one or the other is dropping in to make 
inquiries, and we deem it too important to 
neglect such opportunities of gaining to our 
cause those that are any way inclined to join us. 
It is well that the public should know that at 
any proper time they can obtain information on 
the subject of Vegetarian diet. 

Vegetarian Publications. — It may be well to 
mention that I keep a copy of Fruits and 
Farinacea in almost constant circulation, 
amongst those who are beginning to try the 
system, and find that much good is done in this 
way. It is desirable that every Local Secretary 
should keep a selection of Vegetarian works to 
lend to those who are seeking information as to 
our principles and practice. G. D. 


Suggestions. — We have had no meetings here. 
The subject wants bringing before the public by 
lectures or public meetings. I have had inquiries 
from Sunderland with reference to a public 
meeting, and think that an efficient advocate 
would do much good both in this town, Sunder- 
land, and Shields. 

Personal Experience. — I am still more than 
ever satisfied with the system, though, not having 
been well of late, my friends have used all their 
efforts to induce me to take a little " meat " for 
my " stomach's sake." J. M. 




On Tuesday evening, June 5th, the third of 
a course of Six Lectures, in connection with 
the Birmingham Vegetarian Association, was 
given by Mr. W. G. Ward of Handsworth, 
on the Moral, Intellecttml, and Scriptural 
Claims of Vegetarianism, in the Temperance 
Hall, Ann Street. The hall was crowded, 
and the audience the most respectable that 
has hitherto attended this course of lectures. 
We noticed, amongst others present, Dr. 
Fearon, Dr. Russell, W. Christian, Esq. 
of Edgbaston, H. Morgan, Esq., Solicitor, 
Birmingham, etc. 

The chair was occupied by the Rev. 
Charles Vince, who opened the proceed- 
ings with a short but very appropriate address. 

Mr. Ward commenced by a recapitulation 
of his former lecture, showing that in that he had 
given the whole of the physical and material 
claims of the question. But he confessed that, 
however others might be affected by the mere 
debtor and creditor view of the qxiestion, he was 
more influenced by the claims of Vegetarianism 
as bearing upon our instincts, our intellect, and 
our moral and spiritual relations, and went 
on to show, by a new and imaginary Adam 
introduced into this world of ours, how incon- 
sistent flesh-eating would be to his tastes. He 
then adduced the instances of Milton, 
Newton, and Wesley, with apt quotations 
from Shakespeare and others, coupled with 
the well-known instances of Irish wit, and its 
connexion with a milk and potato fare, to show 
the advantages of Vegetarian diet in producing 
a clear intellect and supporting prolonged mental 
exertion. Mr. Ward then proceeded to the 
moral part of the subject, giving as his definition 
of a moral man, one who kept under control his 
animal appetites in due subordination to his 

higher faculties. After explaining that sympathy 
was the true bond of civilization, and that society 
could only be elevated as far as it extended its 
benevolent and generous sympathies, he showed 
that man could have no true moral sympathy for 
his fellows, so long as he had no sympathy with 
the sufferings of the lower animals. Various 
historic facts were adduced in support of the 
proposition. He then went on to the scriptural 
part of the subject, clearly showing how its various 
statements were to be received, and in explaining 
the connexion between science and Scripture, at 
once drove the mere text-hunter from the field. 
He clearly showed, as a principle none could 
object to, that the teaching of the Bible was, 
that we should seek to supplant our will by 
the will of God, shutting out of court, at once, 
the petty quibblers who have nothing to bring 
forward but the demands of appetite as ex- 
pressed in the phrase, " I like it." He then 
quoted text after text, from Genesis to Corin- 
thians, in support of his own views, and 
afterwards reviewed and commented upon the 
texts commonly adduced in support of flesh- 
eating, and concluded an interesting and 
powerful lecture, by making an appeal to the 
ladies, on their omnipotence in moral questions, 
their power over the child, from the cradle to the 
threshhold of daily life, their influence over 
rising manhood, and their power as the pre- 
siding deities over our domestic affairs, remind- 
ing them that in that poor country — the battle- 
field of contending nations — Wallachia, woman 
is not allowed, by ancient law and custom, to 
take away the life of any animal, that the gentle 
sympathies of her nature may not be obliterated 
by the daily cruelties of kitchen routine. 

An exciting and lengthened discussion 
then took place, and the various speakers 
were admirably replied to by the lecturer. 


vegetarian society. 
Early Application for Cards. — Our friends will 
remember the advantages of an early appli- 
cation for cards, as materially assisting the 
Committee of Management in connection with 
the arrangement of the Hall for the Confe- 
rence and Entertainment. There is also great 
advantage in the early communication to the 
Secretary, of the names of members intend- 
ing to be present, as influencing the attendance 
of others, and the more so, when our more 
distant friends intend to join the Conference, as 
many doubtless do. 

Trip of Pleasure. — A. C. — It is proposed that 
there should be a Pic-nic party to Alderly, on the 
day following the Conference, and it is possible 
another meeting may be arranged for the evening, 
but these arrangements are properly left open till 
circumstances shall direct what is most desirable 
as the 26th approaches. 

Association Meetings. — W. B. — We understand 
that meetings are being held for the purpose of 

organizing attendance at the Annual Meeting, 
and would suggest that' not merely each Associa- 
tion call its members together for this desirable 
purpose, but that others, not having the advan- 
tage of local organization, also meet and discuss 
the practibility of sending deputations to the 
Conference. Past experience has amply proved 
the great advantage of large numbers of Vege- 
tarians meeting together, and the Annual Meet- 
ings, where one half the guests at the Banquets 
generally given have been Vegetarians, have 
been noticed as the most interesting of all. We 
especially commend the Conference to our friends 
who have not had the advantage of meeting many 
Vegetarians, and doubt not that it will be found 
of great interest and benefit to such. 

Hotels and Lodging Houses. — J. W. — Early 
communication with the Secretary will secure the 
bespeaking of rooms for our friends, either in 
private lodging-houses or hotels ; such applica- 
tions, however, should be made by the 24th inst. 
J. Andrew, Jun., Secretary. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — The contemplated lecture 
of Mr. J CuNLiFFE, in connexion with our Asso- 
ciation, has had to be postponed, through a 
public meeting of local interest falling on the 
same evening. It is now, however, fixed for the 
28th of June, and we trust no further disappoint- 
ment may attend us, but that its delivery may be 
made eminently useful to the numerous inquirers 
in this locality. W. S. 


Vegetarian Lectures. — A course of six lectures 
on Vegetarianism, by Members of our Associa- 
tion, is in progress, the third of these being 
delivered by Mr. W. G. Ward, of Handsworth, 
on Tuesday evening, June 5th. A brief notice 
of his lecture will be found in the present number 
of the Messenger. The fourth lecture will be 
given early in July, by Mr. Jos. Palmer, 
on The Comparative Anatomy of the Teeth of 
Men and Animals in Relation to Food. 

The Approaching Conference. — We are intend- 
ing to hold a meeting of our Association, to 
ascertain how many of our members are likely to 
attend the Vegetarian Conference in Manchester. 
The desirability of securing as large an attendance 
as possible, is obvious ; but most of our Vegetarian 
friends here are in humble circumstances, and can- 
not, therefore, be expected to put themselves to 
the expense of travelling, and the loss of two days' 
employment in addition, but as many as possible of 
us will be sure to be at the Conference. C. R. K. 


Hindrances to Progress. — I still continue to 
lend Vegetarian publications, but war and sol- 
diers are the topics of the day in Colchester. 
We have already the Essex Rifles, and prepara- 
tions are being made for a camp of 5,000 men, so 
that our peaceful progress for a time will be at a 
discount; but, with faith and confidence, I will 
still persevere, knowing, from nearly eight years' 
experience, that our system of abstinence from 
the flesh of animals is a right system, founded 
upon truth incontrovertible. May Gor» speed 
the time when men's eyes will be opened to their 
ignorance and folly in killing men and animals, 
and when this unlovely propensity for blood will 
cease to have a controlling power in the soul. 

Working Men and Vegetarianism. — O that 
every hard-working man was in possession of the 
knowledge of Vegetarianism 1 for, of all men, he 
it is who should be most concerned for its 
adoption, inasmuch as his hard-earned income 
might then be expended in purchasing that kind of 
food which will keep him for a longer period in 
health and working vigour, and, at the same time, 
far better enable him to regulate and modify his 
conduct, so as to keep within the bounds of 
becoming propriety. I have just received a 
letter from a friend who has abstained from the 
use of flesh as food, with one exception, for nine 
days. A mighty performance this for some, who 
have not been initiated into Vegetarian truth 1 

J. B. 


Monthly Vegetarian Meeting. — Our monthly 

meeting for June, was most gratifying. An 
interesting paper was read by Mr. J. Palmer, 
which was well calculated to strengthen believ- 
ers in Vegetarianism, and to give inquiring 
minds matter for reflection. Mr. Couper, of 
Glasgow, was again with us, with his well-selected 
stock of books, a good number of which were 
disposed of. 

Joining the Society.. — We are feeling our way 
cautiously, and are more successful in securing 
attention than we anticipated. Whilst we hear 
of one after another who are all but Vegetarians, 
two of our number have joined the General 
Society this month, and we hope to report more 
next. J, R. 


Operations. — We have no meeting, to report 
this month, but have distributed about a h^mdred 
tracts, and three Vegetarian publications have 
been lent to persons seeking information as to 
our principles and practice. As many as thirty 
or forty individuals are known to be trying the 
system, some of whom will, doubtless, see it 
well to connect themselves with the Society. 

T. d' H. 


Dissemination of Information — We lend, to 
those seeking information as to our principles 
and practice, copies of Fruits and Farinacea, the 
Vegetarian Cookery, and the Messenger, and in 
this way seek to prepare the mind for a practical 
adoption of the system. There are, at present, 
nine or ten experimenters in our way of living, 
and hope some of these will, ere long, see it well 
to connect themselves with the Society. The 
gratuitous tract matter is also well circulated, 
both here and when I am from home, as well as 
by enclosure in letters to correspondents. 

H. M. 


The Approaching Conference. — We are looking 
forward to the approaching Vegetarian Con- 
ference and Meeting in Manchester with much 
interest and hope. It is evident that the 
greatest requisite to success, and the more rapid 
spread of dietetic reform, is an infusion of fresh 
zeal into our own members. We think that the 
proposed arrangements for this month, and the 
soirees to succeed the annual meeting, are calcu- 
lated, with the blessing of Heaven, to do much 
good, and give new vigour to our movement. 

J. A. J. 


Vegetarian Meeting. — We have held one meet- 
ing since our last report, when a short address 
was given by the Rev. G. B. Watson, to a 
small audience. The subject is unpopular here, 
but tracts are distributed, and four persons are 
trying the system. G. B, W. 

PAD stow. 

Operations. — We have distributed about a 
hundred Vegetarian tracts since my last report, 
and have lent ten publications on our principles 
to those seeking information. Two persons are 
making a trial of the practice. R. P. G. 


On Thursday evening, June 26th, a lecture 
on Vegetarianism in Relation to the Pleasures 
of Life, was delivered by Mr. J. Cunliffe, of 
Bolton, in the New Jerusalem School Room, 
Accrington. The audience, though some- 
what small, was deeply interested, and 
manifested a thoughtful, inquiring spirit. 

Jambs Simpson, Esq., President of the 
Association, occupied the chair, aud opened the 
proceedings in a brief address, iu which he 
observed, that, on the 30th of September, it 
would be eight years since the Vegetarian 
movement was originated in this country. This 
was the first association of the kind here, 
though a somewhat similar organization had 
been attempted in America. Its adherents 
were called Vegetarians, as a brief term indi- 
cating their living principally upon the products 
of the vegetable kingdom, and without the use 
of the flesh of animals as food. Many such 
persons were living in England before this, and 
they occasionally met for conference ; but at the 
period referred to, they determined to form a 
Society for the purpose of strengthening each 
other, and, at the same time, extending a know- 
ledge of their principles and practice, which 
they considered would contribute very much to 
the happiness of society. In this way the Vege- 
tarian Society originated, and it had igone on 
slowly advancing ever since. There was also a 
re-organized Society in America, going on in its 
course of usefulness. These were the only 
movements of a public character, in relation to 
diet, with which he was acquainted ; and many 
people, on first hearing of Vegetarianism, re- 
garded it as something new, whereas it was one 
of the oldest things in the world, from two- 
thirds to three-fourths of the population of the 
world, in the main features of their diet, living 
without the flesh of animals as food, and having 
always done so. The strongest men of to-day, 
just as iu all past times, were those who sub- 
sisted on vegetable products, and also the finest 
developed forms of physical beauty, as the 
Greek boatmen and others, were found amongst 
the people living on fruits, and grain, and rarely 
partaking of flesh. Various travellers had drawn 
attention to these facts, in visiting the East, aud 
described the boatmen, and water carriers of 
Constantinople, and others, as living on bread, 
fruits, cucumbers, and other simple food, and 
drinking only water. They thus saw the practice 
was different to what was generally supposed. 
Instead of being new, it was as ancient as the 
appointment of man's food in Paradise, when 
God said, " Behold, I have given you every herb 
bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the 
earth, and every tree iu the which is the fruit 
of a tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for 
meat." People had since lived otherwise, but 
this was no argument against the goodness or 
wisdom of the practice, any more than the mis- 
taken courses of people in relation to morals and 
religion, was an argument against Christianity 
itself. What the Creator appointed must be 

good and sound in its principles, though man in 
his wanderings had come to live otherwise ; the 
Creator, in his desire to guard humanity, aud 
preserve the human species, permitting man to 
meet the exigencies of his position, and to live 
upou various kinds of food other than that 
appointed iu Paradise, though this last was still 
found to be the best, when the question was 
properly inquired into. There was no occasion, 
therefore, to say that this was a new and strange 
system ; it had been known and practised all 
over the world, and had been known in all times 
of man's history. All persons knew that when 
they were in erroneous courses of any kind, it 
seemed exceedingly difficult to get out of these 
into a better and happier way of life, just as some 
imagined it was hardly possible, in this busy 
stirring world of ours, to live iu Christian prin- 
ciples, though these were practical enough to all 
who really desired to carry them out. It was 
sometimes objected, that, though a Vegetarian 
diet was first appointed, a different diet succeeded 
this, as now extensively practised. But a very 
natural question arose iu all reflective minds : 
Which of these systems is the most natural, the 
happiest and the best ? When man lived in 
order, he was in harmony with the creation 
around him, but when he departed from the 
order of his being, there was evidence of conflict 
and disquiet. They thought, therefore, that as 
the Vegetarian system was in harmony with 
man's nature, and the world around him, to begin 
with, its adoption would make all good things 
easier to attain now. When he looked at society, 
he felt for its struggles and disorders. People 
suffered from erroneous habits in relation to 
eating aud drinking, and other causes, and when 
they lived in harmony with their natures as to 
diet and drink (for the drinking was included 
iu the eating question, since those who gave up 
the eating of flesh could not long continue to 
take intoxicating drinks), one of its first effects 
was to make every good thing easier to the 
world. He would not go further into these 
questions then, since Mr. Cunliffe had come 
to give a lecture on the subject, aud he would 
therefore only add, that he was much pleased 
with the choice of the subject for the lecture, 
because people generally regarded the Vege- 
tarian practice as one of self-denial. 

The Chairman then called upon Mr. 
Cunliffe to commence his lecture, of which 
the following is an abstract : ^ 

In discussing a subject like the present, we 
may be challenged by some persons to give a 
definition of pleasure. We are aware that in 
nothing do men's opinions vary more, than as to 
what constitutes the condition of mind indicated 
by this word. To the question, What is pleasure ? 
we should have a reply in accordance with the 
peculiar tastes and pursuits of the person ques- 
tioned. The " thirsty soul " could see nothing 
better than abundance of "brown stout," and 
the denizen of St. Giles would luxuriate in drams 
of gin. One man would be at the height of 



gratification with a dog and a gun, while another 
would be at the climax of enjoyment with a 
fishing rod. Other methods of purchasing what 
some men call pleasure, might be cited, but these 
would suffice to illustrate the diversified ideas of 
men on this subject. Our own idea of pleasure 
is, that condition of body and mind which is 
induced by a consciousness that our habits and 
opinions are in conformity with the physical and 
moral laws of our being, and which intelligence 
sanctions, and religion approves. Pleasures of a 
pure and durable character arise principally from 
mental and moral sources, and questions having 
a tendency to develope the higher attributes of 
man's being, and consequently to increase his 
susceptibility to refined enjoyments, are those 
which ought to secure the practical approbation 
of the wise and virtuous. It may be true that 
mankind generally do not recognize the truth of 
these sentiments; and that institutions formed to 
propagate them are viewed with distrust, and 
mistaken in their character and aims. Hence, 
those who exclude the flesh of animals from 
their diet, are regarded by some as stoical and 
cynical in their natures, and looked upon as 
disciples of Diogenes, and as fit companions of 
hermits and monks. With a view to dispel some 
of these mistaken opinions, the subject before us 
has been chosen for a few remarks. In order to 
aid in a clear understanding of the question, we 
propose to discuss it in the following order. 

1. The pleasure arising from the fewness of 
our wants. One of the prominent tendencies of 
Vegetarianism, is that of leading to simplicity of 
diet. This, in all ages, has been admitted to be 
conducive to health. Men should eat to live, 
and not live to eat. Without dispensing with 
the culinary art, either in its plainest or most 
refined operations, the Vegetarian disdains to be 
in bondage to it. He is not everlastingly 
quarrelling with the cook and the butcher, and 
his happiness is not so frequently disturbed by 
the one or the other He realizes more of true 
liberty and independence than the eaters of flesh ; 
and hence the source of some of his most happy 
thoughts. This is, therefore, one aspect of 
Vegetarianism in relation to the pleasures of 

2. As the natural sequence to the preceding 
position, there comes the pleasure arising from 
the sraallness of our personal expenses. We do 
not regard this from the niggardly point of view, 
but from the ground of obligation, which all 
reasonable men acknowledge, to avoid unnecessary 
extravagance. This holds good both upon the 
man of abundant, as well as the man of scanty, 
means. Wastefulness may be less defensible m 
the latter, but it cannot be justified in the for- 
mer. The cost of providing for some men's 
stomachic cravings is almost beyond belief, and 
this is mainly occasioned by their flesh-eating 
practices. To a reflecting man this must be 
painful and humiliating, and throw many dark 
shadows across the path of life. We venture, 
therefore, to affirm as a rule. Vegetarians live 
more cheaply than those who by turns devour 
ish, flesh, and fowl, for their bodily sustenance, 
and that the former have the pleasing conscious- 

ness of approaching nearer the rule of true 
economy than the latter. 

3. There is a pleasure arising from the Vege- 
tarian practice, when regarded as tending to 
promote bodily health. We are quite aware that 
the contrary is the prevalent opinion. It is 
granted that it may suit very peculiar constitu- 
tions, aud especially people who do not follow 
laborious employments ; but is believed to be 
altogether unsafe for general adoption. The 
idea of strength aud nourishment has been so 
long associated with the flesh of animals as diet, 
and the teachings of medical men have so univer- 
sally favoured the mistaken notion, that it is no 
wonder the delusion should be as complete as it 
is. It has been taken for granted, both by the 
ignorant and the professedly learned, that the 
flesh of animals contained some elements of 
nutrition of which vegetable and farinaceous 
food was destitute. It has been assumed, that 
the cow, and the sheep, in eating the grass, or 
other vegetable products favourable to the fat- 
tening process, were endowed with the power, in 
their physical laboratory, of evolving some new 
elements of strength, and that, therefore, it was 
necessary, in order to prevent mankind from 
deteriorating in bodily vigour, that this cruel 
and roundabout method of coming at the best 
food should be perpetuated. This was certainly 
the evident opinion of a respectable medical man 
with whom we were recently conversing, and 
when we stated our belief that nothing new was 
obtained by vegetables being elaborated into the 
bodies of animals, he was struck with all the 
force of a new discovery. We have not time to 
reason out the position, but we ask all candid 
persons to look at the facts which are presented 
by millions of the world's population, shewing, 
on the one hand, health and vigour in connection 
with diet from which the flesh of animals is 
excluded; and on the other, dyspepsia, with its 
feebleness and long train of evils, afflicting the 
eaters of flesh. Without health, life is a dull 
and dreary thing ; with good health, it is a gift 
of a joyous and blessed character, and although 
our means be limited, our pleasures need not 
be few. 

4. Vegetarianism must yield a high measure 
of satisfaction, from the aid which it gives to 
physical and moral discipline, and in clearing the 
way for man's progress in good things. The 
Apostle of the Gentiles laboured to keep his 
body under proper control, and no doubt he was 
fully aware that eating aud drinking had much to 
do with this. It will not be denied that flesh- 
eating has a sensualizing tendency, and is there- 
fore unfavourable to the highest moral develop- 
ments. We do not claim for Vegetarianism any 
positive or inherent power to create holier and 
better dispositions in men ; but simply assert 
that the condition of body which it produces, is 
favourable and conducive to purer habits of 
thought and feeling. The best and most useful 
men in all sects, have approached nearly to Vege- 
tarianism in their diet, aud they have felt and 
expressed themselves in anything but an approv- 
ing manner with regard to flesh-eating. Whoever 
then would succeed to the highest point in self- 



discipline, must eschew flesh-eating practices, 
and be content to satisfy liis animal "wants on 
the fruits, roots, and grains of the earth. 

5. Vegetarianism likewise yields a high mea- 
sure of satisfaction, from the fact that it places 
its advocates in a good relationship to the pro- 
gressive questions of the age. This position 
must be apparent to all, and we shall probably 
best illustrate it by putting two or three ques- 
tions. We may first of all remark, that a man 
best serves any good cause when he is known to 
be consistent with its claims and obligations. 
Does a Vegetarian practice of diet weaken a 
man's influence as a friend of education, as a 
temperance or sanatory reformer, or as an advo- 
cate of peace ? In publicly advocating the claims 
of one or all of these movements, would anybody 
think of charging him with inconsistency because 
he abstained from the flesh of animals? Not 
only would this not be the case, but an audience 
would feel and testify in their hearts that the 
speaker had acquired an increase of moral power, 
from the circumstance that his mode of living 
rendered the killing and slaying of God's inno- 
cent creatures unnecessary, as regarded the 
satisfying of his bodily wants. In this age of 
activity and progress, when all good men are 
called upon to take part in the enterprises which 
are leading us on to a higher degree of civiliza- 
tion, and to a condition of society more in 
harmony with all truths, it afl'ords more than an 
ordinary degree of pleasure to know that you 
have adopted a practice in relation to your food, 
which places you in an improved position for 
aiding these benevolent efforts. We therefore 
come to the conclusion, that our movement is 
obstructive of no one of the progressive questions 
of our time, but is in harmony with, and helpful 
to, them all ; and the members of our Society 
have the pleasurable satisfaction of knowing that 
their usefulness is increased by the cause which 
they have espoused, and the principles of which 
they are seeking to propagate among the popula- 

6. There is also a pleasure arising from the 
relation in which Vegetarians stand to the brute 
creation. As an associated body, they form the 
truest and best society for preventing cruelty to 
animals. Our regards for them go further than 
the mere maltreatment of naughty boys and 
hard-hearted owners — they extend to averting the 
murderous blow and knife of the butcher. Some 
people say, that " if we did not eat animals, they 
would eat us." We have no such fears, nor are 
we disposed to resort to the doubtful and strange 
expedient, of preventing an apprehended calamity 
by devouring our supposed enemy. We are the 
true friends of the brute creation, and " pet " 
lambs, or " favourite " ewes, may live and enjoy 
life, and continue to yield delight to their re- 
spective owners until age ends their being. 
There has been much rejoicing — in which we sin- 
cerely participate — about the removal of Smith- 
field Market, and the less cruelty which will 
necessarily be practised upon the poor beasts, by 
the ample space and complete arrangements of 
the New Market in Copenhagen Fields ; but still, 
lives must be taken by thousands each week to 

meet the demands of London's population. We 
admire the humanity which seeks for an abate- 
ment of the sufferings of the dumb creation ; but 
we reverence the kindness and convictions which 
induce a man to adopt a practice, which destroys 
the necessity of such wholesale murders as take 
place every week. 

7. There is a satisfaction arising from the 
fact, that the position of Vegetarians is a sinless 
one. We are not commanded under penalty to 
eat the flesh of animals. Our abstinence is no 
violation of any law, human or divine. We are 
quite free to limit our food to such things as are 
suitable, without inflicting pain on sentient 
beings. Those who differ from us may offer long 
and laboured defences of their flesh-eating cus- 
tom, and they may quote Scripture example in 
support of the same, but that does not make us 
wrong. It is for them to be sure that they are 
quite right ; for ourselves, we have no doubt 
whatever. We recently met a Christian minister 
at a party where the flesh of animals formed part 
of the provisions, who entered into a warm 
defence of flesh-eating, but who was so exces- 
sively anxious to prove that he was right, that it 
created the suspicion in those who heard him, 
that he had some misgivings he was wrong. 
Vegetarians may rest satisfied in the assurance, 
that no law, human or divine, condemns their 

8. There is also the pleasant conviction, that 
our doctrines are in harmony with the best and 
most reliable teachings of chemistry and physi- 
ology. We might have made the remarks we 
purpose offering now under a former head, but, 
for the sake of clearness, we prefer to submit 
them here. Up to a recent period, the opinions 
published by this class of writers were, to a great 
extent, traditional, and a mere echo of writers 
who had preceded them. The method of analysis 
and discovery pursued by Liebig in ascertaining 
the elements of food, has tended to correct many 
errors, and when th6 force of old habits and 
prejudices has somewhat more abated, the 
truth and beauty of the Vegetarian system will 
become more apparent. The future revelations 
of chemistry and physiology will do much more 
for it than the past has done, and its adherents 
have nothing to fear, but much to hope for, from 
coming generations. Vegetarianism has never 
yet been assailed by any competent authority in 
its chemical and physiological aspects, and it is 
reasonable to assume that such would have been 
the case, had there been any chance of success. 

9. We also venture to affirm, that Vegetarianism 
is in harmony with the highest and purest 
teachings of religion. We have taken credit 
before for its being a sinless practice, and we 
wish now to assert its perfect agreement with 
the precepts, requirements, and moral and spi- 
ritual duties set forth in the Scriptures. Eaters 
of flesh claim the permissions of Scripture for 
their practice, but this is not the most defensible 
ground. It is too much the case that men ask 
how low they can come without losing heaven, 
instead of inquiring, how high they can ascend 
in the scale of purity and self-denial. Men are 
commanded not to " minister to the flesh," and 



yet we surmise that flesh-eating has largely that 
tendency. We do not see how it can be much 
for the glory of God to kill innocent beasts, and 
afterwards eat them. The self-denial, the self- 
government, the purity of life enjoined in the 
Bible, brings us to the conclusion, that the sacred 
book does not only not condemn us, but that our 
dietary practice is in perfect concord with its 
best and purest teachings. We are no more 
disposed to put Vegetarianism in the place of 
religion, than we are to substitute a cookery book 
for the Bible, but we think that we are justified 
in asserting its claims to the extent we have done 
in this address. If we have not exceeded the 
bounds of truth and fact — and we have no mis- 
givings on that head — we think it must be evident 
that the real and satisfying pleasures of life are 
in no wise diminished by confining ourselves in 
the matter of food to the productions of the 
vegetable kingdom ; but, on the contrary, in our 
view, these are greatly multiplied and enhanced in 
value. Life to the Vegetarian is not that dry, 
ascetic discipline which the eaters of flesh 
imagine, nor is it his wish to divest it of any of 
its sweetness and beauty. In ceasing to encou- 
rage the killing and slaying of animals for his 
food, existence becomes more buoyant and cheer- 
ful, and the visible creation more sunny and 
radiant. In yielding the mind and heart to the 
teachings of Vegetarian literature, the moral 
perceptions become more refined, and the sym- 
pathies more alive to the pleadings of suffering. 
" The feast of reason, and the flow of soul," about 
which much more has been sung and written 
than experienced, is, to the Vegetarian, an agree- 
able reality ; and his earthly pilgrimage is passed 
in a much more cheerful spirit than the world 
gives him credit for. We cannot extend these 
remarks, but must apologise for their imperfec- 
tions and brevity in relation to the extent of 
ground they cover, and the important topics on 
which they treat. If they should be suggestive 
to wiser heads and more cultivated minds, they 
will not have been delivered in vain. 

Vegetarianism has ma»y difllculties to en- 
counter, and many sins, not its own, to answer 
for. The false standards of health and strength 
erected by the world, by which obesity is ac- 
counted a blessing, and mere animal develop- 
ments are regarded with complacency, form 
some of the barriers to the progress of its 
truths. The weakness, the indiscretions, and 
the misfortunes of its disciples, are all indis- 
criminately charged to the account of the system 
we advocate. The sickness and feeble health 
of many ought to be put down to the side of 
flesh-eating, inasmuch as these misfortunes have 
been left as a legacy by their former habits of 
life. It may require courage and firmness to 
carry out our principles in the present day, but 
their faithful and earnest adoption will meet with 
a rich reward. (Applause ) 

The Chairman remarked, that he was sure 
all present were much obliged to Mr, Cunliffe 
for the lecture he had just delivered, and the 
thoughts he had thrown out on the various 
aspects of the subject. It had been remarked. 

that the flesh of animals caused a degree of ex- 
citement and irritation in those who ate it. 
Working men did not generally eat much meat 
— they bought it on Saturday night, and ate it 
on Sunday, the day they did not work, and on 
Monday there was left little more than bone ; 
but he ventured to assert, that if they noticed 
their pulse on the Sunday, they would find it 
beat faster than on the days when they ate less 
meat, and they would always find the people who 
ate most meat the most restless and excitable. 
They all knew that the way to make a dog 
savage was to give him plenty of flesh-meat to 
eat, and large quantities of it had undoubtedly 
a like effect on the human subject. A man 
ought to feel calm and steady, and able at all 
times to fix his mind upon study, or to work, if 
it was his business to work, and, all along, his 
body should be maintained in health, with 
the endurance at the highest point ; he could do 
this, and he could get every thing required for 
this purpose, from the products of the vegetable 
kingdom, without resorting to the flesh of 
animals at all. Mr. Cunliffe had also spoken 
of the cruel practice of dropping sheep down 
the cellar steps — he (the Chairman) had seen this 
done when he passed along Warwick Lane, 
near Sraithfield ; the sheep were dropped down 
a sloping plank from the open window, and 
sometimes with no plank at all, their legs broken 
in the fall, and then seized, as Dickens 
described them, by fellows with wooden clogs, 
blood-boltered arms, and greasy red night-caps, 
and placed upon the dripping bench, and then, 
says he, the "meek and patient eye looks up, and 
is understood." To witness scenes of this kind 
— which were only the beginning of slaughter — 
was painful to all whose sensibilities had not 
been blunted and hardened by participation in 
deeds of cruelty and bloodshed. The butcher 
was driven into his employment by the demands 
of society for flesh as food, but the general 
adoption of Vegetarian habits of diet would 
benefit him, by releasing him from an occupation 
offensive to many engaged in it. At the last 
Vegetarian meeting in Leeds, some speeches had 
been made to show that the processes of slaughter 
were revolting to the feelings of man, and three 
or four persons resolved to visit the slaughter- 
house, and see if this were so. They witnessed 
the proceedings there for something like half an 
hour, and one or two of them felt a sickly 
sensation for some hours after ; though they were 
all meat-eaters, they abstained from flesh for 
three or four days, some perhaps longer, and he 
was not sure that one had partaken of it since ; 
and all this from a simple inspection of these 
scenes. The Vegetarian system, on the contrary, 
was in harmony with all the laws that God had 
enstamped on our nature ; would bear examina- 
tion throughout, whether in the relations of 
physical, intellectual, or moral existence. 

Mr. Sandeman proposed a vote of thanks / 
to the lecturer, which being seconded by- 
Mr. T. Slater, and acknowledged by Mr. 
Cunliffe, terminated the proceedings. 



The proceedings in connection with the \ 
Eighth Anniversary of the Vegetarian So- I 
ciety commenced with a Meeting of the j 
Members of the Society in Conference, on j 
Thursday, July 26th, in the Town Hall, i 
Salford, at ten o'clock, the President occu- ' 
pying the chair, and Messrs. Andrew and 
Hunt acting as Secretaries. As a report of 
the deliberations of the Conference will 
be found appended to the List of Members 
about being published, we need here only re- 
mark, that the greatest interest and unanimity 
prevailed throughout, and that subjects most 
important in their bearing on the future 
well-being of the Society were discussed. 
The Conference adjourned at one o'clock, to 
partake of an elegant Vegetarian entertain- 
ment provided for the friends present, re- 
suming their sitting at half-past two, which 
was closed at five, this being followed by a 
tea party at six, preceding a public meeting 
at eight in the evening. The room, as on pre- 
vious occasions, was decorated with flowers, 
festoons, evergreens, busts, and large screens 
containing extracts from the writings of 
distinguished naturalists, physiologists, 
chemists, and others, favourable to the Vege- 
tarian system. The provision of the tables 
comprised savoury and mushroom pies, frit- 
ters, various farinaceous preparations, and an 
abundant supply of fruit, with the usual 
accompaniments of the tea table in the 
evening. During the repast and tea-party, 
and subsequently at intervals during the 
evening, the scene was enlivened by the 
performances of a well selected orchestra. 

James Simpson, Esq., of FoxhillBank,the 
President of the Society, occupied the chair, 
and was accompanied on the platform by 
Mrs. Simpson, and Mrs. J. SMiTH,of Glasgow ; 
F. TowGooD, Esq., of London; Mr. J. G. 
Palmer, Mr. W. G. "Ward, Mr. N. Grif- 
fin, of Birmingham'; J. Noble, Jun., Esq., 
of Boston; Mr. Alderman Harvey; and 
Mr. J. Wyth, of Warrington ; and amongst 
the company present were Mrs. Rostron 
and Mr. S. Rostron (Bowdon) ; Mr. G. 
DoRNBUscH and Mr. Viesseux (London) ; 
Mr. King, and Mr. W. G. Ward (Birming- 
ham) ; Mr. Crawford and Mr. Holding 
(Glasgow) ; Mr. and Mrs. Milner, Mr. J. 
Gaskill, Mr. and Mrs. Collier, Mr. and 
Mrs. Clarke, Mrs.'HoLCROFT, Miss Stret- 
TLES, Mr. and Mrs. Foxcroft, Miss Hor- 
DERN, Miss S. HoRDERN, Mr. Andrew 
(Leeds) ; Mr. Cunliffe and Mr. Crosland 
(Bolton) ; Mr. and Mrs. Pope, J. E. Nelson, 
Esq., Mrs. Broomhead, Mrs. Beals, Miss 
Dickson and Miss E. Simpson, Mr. Mc 
GowAN and Mr. Bell (Liverpool) ; Mr. 


Thomases (Ormskirk), Mr. and Mrs. 
Barnesley, Miss Macdotjgal, Mr. and 
Mrs. Barker, Mr. J. Hall, and others. 

The President, in opening the proceedings 
of the evening, observed that it would be well 
to refer to the circumstances which had origi- 
nated that meeting. It was the anniversary of 
the eighth year of the existence of the Vege- 
tarian Society, and in the earlier parts of the day 
in that Hall there had been held a Conference of 
Vegetarians in relation to the interests of the 
movement. The existence of the Society during 
the past eight years had been associated with 
public subjects of interest which everybody 
acknowledged. Everybody, somewhere or other, 
professed to dine six or seven times a week, and 
the principle and character of diet was thus a 
matter of interest, and when, as on that and 
other occasions, they called attention to dietetic 
reform, the subject became one of interest to all 
classes of society. He might state that the 
objects of the Vegetarian Society were very 
much misunderstood, to begin with. It was 
thought that they sought to abridge the pleasures 
of life, whereas the true object of the Society 
was to add to the happiness of society, to add 
to the sum of social comfort, to enable a man 
to feel at ease with himself, and better in every 
relation of life. The importance of the Society 
was established in the fact, that it numbered 
upwards of 800 or more members in this 
country, with hundreds and hundreds of others 
who had not organized themselves into a society, 
besides another kindred organization in America, 
with numerous practisers of the system there, 
and all of whom, after a longer or shorter trial of 
the system, had arrived at the practical con- 
clusion that it was better than the other system 
of living, and they therefore remained in it, and 
carried it out as a habit of life. It was not a 
system of self-denial ; there was no denial con- 
nected with it, but an increase of happiness, and 
an increase of gustatory enjoyment, and the im- 
pression of those who were led to practise it 
was, that it was better every way than the sys- 
tem they had left. They believed, also, that the 
more civilized society became, the more ready 
would it be to accept this system of diet, and to 
discontinue the unnatural practice of slaughter- 
ing and preying upon animals. The impression 
of one born in the Vegetarian system, — one who 
had not had the disadvantage of being a disciple 
of the mixed-diet system at all — was one of 
astonishment that society should think it neces- 
sary to burrow into the bodies of animals to 
feed the human frame. They saw at once there 
was repugnance to the flesh-eating practice in 
every relation of the subject. They found, on 
inquiry, that a diet of fruits, roots, and grain, 
with the succulent parts of vegetables, har- 
monized admirably with the wants of the sys- 
tem, whilst the concomitants of the meat-eating 
system were utterly repulsive, and would not bear 
examination. He contended that the meat- 
eating world did not know what it did in eating 


the flesh of animals. It was true that from 
father to son many things continued to be done 
upon which people did not reason. Social prac- 
tices were thus carried out in relation to diet ; 
but whoever examined the meat-eating system, 
and traced the animal from its natural and beau- 
tiful condition in the field, step by step to the 
market and slaiighter-house, where it was put to 
a painful death, and then saw it cut to pieces 
for the butcher's stall, and watched the pro- 
cesses undergone in the kitchen in preparing it 
for the table, would, after viewing this long line 
of suffering, be very apt to lose all relish for 
this kind of food. He would recommend a visit 
to Smithfield Market, and then put the inquiry, 
whether what the spectator there beholds is any- 
thing like as agreeable as a visit to Covent- 
Garden Market. He would recommend a visit 
to the scenes of the slaughter-house, and then 
contrasting the throbbing and pain felt for hours 
after, which almost all experienced on such occa- 
sions, with the absence of all this in gathering 
the fruit of the orchard, or coming, however sud- 
denly, upon a field of reapers gathering in the 
produce of the field. The processes of slaughter, 
and the after preparation of the flesh for food, 
had to be kept out of sight, because it was an 
unnatural system, whilst they could look at the 
fruit and corn with pleasure, and whilst they 
looked, raise their hearts in thankfulness and 
gratitude to the Author of all good, who filled 
the fruitful bosom of nature in this way. He 
contended, again, that the tastes of society were 
not to be taken as a standard upon this sub- 
ject, because an abnormal meat-eating taste had 
been formed, and thus people came to like this 
kind of food. Society had adopted other un- 
natural practices : did they not see people chew 
tobacco, and smoke tobacco, and sometimes spend 
a little fortune in the purchase of the cigar 
and snuff? But the tobacco made the youth 
sick to begin with, and if they looked at these 
cases, they saw it was no more natural than it 
was to see the sheep, mentioned as actually 
taught to eat meat and refuse grass. Thus, cus- 
tom and habit could not be admitted as proofs 
of the truth or wisdom of a practice ; if it did, 
they had the Vegetarian case proved at once, 
for from two-thirds to three-fourths of the 
world's inhabitants were not meat-eaters, but 
subsisted mainly on vegetable products, and only 
partaking of flesh as the exception. It was not 
a new system they were introducing to the 
attention of the public, but that which man 
practised when he came first from the hands of 
his Creator, as enjoined in the appointment of 
" every herb bearing seed," and " every tree in 
which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed," as 
food. He admitted that man fell into other 
practices, but which all agreed were not the 
wisest ; so he contended that his living on other 
food was a departure from the original dietetic 
practice enstamped upon him, that it was not the 
best or happiest way of living, though he might 
still live comparatively well in it if he pleased. 
There was a great difference between adaptability 
and adaptation, but this was often overlooked ; 
the Creator, in his desire to preserve human life. 

had given man the power, when he would not 
live in the order of his being, of adaptability, by 
which he could live otherwise, though less hap-, 
pily and perfectly than when he lived in accord- 
ance with adaptation. There were certain 
prominent fallacies upon this question which 
very much impeded this movement for dietetic 
reform. It was supposed there were certain 
special principles, essential in food, to be found 
in the flesh of animals, which could not be had 
from vegetable products. " They say," however, 
was a very uncertain guide upon this subject, 
and chemistry, especially in its more recent 
discoveries, had clearly demonstrated that this 
was not the case, but that all the principles 
required in food, were all certainly vegetable in 
their origin, and if obtained from the bodies of 
animals, were still unchanged in their principles. 
The doctor sometimes told people, in their want 
of information on the subject, that they had not 
a sufficient amount of nitrogenized matter in 
vegetables ; when, however, a man talked in this 
way of a question he did not understand, the 
very first question convicted him of folly, when 
he was asked, supposing that mutton contains 
precisely the right amount of this matter, where 
the sheep, of which mutton was made, obtained 
this matter, and whether man could not take 
vegetable products suited to his food, and out of 
these make all the different parts of his body, 
the same as the grass and water made the flesh 
and wool, and every other part of the body of 
the sheep ? When they came to inquire into the 
result of the great German chemist's analyses — 
Liebig's — they found him saying, " The carni- 
vora, in consuming the blood and flesh of the gra- 
minivora, consume, strictly speaking, only the 
vegetable principles which have served for the 
nutrition of the latter." It was a great mistake, 
then, however popular it might be, to suppose 
that something could be got out of flesh-meat 
that could not be had from the vegetable king- 
dom, because this, after all, was only a vege- 
table principle transferred through the carcass of 
an animal at a great expense, and with the great 
disadvantage of the accidents of disease, often 
to a most serious extent. There was another 
popular impression upon this subject ; it was said, 
" I like it, and therefore I take this kind of food." 
He never stopped to reason with persons of this 
kind, because it was clear that the persons ^who 
ruled the world would never be found amongst 
this class, who followed blind, sensual custom, 
without being able to give a reason for it. The 
smoker liked his pipe, and the gin drinker liked 
his gin, and thus each followed out his artificial 
habit, without caring whether it was natural or 
not. It was said, again, that flesh-meat was 
more nutritive ; he would, however, remark that 
the most nutritive food w|is not necessarily the 
best, since the diet ought to be adapted to the 
wants of the body and nature of the employment. 
Thus, the man who worked at the anvil might 
take four parts of that which made the warmth 
of the body to one of that which made the 
blood of the body, whilst the man who sat at a 
desk all day could take six of the former to one 
of the latter. Now, where did they find the 


oest combination of these two principles, 
with mineral salts for turning the food into 
blood in most abundance ? Most certainly this 
could be found best in the products of the vege- 
table kingdom, since these contained the necessary 
principles which others attempted to get from the 
flesh of animals, but could hardly secure without 
eking out the meal by potatoes, bread, or other 
vegetable substance. In vegetable products, such 
as bread, barley, oatmeal, and other food of this 
kind, they got as much as 70 to 90 per cent, of 
solid matter, whilst in flesh-meat they only had 
36 6-lOths of solid matter, and 63 4-lOths water. 
It was perfectly easy to feed the body on these 
philosophical principles, but we must go for them 
to the vegetable kingdom. If, however, people 
wanted the most nutritive food, they must still 
go for this to the vegetable products, for peas, 
beans, and lentils contained more of the blood- 
forming principlethan flesh-meat, 21^1bs. per cent, 
only of this principle being contained in butcher's 
meat, whilst 29, 31, and 33 lbs. per cent., re- 
spectively, could be had from the above mentioned 
articles of vegetable food ; and whilst they only got 
14 3-lOths percent.of that which made the warmth 
of the body from flesh-meat, they could have as 
much as 51^, 51^, and 48 per cent., respectively, 
from the three vegetable products he had enu- 
merated. Another popular impression claimed 
flesh as superior because it was more stimulating 
than vegetable substances, it being supposed that 
the latter would not keep a man in full health 
and vigour. He begged to say, however, that 
every man, when he had anything extra to do 
requiring more than ordinary mental power, 
whether as a writer or author, did not resort to 
flesh-meat, but, on the contrary, abstained from 
it. He might point out at the same time that 
this stimulation was a great disadvantage; the 
pulse beat faster in those who lived on flesh than 
it did in Vegetarian habits of diet, and we thus 
came sooner to advanced life, and sooner, neces- 
sarily, to death. If they noticed the children of 
Vegetarians, and the children of flesh-eating 
families, they would find the former looked 
younger than the latter. There was a calmness 
and endurance on the Vegetarian system, which 
very strikingly contrasted with the excitement 
and filliping of the system, and urging on the 
circulation of the blood, consequent upon the 
stimulating and febrile action of flesh-meat. The 
principle in flesh, that thus stimulated, was called 
kreatinine, a crystallizable substance answering 
to that found in tea and coff'ee, so that, if this 
were desired, it could be had from these vegetable 
productions, without resorting to the flesh of 
animals. Another popular prejudice was that a 
certain portion of flesh-meat was necessary to 
preserve the health of the body. The experience 
of all meat-eaters coming into the Vegetarian 
movement was just the reverse of this, for, com- 
mencing the Vegetarian practice as dyspeptics, and 
continuing it for a time, they found their health 
improved ; and, to secure the continuance of this 
improved health, many of them remained perma- 
nently in the practice of Vegetarianism. Those 
who came into the Vegetarian ranks in bad health 
improved this if they lived judiciously, and those 

who came in good health made this better. If 
they would have a test of strength they ought 
not to look at the man who worked with his head 
and expect great physical development ; they 
must look for this to the blacksmith, and for 
cerebral development to those who were working 
with their heads. Let them not make the mis- 
take of supposing, when they saw a man with 
his body overhanging his feet, and carrying his 
waistcoat several inches in advance of him 
(laughter) that they had seen a picture of health. 
There never was a man in health, who worked 
out of doors with the spade, convicted of such 
proportions ; but the man of natural form and 
vigour blessed God for the enjoyment of his 
mere physical existence. Another popular fallacy 
he would notice, was the impression that we 
should eat the flesh of animals because it was 
recommended by medical men. He would ask, 
why, if the canine tooth, possessed by man, indi- 
cated that he should eat flesh of animals, he did 
not eat flesh with it ? Let them tell the medical 
man who would force flesh-meat upon them, on 
this ground, that there are other animals who 
have this tooth much more developed than man, 
which never eat flesh, but subsist upon fruits, 
grain, and vegetable substances. This was the 
case with such animals as the horse, the camel, 
and especially the monkey tribes. Again, people 
said the meat-eating system was the natural one, 
after all : they admitted that man was at first fed 
on the products of the vegetable kingdom, and 
that this was then the natural system, but that 
afterwards the flesh of animals was made the 
natural food of man. But the facts of science 
showed that what was natural in Paradise to begin 
with, was natural now, in Manchester and every- 
where else. (Applause.) What was the opinion 
of all the greatest naturalists and physiologists 
who figured on the page of history? Their 
opinion was very diff"erent to popular notions, 
since they all declared that fruits, roots, and the 
succulent parts of vegetables was the natural 
food of man, whatever might be his food from 
acquired habit and the artificial customs of 
society. What then, they might ask, was the 
basis of the Vegetarian system considered in its 
length and breadth? He maintained that it 
was the natural system, and thus they had a 
right to contend for it, as a system, the happiest, 
and best, and most important for society. This 
system of Vegetarianism, when examined, was 
found admirably to harmonize with nature in 
every aspect. By nature he did not mean the 
savage stage, which people sometimes confounded 
with a natural state, but what Pope described 
when he said : — 

" Nor think in Nature's state they blindly trod ; 
The state of Nature was the reign of God." 

Had man, therefore, continued to obey the 
laws enstamped on his nature, he would thereby 
have promoted his happiness. Man had a be- 
nevolent nature as well as a physical, intellectual, 
and spiritual nature, and the meat-eating system 
shocked all these, whilst the Vegetarian system 
admirably and completely harmonized them. The 
man who received this system could not see 
beauty in legs of mutton and sirloins of beef; 


there was no glory in huge pieces of meat in 
relation to his sense of sight ; he could not bear 
to touch them until he had been trained in the 
habit; he could not bear the taste or smell 
either, and this was demonstrated by experience 
after he had abstained a certain length of time 
from it. To those who had abstained from 
flesh-meat for a time, the smell of burnt flesh, 
whether of man or animals, was the same, and 
excited no desire to partake of it. There were 
persons who never heard the name of Vegeta- 
rianism, who, having unavoidably abstained from 
flesh for a time, could never bear the taste or 
smell of the " roast beef of Old England." The 
man who inquired into this system could not feel 
any relation between the animal, as it passed him 
weary and foot-sore in the street, and his stomach, 
but he did feel this relation in the produce of the 
garden and the orchard, and it required far more 
preaching of morality to keep the youth of our 
country in check from appropriating the treasures 
of the garden and orchard than it did to keep 
them from purloining from the butcher's stall, as 
everybody would admit. It was impossible to 
eat the flesh of pet animals, whilst they could 
partake of the fruit of a " pet tree " with in- 
creased pleasure and satisfaction; and in this 
way human nature spoke out on this question, 
notwithstanding the influence of prevailing cus- 
tom. If they stepped out of the province of 
physiology and chemistry, and examined the 
beautiful science of economy, they found a 
further confirmation of the truth of the Vegeta- 
rian system, since it was an egregious blunder 
to take the vegetable principles of food through 
the bodies of animals, instead of direct from the 
bosom of nature herself, whilst this, at the same 
time, entailed the disadvantage of dearness, scar- 
city, and the accidents of disease. The examina- 
tion of the flesh-eating system thus showed it to 
be abnormal from first to last, for they could find 
nothing in nature that was not cheap, simple, 
and direct. The air we breathe cost us nothing, 
light did not, water was abundantly supplied, and 
so was food, if man would not blind his sight 
with the flesh of animals, through which it could 
hardly be expected he could see the real aspects 
of the question. There was a want of fitness 
and economy in the meat-eating system which 
proved it unnatural. The same plot of land 
which would feed a number of individuals would 
only feed one ox. There was no relation between 
the characteristics of the system and man's 
moral nature at all answering to that which the 
tiger felt when he saw and seized his prey ; his 
whole body was in a state of delighted excitement 
with the anticipation of his food, and there was 
a flow of saliva as he bounded upon his prey, 
that showed all this to be natural to him. If 
man, however, ever made a demonstration of this 
kind, it was for something like that which led 
the poor fellows in the Crimea, after they had 
been fed on salt meat for many days, to make 
that tremendous charge through the river to get 
at the beautiful grapes in the vineyards beyond. 
(Applause.) If flesh-eating were a natural sys- 
tem, why could he not eat the flesh of a pet 
animal, whilst he could eat the fruit of a pet 

tree? They did not regard Vegetarianism as 
anything more than a means to an end, but he 
thought it was easier to live in spiritual and 
moral conditions upon this system of diet. If it 
were generally adopted they could not have man 
preying upon his fellow man, and destroying 
animals for food. They found society acknow- 
ledging the beauty of the principles of benevo- 
lence and Christianism, and declaring, at the same 
time, that they could not carry them out in 
actual practice. The fact was, that there were 
great difficulties in the way of carrying out high 
and sound principles, the greatest of these being 
found in the fact that many persons made them 
more difficult than need be, by living in erroneous 
and degrading practices of external life. It was 
easier to live in a high moral state on this 
system than the other. The Vegetarian mission 
absorbed the Peace Society, and formed one 
broader than that of the Society of Friends, 
embracing animals as well as men. Vegetarians 
were found active in every good cause whatever, 
and he recommended the practice to all, as one 
of happiness and benefit to the individual; a 
system which made the abstract much easier to 
be reduced to practice ; a system appointed at 
the creation of the world, embracing all time, 
and which must be practised again generally, in 
a more civilized state of society than that which 
now prevailed, (Loud applause.) 

Mr. W. G. Ward said, he spoke with some 
confidence upon this question, having now for 
seven years been a Vegetarian, and, in his jour- 
neyings to and fro, and up and down the country, 
never found his Vegetarian diet fail him upon any 
occasion. He had not only seen questions of 
diet tried in actual practice and argued from the 
platform, but had never yet found any one able 
to give a good and ready reason for the eating of 
the flesh of animals as food. He felt satisfied 
the Vegetarian was the only diet fitted for the 
use of mankind ; the only one that nature 
intended us to follow ; the one for which our 
natures were created and made wholly subser- 
vient. He looked at the practice in the light of 
physiology and in relation to our teeth, which 
instead of satisfying him, as it did some flesh- 
eaters, that man was intended to eat flesh, con- 
vinced him of the very opposite ; for he could 
not find any animal that could chew meat. Every 
animal that can chew appeared at once to have 
God's written law upon its jaw, "Thou shalt not 
eat meat." The length of the intestines, and the 
make of the colon, and other parts of the body, 
established the position that man was not in- 
tended to eat flesh-meat at all. Vegetarians 
did not start their system as an untried theory ; 
they asserted it as a universal fact, and whether 
they referred to the practice of those now living 
upon the earth, or inquired. What did God origi- 
nally give to man ? they saw that it was the great 
principle by which man was intended to feed and 
maintain his body in health and strength. He 
did not, however, come before the audience 
merely to defend himself; he came forward 
rather to cause reflection in others, and had 
to accuse society of containing one drunkard in 
every seventy of the population, and many other- 


wise so degraded as to come under the censure 
of Scripture as "riotous eaters of flesli." He 
accused flesh-eaters, society might indeed accuse 
itself, of courting temporary insanity for tem- 
porary diversion, courting disease by their diet, 
and courting premature death, so that instead of 
individuals dying as they should of old age, out 
of the 350,000 deaths annually occurring in this 
island, not more than 30,000 could be put down 
as natural deaths — those resulting from old age. 
How often was Scripture quoted and erroneously 
interpreted to prove that the limit of man's life 
was " threescore years and ten ! " They had had 
two persons present in the early part of the day, 
and one was on the platform whilst he spoke, 
wfio had gone long past this limit, though they 
manifested nothing of the decay of old age. 
(Hear, hear.) He contended that the general 
adoption of Vegetarianism was calculated to 
remove three-fourths of the disease and a large 
proportion of the intemperance that now existed, 
and though he was a member of the Alliance for the 
Suppression of the Sale of Intoxicating Drinks, and 
had been a temperance advocate for years, he liked 
best to include this question in the broader one of 
Vegetarianism. It was the fact that persons who 
adopted the Vegetarian practice, though they 
might not on first commencing it be teetotallers, 
usually became such, further on, for they could 
not relish strong drink on a Vegetarian diet. A 
person, who was about joining the Society, once 
came to him and said, he should not give up his 
beer, and he was told that the Society did not 
require this, all that was necessary for member- 
ship being abstinence from the use of flesh as 
food. However, this person came again and 
said he had lost all relish for the beer after 
carrying out the Vegetarian practice for a little 
time. Vegetarians sought by their practice to 
set aside ali destructive, unnatural habits ; and 
the desire for stimulants was removed, whilst the 
mere abstainer from intoxicating drinks was still 
exposed to the craving for his former beverages. 
There were some present on that occasion who 
could give their personal testimony in favour of 
the system, men who got their living by muscular 
strength, and, as was generally supposed, in a 
more trying way than others. He could assert, 
without fear of contradiction, that, in every cir- 
cumstance of life, whether working at the anvil 
or with the pen, this diet would be found best 
calculated to support man in health and strength. 
Giving the meeting these few imperfect remarks, 
and leaving the time to others to dwell more 
fully on the merits of Vegetarianism, he would 
only ask for it a fair and impartial trial of six 
months, thinking that those who did this would 
continue the practice through the remainder of 
their lives. (Applause.) 

Mr. N. Griffin, after some preliminary ob- 
servations, remarked that after the elaborate 
speech of the President, and the scientific speech 
of Mr, Ward, little more than a brief testimony 
as to the important benefits to be derived from 
the system, would be expected at his hands. He 
noticed two classes of people in the room, those 
who (to use a common expression) had got their 
" bread and cheese " earned for them, and those 

who had got their " bread and cheese " to earn 
for themselves, and it was to this last class he 
more especially wished to speak. Notwith- 
standing the modest way in which the doings of 
the Birmingham Association had been mentioned 
at the Conference, he could assure them there 
was hardly another subject, except the war, and 
important political questions, that was receiving 
so much attention in Birmingham as this was. 
He was almost constantly speaking of it, not 
because he wished to do this, but people came to 
him and began to talk about it, both as he 
walked along the street and at his own house. 
A strong desire was felt by the people of Bir- 
mingham to have a large banquet meeting, 
and some disappointment had been experienced 
that the present meeting could not be held in 
Birmingham. They had, however, been promised 
a soiree, or banquet, or something of the kind, 
before long, and this had contented them for the 
time. It had struck him, whilst the President 
and Mr. Ward had been speakmg, that these 
gentlemen were not so well able to sympathize 
with working men, never having been called 
upon to endure the requisite amount of physical 
toil, so as to feel all their physical energy ex- 
hausted, for a time at least, as was the case with 
many working men. For himself, he could 
readily imagine, that a number of working men, 
hearing of Vegetarianism for the first time, 
would regard it as oue of the wildest things that 
could be brought before them. He could assure 
them, however, that he had eaten scarcely any 
meat in his whole life, that he had never bought 
an ounce of it, that fowl and fish he had never 
tasted, and at the same time he did not think 
any one did harder work than he did, or did 
more of it. The President had introduced him 
to the meeting as a blacksmith ; he begged to 
correct this, as it might lead to a wrong impres- 
sion. It was true he worked at the anvil, but 
his employment was making edge-tools, what was 
known in Birmingham as the " heavy edge-tool 
trade," and the men engaged in this trade 
worked far harder and more continuously than 
blacksmiths did. He would not say there was 
not as hard work done as in his own trade, but 
he did say that there was no harder work done, 
and that there was no man in England who did 
more hard work than he did. There might be 
some blacksmiths present ; if so, they knew what 
it was to work one " heat " at a time, and they 
also worked by the day, and " let down " so 
many hours in the day. At his trade, however, 
they always had two " heats " in the fire and one 
on the anvil; they also worked by the " piece," and 
after working for an hour and a half in this way, 
their strength seemed completely taken out of 
them, and they were obliged to rest for a short 
time, whilst their fires were raked. If any one 
went to the blacksmith's shop, they would see 
the blacksmith working with his waistcoat on, 
and his neckerchief on ; but in the edge-tool trade 
the workmen were obliged to strip, and even 
take off their shirts, and the perspiration poured 
out of them like water. The meeting would see 
from this that his work was very different to a 
blacksmith's. He knew that the men employed 


in his trade felt that they needed a stimulant, 
they flew to the " sixpenny," or the " fourpenny," 
and when dinner-time came they flew to the flesh- 
meat ; but he flew to neither of these. The best 
thing with which he could keep up his strength 
(and he had never been beaten yet), was cold 
water, with a little Scotch oatmeal in it, as 
a drink. The advantage of a Vegetarian diet 
in these circumstances, would appear from 
the fact that, whilst a younger brother 
of his, stouter and somewhat more muscular 
than himself, who was employed at the same 
work, could not work more than three or four 
hours before he was thoroughly exhausted, he 
(the speaker) could work for seven or eight hours. 
After working this period he was completely ex- 
hausted; but after he had theroughly washed 
himself, and changed his clothes, and had had his 
tea, he was all right again, and almost as fresh as 
ever. He had great faith in cold water, and 
feared the working men of Manchester did not 
make a sufficient use of it, either externally or 
internally. Living in Vegetarian habits, and 
abstaining from all alcoholic beverages, he found 
that he could enjoy life more, and work with 
greater ease than others upon flesh-meat and a 
liberal use of " fourpenny " and " sixpenny." 
He felt some reluctance to say so much of him- 
self, but having been asked to describe his em- 
ployment and how he lived, he felt he might be 
excused, if in his love to truth and the interests 
of Vegetarianism, he fearlessly presented his own 
experience to the meeting, in the hope that the 
facts it exhibited might be of use to others, as 
he felt assured that, if the working men would 
give the Vegetarian system a full and complete 
trial, it would not disappoint them. Sympathizing 
with the working classes, he was anxious that 
their erroneous personal habits should be cor- 
rected. They had been led to suppose that flesh- 
meat and beer were indispensably necessary to 
enable them to go through their hard work, 
and to develope their muscular power. The 
working men in Birmingham said hat this was a 
" peculiar case," and when he asked them what 
they meant, they said he had a "good consti- 
tution." He generally told them that if this 
were so, he had made his constitution what it 
was ; for when he was twenty-three years of age, 
three physicians said he was going off in a 
rapid consumption. One of these told him to 
give up the use of all intoxicating drinks and the 
use of flesh-meat, and, on being informed that 
he was already an abstainer from both of these, 
the doctor said it was all in his favour, but he 
could not do anything more for him, and he had 
better go home and prepare for his approaching 
end. He thought all who now saw and heard 
him would admit that he did not now appear very 
likely to go off in a " galloping consumption." 
As to his diet, he took only good brown bread 
and other simple food. He was obliged to be 
careful not to partake of too many of the 
delicacies that had been provided at the enter- 
tainment that day, or these would have made 
him ill, being so different to his ordinary simple 
food. Brown bread and cold water had served 
him for many months at a time — he was not 

advising that working men should live in this 
way — nothing of the kind ; but, whilst he carried 
out this experiment, he never found his health or 
strength to fail in the least. He could thank 
God that he lived and did not know what it 
was to have a pain. When, however, he lived 
out of his usual way, he was made ill ; he loved, 
therefore, to live simply. So that, when indi- 
viduals asked him to describe how he lived, he 
was always ready to do so, and had, probably, 
done this some thousands of times. People 
seemed to suppose that, if they gave up meat, 
they must have sometliing special in its place that 
they never heard of beiore. He simply ate such 
vegetables as he could procure, that were in 
season, and brown bread, and, in the winter 
months, he had frequently, for three or four 
months together, nothing birt a rice pudding, 
and, he might add, that he could do jnore work 
upon a rice pudding dinner than any other dinner 
he could get. Many a man went to the cook-shop, 
and gave sixpence for a mutton-cbop dinner, and 
would not think this at all out of the way, but 
this sum would serve him (Mr. Griffin) for six 
dinners. He had sometimes, however, been 
accused of extravagance because he used cheese, 
of which he was very fond, whilst none would 
object to a vrorking man using a beef-steak or 
mutton-chop, which would cost eightpence, 
whilst less than a quarter of a pound of cheese, 
which did not cost him three-halfpence, was 
reckoned extravagance. How often did they 
see mothers spreading the butter upon the chil- 
dren's bread so thin, that it was scarcely visible, 
whilst they would not restrain them from eating 
as much flesh-meat as they pleased, and even 
urged them to eat more than they desired. 
These familiar instances would show the absur- 
dity of many customs which were carried on 
from generation to generation through the want 
of inquiry. He would look at the system a little 
in relation to economy, for this was an important 
and interesting aspect of the question, especially 
so to working men. Supposing a working man 
could live as well, or better, for five shillings a 
week upon a Vegetarian diet, as he could for 
eight shillings or ten shillings on the mixed-diet 
practice — were not the working classes largely 
interested in this practice of Vegetarianism ? 
Ought not those who expended this larger sum 
chiefly for the sustenance of their bodies, to be 
able to show that they could do something moral 
or physical that those who lived in a less expen- 
sive way could not do ? He thought this was 
only a natural and fair requirement, if the Vege- 
tarian could carry out all the duties of life, and, 
at the same time, live for about one half the sum 
the flesh-eater expended. There was great ad- 
vantage, too, in the freedom from unnecessary cares 
as to food : a short time ago he met a gentleman 
in a Temperance Hotel at Birmingham, who was 
much annoyed because he could not get a beef- 
steak or mutton-chop to dinner, but was obliged 
to content himself with a plate of bread and butter 
and a couple of eggs. On remarking to the gentle- 
man that he presumed he was not a Vegetarian, 
the gentleman said he was not, nor did he (Mr. 
Griffin) look much like one either. Being 


assured such was indeed the case, he at once 
said, that if all the working men were Vegeta- 
rians, it would not cost them half as much to 
live, but this would lead to the employer's re- 
ducing their wages. Mr. Griffin could not see 
that this would be the result, so he gave the 
gentleman the result of his .experience in con- 
nection with Trade Associations, and a long and 
intimate acquaintance with the working classes, 
to show that, through their extravagant habits, 
workmen were not generally in a position to 
resist the unjust demands of their employers. 
In the yard where he worked there were only about 
two men with whom the master would dare to 
make any attempt to lower wages, and these were 
neither teetotallers nor Vegetarians. All who had 
paid attention to the wages' question knew that 
it was simply a matter of barter or agreement, 
and that it was affected by supply and demand. 
The employer had capital, the workman muscular 
strength and skill, and both were necessary ; 
each tried to make the best bargain he could, 
and then all went on smoothly and evenly. His 
employer never said to him, " Do such a thing ;" 
he said, " Griffin, will you do such a thing ? " 
Simplicity of diet, and other kindred habits, 
promoted the independence of the workmen, and 
thus tended to raise rather than lower wages. 
He would, therefore, commend the Vegetarian 
system to the working men of Manchester, and 
ask them to give it a fair and impartial trial ; if 
they did, he thought they would not soon give it 
up, they would find they could work quite as 
well, and enjoy greater tranquillity of mind. The 
mind had great influence upon the body, and it 
would be foimd that Vegetarians were generally 
better tempered than others, and if they looked 
round upon the company, and noticed the smiling 
faces of the ladies and gentlemen before him, 
they might see an illustration of this. They 
made better husbands and wives than men and 
women who were not Vegetarians. It was essen- 
tial that a working man should have tranquillity, 
for when a mau went to work in the morning 
wishing it were evening, he did his work twice 
over ; for himself, as a general rule, he felt it a 
pleasure to work, and if he was compelled to give 
up work from accidental circumstances or con- 
tingencies over which he had no control, he 
usually was less happy and less healthy than 
when employed. The great object he had in 
view in presenting this question was, to lead 
others to try the experiment, believing they 
would realize similar advantages to those he had 
found in Vegetarianism, and he could, perhaps, 
best express his feelings on the importance of 
the subject in the words of his favourite Pope : — 

** Friend, parent, neighbour, first it will embrace ; 
His country next, and next all human race ; 
Wide and more wide, the o'erflowings of the mind 
Take every creature in, of every kind ; 
Each smiles around with boundless bounty blest, 
And Heaven beholds its image in his breast." 

Vegetarianism was a practical system that 
could only be fully known by being practically 
carried out ; again, therefore, would he ask the 
working men who heard him to adopt this 
system, and they would find it aid them in many 

ways. Perhaps some present had other objects 
in view — the Maine Law Alliance, or the Peace 
Movement ; still, if they would take Vegetarian- 
ism in its true reasons, as based on facts and 
experience, it would lead them on to the delight- 
ful future of blessedness that awaited the man 
that did right. Perhaps there were some present 
who unfortunately knew nothing of these aspi- 
rations ; to these he would say, in the language of 
the poet he had previously quoted — 

" Yet not the less for thee or thou 
The eternal step of progress beats 
To that great anthem, calm and slow. 
Which God repeats ! 

'• God works in all things, all obey 

His first propulsion from the night ; 
Oh, wake and watch ! the world is grey 
With morning light." 

(Loud applause.) 

Mr. Noble remarked that it might, perhaps, 
be objected to him, that he was no credit to 
Vegetarianism as regarded his personal appear- 
ance ; he, however, thought he had improved 
upon this diet, for his face was now free from the 
blotches it formerly presented. The last speaker, 
all must admit, was a credit to Vegetarianism. 
He (Mr. Noble) came from a part of the country 
where they raised beasts as big as elephants, and 
sheep almost as big as oxcq, and where the 
farmers used, when the Temperance question was 
in its infancy, to pull long faces when it was 
mentioned, and look the Temperance man steadily 
in the face, and ask what was to be done with 
the barley? The Temperance people of those 
days used to say it would do to feed the pigs ; 
they had, however, got a step further, and they 
now took the barley themselves. He was happy 
to state that in the town where he lived, they 
had banished the pigs, and did not allow any one 
to keep them in the town. Vegetarians took 
this excellent article of food (barley), and did 
not put it into the body of a pig at all. They 
had graziers in their part of the county who were 
men of large bodies, if they did not possess very 
large or cultivated minds. They put the question 
as to what was to be done with the oxen and 
sheep, and appeared to think that the whole 
existence of the nation was bound up in their 
continuing to raise oxen and sheep. But a new 
light had broken upon them, since Mr. Mechi, 
who had been experimenting largely in stock 
breeding, said it did not pay, that it was a losing 
business, and were it not for the manure fur- 
nished by the animals, they could not continue 
it. But at the very time animals were being 
kept for the sake of their manure, the sewage 
and drainage of our towns was allowed to run to 
waste and pollute our rivers ; and worse than 
this, we were sending out ships to the Pacific at 
a great expense to bring home Peruvian guano, 
and neglecting the ample supplies of manure 
allowed to accumulate and pollute our cities and 
rivers. They might, therefore, depend upon it, 
if agriculturists found that stock-feeding did not 
pay, they would be quite ready to give it up when 
the demand ceased. We were not all going to 
turn Vegetarians in a day, as people sometimes 
supposed. Some time since, when the Temperance 


movement was receiving a good deal of at- 
tention, people thought that every body would 
become teetotallers, or, at least, all ministers and 
religious men would ; but they had been deceived 
in this respect, and must not have any extrava- 
gant expectations of the success of the Vegetarian 
movement. People who were accustomed to sit 
down to fish or soup, and then had fowl or flesh- 
meat when these had been removed, and their 
table, being again cleared, covered afresh with 
puddings, pies, and pastry, and these being re- 
moved cheese and bread brought in, and these 
again beiug removed wine and spirits introduced, 
were astonished when they heard of Vegetarians, 
and said to them, " How do you live ? " He 
would reply, " Simply enough." How did they live? 
Why, just now, peas were in season, and this 
was a dish of which he was very fond, and these 
and potatoes he could get up to September, and 
this and a little salt, and pies or puddings, he 
considered the best of food, and found quite 
agreeable. He often told his flesh-eating ac- 
quaintances that Vegetarians had more enjoy- 
ment in partaking of food than they had. He 
was astonished to find, twelve months ago, that 
he could enjoy fruit with far more relish than he 
could before becoming a Vegetarian; and if 
people wished to secure the most perfect and real 
enjoyment in eating, they might depend upon it 
they must eat that food which the Creator had 
ordained for the support of their existence. 
Most people had most mistaken notions as to the 
comforts of life, and some of the frequenters of 
the clubs at the west-end could scarcely find all 
they needed for their wants, for they surrounded 
themselves with a number of things they re- 
garded as necessaries of life, which were no more 
necessaries than a journey to the moon was 
necessary to get from Boston to Manchester. 
Life could be more fully enjoyed, all the purposes 
of life more thoroughly accomplished, and old 
age secured — that calm and dignified enjoyment 
of old age which ever gladdened his heart when 
he saw it — more certainly without the flesh 
of animals as food than with it. But then 
they had the doctor question brought in; the 
doctor said, " I should die if I did not eat meat 
during that serious illness." This was very 
likely, but then it must be remembered that it 
was not the doctor's business to instruct his 
patient in physiology, it was not made his busi- 
ness to teach people the best way of living. 
People made it the interest and business of the 
doctor to let them live in such a way as was 
least calculated to produce health ; they lived in 
such a way that the doctor feared apoplexy was 
coming, and that he would lose his patient alto- 
gether, and then he reduced him, brought him 
down, perhaps put him upon vegetable diet, so 
that it was made the interest of the doctor to 
keep his patient as long as he could under his 
hands. He thought we should pay the medical 
man whilst we were well, and stop the pay when 
ill, and in this way the patient would in most 
cases soon get well. The medicine sent by the 
doctor did not always cure, it sometimes happened 
that it was taken at the time of the patient's 
getting well ; but the recovery was not in con- 

sequence of taking the medicine. Vegetarian 
diet was sometimes charged with making people 
weak and effeminate ; he thought no one would 
charge the last speaker with being either weak 
or elferainate, and it was evident from the history 
of nations, that their decay and extermination 
did not arise from simple diet, but from luxurious 
diet. How did the Roman empire conquer the 
world? By men who fed upon barley. And 
how did it fall? By men living in luxurious 
habits that debased them from the dignity of 
men, and degraded them to a mere animal ex- 
istence. One of the ancients gave a sound 
maxim which we should do well to remember, 
and seek to realize ; — " A sound mind in a sound 
body." This was an object too much neglected. 
It was impossible to have healthy action of the 
mind in a body that was diseased, since a dis- 
eased body produced a diseased mind. There 
was one characteristic of the Vegetarian system 
that was of great importance to the working 
man, and he felt a deep interest in the working 
classes, though he might not be considered to 
belong to them. He was, however, a working 
man, though he did not work with his hands and 
arms in laborious exercise, but he might be con- 
sidered to belong to this class, since his living 
depended upon the exercise of his physical and 
mental powers. His father was a working man, 
and his grandfather was a working man also. 
The characteristic of Vegetarianism to which 
he referred, was its tendency to make the 
working man independent ; he did not mean a 
forced independence, but real and genuine inde- 
pendence. The man who could live upon 5s. a 
week was far more independent than the man 
who lived upon lOs. a week. V/orkmen were 
usually too dependent upon those who em- 
ployed them ; they might depend upon it it was 
only by clearing themselves from every oppres- 
sion of the body and mind, that they could 
work out their salvation. Moral and political 
regeneration was not to come from public-house 
assembhes, nor could it be secured at all till 
there had been a personal and social regenera- 
tion, a purging of themselves from the influ- 
ences of beef and beer : not till they had cleared 
these from their houses, and realized their birth- 
right, could working men expect to have that 
position accorded them in the commonwealth, 
which was certaiidy their right. It was often 
said that Vegetarianism was all very well, if they 
would be content to carry it out in their own 
practice, but they held meetings, and made 
speeches about it, and boasted so much of it. 
The fact was, they were compelled to take these 
steps, because they believed in the brotherhood 
of humanity, and that no man lived to himself. 
He was exerting an influence, the audience were 
exerting an influence, every man was exerting an 
influence. This it was that raised man above the 
brute creation, and could only be realized as they 
realized the brotherhood of humanity. Hence 
they felt they were bound up with the interests 
of others, and, if they neglected their brother, 
if they neglected to agitate for the removal of 
the evils that afflicted humanity, they would be 
neglecting an imperative duty, and then a day 

of certain and just retribution would come. If 
sanitary improvement were neglected, the cholera 
would come, and visit not only the mud hovel 
and the cottage, but the mansion and the palace 
would also be its victims. If they allowed the 
seeds of disease and death to be sown, they would 
assuredly reap the harvest ; if they sought their 
own profit and gratification merely, in carrying 
out their Vegetarian practice, then their selfish- 
ness would become their curse, and would cer- 
tainly receive a retribution at the hands of Pro- 
vidence. Providence was, however, often charged 
with evils which arose from man's own conduct; • 
it was ordained that man should earn his bread 
by the sweat of his brow ; but this was no curse 
to us. Labour, rightly used, rightly enjoyed, 
was to man a blessing and not a curse. There 
was no man whose position was more hopeless, 
more to be pitied, than the man who had never 
laboured, and never felt the necessity of labour 
laid upon him ; his existence was ruinous. To 
labour in any cause made that cause more dear 
to the labourer, and it was by labouring in the 
Vegetarian movement that it became so dear 
to them. The man who carefully pruned his 
trees, whose garden was the picture of perfect 
neatness, had more enjoyment, besides producing 
more perfect fruit, a finer bed of strawberries, and 
a better crop of potatoes, than the man who so 
neglected his garden that it contained more 
weeds than potatoes. If they laboured in tliis 
cause they would look for results, and the labour 
would not be lost ; for honest, diligent labour 
was never spent in vain. If they laboured in 
faith, they would at length see the cause tri- 
umphant; if they sowed the seeds, the time 
should come when the reapers should gather the 
sheaves, and he that went forth, as the Bible said, 
" weeping, bearing precious seed, should come 
again rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with 
him." Some men lived in the present, others in 
the future ; if it were not for these last antici- 
pating and pointing out a better and happier 
state, the world would never progress in truth, 
righteousness, and mercy, to the point it was 
destined to reach. The day would come when 
Vegetarianism would prevail; when men should 
no longer "hurt or destroy in all God's holy 
mountain ; " when the whole earth should rejoice, 
war should cease, and slaughter be at an end, and 
" God, even our own God, should bless us ; and 
all the ends o4 the earth should fear him." 

Mr. CuNLlFFEsaidjhisfirst impression was that 
there was some mistake in his being called upon ; 
for he had been wandering about the room in 
a state of innocence, and unaware that he should 
be called upon for a speech. As it was, however, 
he thought his best course might be to move a vote 
of thanks to the President, as a preliminary to the 
people goiug home, it being then past ten o'clock. 
He had been trying to find out the effect pro- 
duced by the meeting, and the speeches to which 
they had listened, upon the people at the other 
end of the room, and, he feared that, as it so 
happened that all the speakers had got a hirsute 
appendage, they might, possibly, suppose this 
movement had some connection with the " beard 

movement," and was a movement of eccentric 
men, and that a number of queer and crotchety 
folks had adopted a crotchety system. The 
Vegetarian system, however, he begged to say, 
was neither queer nor crotchety; it was plain, 
and as common as the air they breathed, or their 
every-day food of porridge and milk, or potatoes. 
The movement was just as plain, and simple, and 
common-sense as any of these things, and had 
no more to do with queerness, and oddness, and 
eccentricity, or the "beard movement," than 
these things had. If they looked into the system, 
and judged it on its own merits, he was sure 
they would find it a thing to live by, and enjoy 
life with, and thus they could not fail to rejoice 
in Vegetarianism. 

Mr. F. TowGOOD observed, that every pre- 
ceding speaker had travelled his own road, and 
perhaps he might be allowed to travel his, and 
show how he came to be there. It was obvious 
to all that he had not the amount of physical 
strength in him that his friend from Birmingham 
had ; he could do something, however, on the 
Vegetarian practice that he could not on the 
meat-eating system. He walked twenty-four 
miles after the last Annual Meeting, and then 
went to London, without feeling much fatigue, 
a feat he could not have accomplished when a 
flesh-eater. Then as to mental strength, before 
becoming a Vegetarian he could not have stood 
up, as he was now doing, to address an audience 
without fear and trembling. Much of the dys- 
pepsia and other afflictive symptoms to which 
people were subject, were brought upon them by 
their flesh-eating and other wrong habits. People 
thought flesh-eating necessary to support them 
in vigour, and enable them to live to old a^je. 
He did not think we got a proper idea of life, 
unless we could live to a hundred years at least. 
There was a common error in quoting Scripture, 
so as to make it appear that man's limit of life 
was " fourscore and ten," and also in supposing 
that the passage mentioning a hundred and 
twenty years in connection with man's life was a 
limitation of its duration, this last, according to 
high theological authority, meaning that man 
should live for this period before he was destroyed. 
There was no precise limit, he contended ; men 
lived according to their health and the measure 
of vitality given to them by their parents, who, 
if they possessed great life-power, would have chil- 
dren also having great life-power. He was con- 
vinced of the truth of Vegetarianism from its 
science and history, and he had generally found, 
that when people had been thoroughly convinced 
of the truth of the arguments in relaEion to 
science and history, but did not wish to adopt 
the practice, if they were believers in the Bible 
they resorted to the Bible, and said, this was 
against the Vegetarians. Men still obstinately 
resorted to the Bible, as an authority on all ques- 
tions, and to keep themselves in countenance in 
erroneous systems, by mis-quoting or mis- 
interpreting its language. He thought the 
question of Vegetarianism a very simple one : 
there was an appointment that had never been 
taken away, as to man's food, and the only 
authority that could be found for the contrary 



system was a permission to eat flesh. But how 
was this given ? It was coupled with the pro- 
hibition : " But flesh with the life thereof, which is 
the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." This latter 
part was usually omitted iu quoting the permis- 
sion. It was recorded that the earth was full of 
violence, and that "all flesh had corrupted his 
way before God," before the flood, and it was 
corrupted, no doubt, by the use of flesh as food, 
permission to use this not being given till after- 
wards. They saw it afterwards allowed to be 
eaten, but only without the blood, and in the 
account of the early Christians, after Christ's 
ascension, it was stated that the apostles assem- 
bled together and made a decree that the disci- 
ples who were converted from among the Gentiles 
should "abstain from blood and from things 
strangled." This regulation was attended to iu 
the early ages of the church, but when people 
had tasted flesh-meat, and acquired a liking for it, 
they said this injunction was set aside with the 
Jewish observances, but he contended it was still 
binding on the Christian world that they should 
"abstain from blood," which people who ate 
flesh did not do. They ought to return to the 
practice of the early Christians on this and some 
other questions. He thought these were clear 
views, and such as should be taught and followed, 
but mankind, in trying to establish that which 
they liked, had set aside Scripture in many in- 
stances. This was his view of the Scripture 
question, and as the arguments from science and 
practical experience had been given in so clear 

and able a manner, he w ould not detain them 
longer than to remark, that as the Bible so 
plainly pointed out that in the future there 
would be no more kiUing upon the earth. Vege- 
tarians had faith to look forward to the ultimate 
success of their cause, and to see the spread of 
their principles all over the world. As God ap- 
pointed his agents to do his work, he trusted 
Vegetarians would be agents iu producing this 
happy result, and in making their views known ; 
these led to reflection and inquiry where they 
were not immediately embraced, and to any who 
were seeking further information on the ques- 
tion he would say, that books on the system 
could be had from the Manchester publisher, 
and concluded by seconding the proposition of 
the preceding speaker. (Applause.) 

The motion was then submitted to the 
meeting by Mr. Harvey, and carried 
unanimously, after which a vote of thanks 
to the speakers from a distance was pro- 
posed by Mr. Harvey, and seconded by Mr. 
W. H. Barnesley, which being acknow- 
ledged by Mr. "Ward, on behalf of himself 
and the other speakers, the President, in a 
few appropriate words, acknowledged the 
compliment paid to himself, and after an- 
nouncing a pic-nic excursion to Alderley for 
the following morning, declared the pro- 
ceedings at an end, and the company sepa- 
rated about eleven o'clock. 



Vegetarian Lecture. — We have again resumed 
our activities, and after one or two disappoint- 
ments, through unavoidable circumstances, were 
favoured by the delivery of Mr. Cunliffe's 
lecture on Thursday, the 28th of June. The 
subject was Vegetarianism, in Relation to the 
Pleasures of Life, and was presented in a very 
interesting and convincing manner, and will 
doubtless aid in removing some of the popular 
misconceptions of our system, by showing that, 
far from lessening real enjoyment, it tends to 
enhance the pleasures of life. W. S. 


Vegetarian Association Lecture. — The fourth of 
our course of lectures has been delivered by Mr. 
J. G. Palmer, to an audience numbering about 
300. The subject was The Comparative Anato- 
my of the Teeth of Men and Animals, in Relation 
to Dief, and was illustrated by two large diagrams, 
one representing the human teeth, and the other 
the skull and teeth of a dog. Some discussion on 
Vegetarianism followed the dehvery of the 
lecture, but no objection was offered to any one 
of the facts and arguments it presented. Ad- 
vantage was taken of the occasion to distribute 
back numbers of the Messenger, and the Bir- 
mingham Association papers. C. R. K. 


Formation of Vegetarian Association. — We have 

at length carried out our long-cherished purpose 
of organizing an Association here, to co-operate 
with the General Society in the advancement of 
our views and practice in relation to diet, and to 
assist new beginners by advice and encouragement 
in any of the difficulties that occasionally occur in 
making the transition from the mixed diet to Vege- 
tarian practice. Our meeting for this purpose 
was held in the Temperance Hall, on Wednesday 
evening, July 11th, and the Rev. P. W. Clay- 
den was called to the chair, when resolutions 
constituting the Association, defining its objects, 
and appointing its officers and time of meeting, 
were agreed upon. We propose holding regular 
Monthly Meetings on the second Wednesday of 
each month, to which member^ of the Associa- 
tion, and those experimenting in the practice, or 
seeking information, wHl he invited. J. N. J. 


Vegetarian Controversy. — Much interest has 
been excited, and attention directed to our practice 
through the recent controversy, originated by the 
strictures of "W. G. B." in our local newspaper. 
These have, however, been ably met by " Scru- 
tator," and others, and have been republished 
in the controversial department of the last two 
numbers of the Messenger; the concluding 
portion of the discussion being also re- 
printed separately, and largely circulated as a 
tract. W. T. A. 




On Monday evening, September 10th, an 
interesting lecture on The Teeth of Man, as 
demonstrating that the Vegetarian Practice is 
in strict accordance with Nature, was de- 
livered in tlie New Jerusalem School Room, 
Accringtou, by J. G. Palmer, Esq., of Bir- 
mingham, the Treasurer of the Vegetarian 
Society, The lecture was illustrated by 
diagrams of the human and canine teeth, 
and was listened to with deep attention, 
opportunity being afforded at its close for the 
making of inquiries, or the statement of 

James Simpson, Esq., the President of 
the Association, occupied the chair, and in- 
troduced the lecturer in a brief address. 

Mr. Simpson remarked, that whatever related 
to the welfare of man was worthy of very grave 
consideration, because the Deity, in his great 
kindness to the human species, was ever seeking 
to raise them from what is inferior or low, to 
what is high and happy, ever doing the best 
even for the lowest of men. They were thus 
bound to attend to what relates to human hap- 
piness, and this he contended would be 
promoted by obedience to the appointment of 
man's food in Paradise, " the herb bearing seed," 
and " the fruit tree bearing fruit," and though 
man might have permission to live otherwise 
wlien he departed from the order of his being, 
philosophy confirmed the opinion that what was 
appointed would ever be the best and happiest. 
Though God thus permitted man to live in 
departure from truth, and the laws he had en- 
stamped upon his constitution, the most com- 
plete health of body and happiness could best 
be promoted by the finding out what these laws 
were, and in obedience to them. Man was a 
threefold being ; he had a physical, intellectual, 
and moral nature. The world around appealed 
to his intellectual nature, and he saw beauty 
around him, and, if he inquired at all, he must 
see that he had intimate relations to the world 
around him, where he must eat and drink, and 
breathe pure air, and if the last were wholly im- 
pure, life would at once be put an end to. The 
laws, therefore, relating to his physical structure 
must be obeyed, just as those other spiritual 
laws which regulated his connection with the 
future world must be observed, if he would 
live as happily as might be, and not in an un- 
natural way. The question about to be brought 
before them, had special reference to this subject 
in relation to a law enstamped upou mau by 
nature. He had already referred to what man 
could do under the permission, when he would 
not live in accordance with the appointment. 
They might see people living on extraordinary 
kinds of food in some parts of the world, and 
our own countrymen so led by example, in one 
case, in the island of Looe in Cornwall, as to eat 
rats — the people lived on rats, and counted them 
a somewhat luxurious article of diet. In this 

way, looking into eating customs, they saw 
almost every kind of animal eaten, and amongst 
some savage races, human flesh even was in- 
cluded in the dietary. They saw other people 
living on vegetable productions, and in all time 
many had lived in this way, and a much larger 
number even than those subsisting on the flesh 
of animals. In all these varied practices they 
might find a precedent for doing almost any- 
thing they pleased. Custom was thus no sanc- 
tion for any line of conduct, and they ought 
therefore to be able to give a reason for 
their practices, or these would never stand the 
result of inquiry. The question was, therefore, 
pressed upon their attention, and if, as most 
people did on first hearing of Vegetarianism, 
they went straight to the sacred page, they 
would see in Genesis i. 29, that the very system 
that they, as dietetic reformers, advocated to-day, 
was that appointed as man's food to begin with. 
This was his food in the early ages of the world ; 
then came a w audering from divine appointments, 
and in the period following the fall of man, 
they had a different practice in connection 
with preying upon the bodies of animals, 
and people now never expressed any surprise 
about it, many never thinking of a better way 
of living than on the flesh of the bodies of 
animals, with grain and other vegetable products 
along with it. If God gave this original ap- 
pointment of food at first, they would naturally 
suppose that there was an alteration after the 
flood, and many people were Very fond of con- 
sidering that then there had been a reconstitu- 
tion of human nature, and that the Creator had 
actually seen it necessary to mend his work, 
and alter man's body to make him fit for eating 
flesh. But reason did not show this to be pro- 
bable, but rather that man was permitted to live 
in an inferior condition when he would not re- 
main in the appointment, and, in this way, they 
found that other practices were permitted, such 
as the putting away of wives, and the principle 
of retaliation — " An eye for an eye, and a tooth 
for a tooth." There were arguments drawn 
from comparative anatomy ; upon these subjects, 
however, he would not enter, lest he should 
trench upon the subject of the lecture. Che- 
mistry and economy too, both spoke out on this 
question ; chemistry showiug that all food was 
of vegetable origin, and that flesh contained 
nothing peculiar, but simply the vegetable prin- 
ciples contained in the food upon which the 
animal fed ; economy decided that it was unneces- 
sarily dear to live on the flesh of animals, and 
to pay a shilling for the nutriment they might 
obtain for twopence from the vegetable kingdom, 
and which, well selected, was more efficient in 
building up the flesh, blood, and bone of the 
body. Then, again, living on the flesh of animals 
induced a large amount of disease, and intro- 
duced into the system that which had to be got 
rid of again. If God intended man to live on 
the flesh of animals, there was, in this, a great 
exception to his laws and order otherwise ; for 



nature was simple and economical in all her 
ways ; air, light, and water — the great essentials — 
were to be had freely and abundantly by all. 
Man might exist, for a time, upon bad food, or 
go without for several days ; but, without pure 
air, and good water, the last of which composed 
no less than 70 to 76 parts of man's body, he 
could not exist for any length of time. These 
great essentials were given to man without 
money and without price. If he were asked if 
food could be had as cheaply as air or water, he had 
but to reply that, when obtained from the vege- 
table kingdom, this might almost be placed in 
the same category ; but, taken from the flesh of 
animals, it was ever unprofitable and dear. All 
nature's operations were simple and direct, and 
accomplished in the cheapest possible way. 
There were other facts in relation to physiology 
claiming attention, but he would not touch upon 
these, as the lecture would most probably present 
this part of the question as well as that of com- 
parative anatomy. He would observer, however, 
that man had a moral as well as a physical and 
intellectual nature, and this proved that man was 
not intended to live by the slaughter of animals 
for food ; though permitted to live in inferior condi- 
tions, yet his moral nature opposed the practice of 
living on the flesh of animals. If he were asked 
bow this was proved, he would say that no one, 
though living on the flesh-eating practice, could 
trace the processes carried out in preparing flesh 
for the table without being shocked, and their 
appetite for flesh-meat impaired or destroyed . He 
admitted that persons might be trained to do 
these things, and not suffer much ; but he was 
not speaking of such cases as these, but of the 
effect upon man's normal moral nature. Mr. 
Simpson then referred to the pain and com- 
punction felt by a young soldier who shot a 
Russian at Haugo Bay — the first man he had 
ever killed — and contrasted this with the indif- 
ference manifested by another after a few months' 
training in the engagements in the Crimea, as 
showing how easily man's natural benevolence 
was blunted by familiarity with scenes of violence 
and bloodshed. If this was the case with regard 
to human beings, they might rest assured that 
man could readily be trained to feel and act in 
this way towards the lower animals. Man had 
got into unnatural habits in this respect ; but 
the object of the facts and arguments of the 
lecture was to lead man back to his original 
state as regarded his practice of diet. Besides 
economy showing the truth of the system, he 
trusted they would see that comparative anatomy 
agreed with chemistry and physiology, and de- 
monstrated that the teeth of man are in strict 
accordance with his natural, best, and happiest 
system of living. He might go on at greater 
length in introducing this lecture, but it was un- 
necessary to do this, and would, therefore, beg to 
call on Mr. Palmer, who had taken advantage 
of a brief visit to Lancashire to give a lecture 
during his staj\ 

Mr. Palmer, after explaining the object of 
the lecture to be that of directing attention to 
the form and structure of human teeth, and 
comparing them with the teeth of other animals. 

in order, by analogy, to show or to infer what is 
the most suitable food for mankind, and stating 
that he should glance at some other points of 
comparative anatomy, and introduce and affirm 
some general pririciples respecting the health, 
the development, and the glorious capability for 
progress of mankind, without, he trusted, devi- 
ating too widely from his allotted task, con- 
tinued as follows : 

Every organized being in nature commences 
its existence as a seed, a germ, or a cell ; and is 
adapted for, or capable of, a certain degi-ee of 
growth, expansion, or development, till it arrives 
at maturity, or the full measure of its capacity. 
This may apply to all animals below mankind . 
The human being is inspired with the animating 
faith and hope of endless progression in love, 
light, truth, knowledge, wisdom, goodness, and 
consequent happiness. 

Some external conditions, circumstances, and 
relations, are much more favourable to the full 
and complete development and manifestation of 
internal capability and power than others. For 
instance, if we take a few seeds, say of wheat, 
all alike, or equally good, and plant some in clay, 
some in sand, some in loam or fine garden 
mould, others among stones, some in different 
climates, cold and moist, or dry and warm, or 
even some on the north side, and others on the 
south side of a brick wall, we shall find the 
health and strength, the growth and produce of 
those seeds very different indeed. So with 
animals. Let us take a few young animals, say 
horses, place them in various conditions and 
circumstances, in different climates and pastures, 
feed them on different food, give them water of 
different degrees of impurity or purity ; let them 
be well or carelessly tended, as to food, cleanli- 
ness, shelter; let them labour moderately or 
immoderately. We shall find the result as to 
health, strength, beauty, length of life, very 
different indeed. So it is with mankind. Ttiese 
are common-place truisms, but not sufficiently 
thought of. Let that be my excuse for intro- 
ducing them. 

Those conditions and circumstances most 
favourable to the health, continued well-being, 
and complete development of any organized 
structure, must also be conducive to the happi- 
ness of every conscious being in all its phases or 
relations. The instinctive tendency of all 
sentient beings is to seek happiness, and avoid 
pain. This seems to be the first impulse to 
action in every grade of human nature. But 
the experience of all leads to the conviction that 
the more eagerly and ignorantly we pursue hap- 
piness in the animal, the sensual, the external, 
the fluctuating, the greater is our pain and dis- 
appointment. Still 

" Hope sprinpfs eternal in the human breast, 
Man never is, but always to be blest." 

The nearest approach towards actualizing the 
ideal which is continually urging us, appears to 
be to look for the supreme good, in the 
sovereignty of mind, in true wisdom, the legiti- 
mate offspring of knowledge and love, in recti- 
tude of conduct, in just selecting and rejecting. 
We must bring ourselves into harmony with 



nature by cultivatinsf our wliole being, in obedi- 
ence to the laws of constitution and relation ex- 
isting in nature. " Man is more diseased than 
any other animal formation God hath created, 
merely because he has power to, and does in- 
fringe upon, the harmonious arrangements of 
his own nature. Man groans in bondage, 
because ignorance, error, and self-indulgence 
have filled his flesh with corruption. Disease 
mars his earthly life, and retards him in his 
future career." We suffer more from the tyranny 
of bad habits over ourselves, than from the 
tyranny of others over us. Let us conquer the 
first tyranny, and the second would soon follow 
it. Knowledge, love, justice, universal brother- 
hood, peace, health, and happiness might cover 
the earth. But how is this to be accomplished? 
By what clue can we extricate ourselves from the 
maze of error in which we are entangled ? We 
have vitiated and blunted our simple natural 
instincts, and now our depraved tastes mislead 
us. We must appeal to our reason ; we must 
observe, reflect, and compare ; we must return 
to the simplicity of the shepherd in the fable, 
who taught the philosopher the lessons of wis- 
dom he had learnt from nature. We must obey 
her teachings. 

The first necessities of our animal nature are 
air and food. By these our existence is sup- 
ported and continued. Our lungs and our 
stomach have a certain conformation and con- 
stitution. Air and food bear a very strict and de- 
finate relationship to that conformation and con- 
stitution. It is of great importance that air and 
food should be pure and congenial, of that kind and 
quality that bears the most harmonious relation- 
ship to the structure and constitution of our 
organs, because they not only affect our bodily 
health and strength, but also influence our feelings 
and propensities. The temporary derangement of 
the mind, when a person is under the influence of 
alcoholic drinks, proves that the mind is influ- 
enced by substances taken into the system. 

So that all substances or phe^iomona, such 
as air, water, food, light, heat, electricity, 
magnetism, etc., that come in contact, or have 
intercourse with the organism, bear a definite 
relationship to its well or ill-being ; to the per- 
fect or imperfect performance of its functions ; 
to the length of time of its duration. Some are 
much more congenial than others, and the de- 
grees of this relationship, like the laws of 
chemical affinity and repulsion, are perhaps in- 
numerable between the most salubrious food, 
and the most destructive poison. 

It is with reference to these vital, organic 
laws, that I propose to show, from the structure 
of the human teeth, that this true relationship 
is to be found in the vegetable kingdom only ; 
and that fruits, grain, pulse, roots, and some 
other vegetables, are the most natural and best 
food for mankind. From the nature and cir- 
cumstances of the case, we are under the neces- 
sity of drawing our evidence from comparative 
anatomy and physiology ; and if we can find an 
order of animals, whose alimentary organs cor- 
respond with those of man, and can ascertaiii 
the natural habits and character of that order of 

animals, then we have learned, so far as we can 
learn from comparative anatomy, the true natural 
dietetic character of mankind. 

Those natural philosophers, called comparative 
anatomists, who have studied the human body 
altogether, and have examined tlie stomach and 
teeth in relation to diet, and have made extensive 
comparisons between man ond other animals, 
have said, that there is always a conformity be- 
tween the structure of all animals and the food 
they should take, and that this is a circumstance 
most favourable to their existence. They also 
affirm that there is not only this agreement be- 
tween the conformation of an animal and its 
natural food, but there is also harmony between 
all the parts of that structure, so that if they 
are shown a single fossil bone dug up from the 
earth, where it may have been buried for 
thousands of years, they can portray the entire 
animal, describe its food, and the circumstances 
most favourable to its existence. This rule is so 
uniform that I cannot admit any exception ; some, 
however, claim it for man, because he has the 
power to seek out many inventions, some of these 
very good, and others very injurious. I, how- 
ever, am not willing to admit that there is any 
exception to the general rule, that there is per- 
fect agreement between the structure of an 
animal and the nature of its food. 

I shall, therefore, proceed to examine the 
general outlines of the anatomical and physiolo- 
gical evidence. 

The difference between a perfect set of human 
teeth, and those of a carnivorous animal, is 
great and striking. Of all the various types 
of animal teeth, these may be considered the 
two opposite extremes. I intend, therefore, 
principally to confine my observations to them. 

In the adult human head there are thirty-two 
teeth, i. e., sixteen in the upper, and sixteen in 
the lower jaw. In each row there are four inci- 
sors, or cutting teeth, in front, which shut over 
each other like the blades of shears. On each 
side of these incisors there is a cuspid, or eye- 
tooth, two bicuspids, or small cheek teeth ; and 
in a perfectly normal state, these form an iinin- 
terrupted series, in close contact, and all of nearly 
equal length. In this particular man differs from 
all other anirrals. For even in the species nearest 
to man, there is a space between the front and 
the corner teeth. 

Carnivorous animals have in each jaw six in- 
cisors, or front teeth, two cuspids, and from eight 
to twelve cheek teeth. In carnivorous and fru- 
~ivorous animals the body of the tooth consists 
of dense bone, covered with a sheath of hard 
enamel. The cheek teeth of herbivorous animals 
are composed of intermixed plates of bone and 
enamel, arranged vertically, which is more suit- 
able for chewing grass and herbs. 

The front teeth of the human head are broad, 
flat, and chisel-shaped, designed to cut the food 
in convenient masses for the action of the cheek 
teeth. The front teeth of carnivorous animals 
are more rounded and pointed, and stand further 
apart, and bear no resemblance to those of man. 

The cuspids, or eye-teeth, or, as some call 
them, the canine teeth, in the human head, are 



usually of the same length as the other teeth, 
and stand close to them ; they approach more to 
a pomt than the front teeth, and are the first 
step in the transition to the grinding teeth in 
the back part. 

The cuspids, or tusks, of carnivorous animals 
are round and pointed, and much longer and 
stronger than the front teeth, and are separated 
by a considerable space from the other teeth. 
In some species they are very long, sharp- 
pointed, and powerful, and fitted to serve as 
weapons of offence and defence, and to seize, 
hold, and tear the prey. Some of the herbivorous 
animals, as the horse, the camel, and the stag, 
have the cuspids proportionably longer, more 
pointed and powerful than the corner teeth of 
man, and are separated from the other teeth by 
a large space. 

Between the cuspids of carnivorous animals, 
and those of the human head, there is not the 
slightest resemblance, and yet the assumed re- 
semblance is the principal evidence urged to 
prove the natural flesh-eating character of man. 
But this would also prove that the horse, camel, 
and stag, naturally require a still larger pro- 
portion of flesh-meat in their diet. According 
to this evidence, the camel of the desert is 
naturally as carnivorous as the dog. 

The small and large cheek teeth of man have 
small blunt prominences, that fit into the cor- 
responding hollows of the opposite row ; and 
with broad, mashing, and grinding surfaces, 
with lateral or horizontal, as well as vertical 
motion, increase the triturating power of the 
teeth. The cheek teeth in the lower jaw of 
man meet those of the upper jaw, so as to bring 
the surfaces of the two together in opposition. 
In this respect, man resembles herbivorous and 
frugivorous animals. But the cheek teeth in 
the lower jaw of carnivorous animals, pass and 
shut within those of the upper jaw, so that, if 
we take a pair of shears, and file the two cutting 
edges into teeth like a saw, and then cut 
with them, we shall get a good idea of the ap- 
pearance and operation of the cheek teeth of 
carnivorous animals, as, unlike the broad and 
blunt surface of human teeth, they rise into 
high and sharp points, the middle point above 
the others like a spear ; they are fitted for tear- 
ing and piercing, but cannot admit of the 
grinding or lateral motion, such as man, and the 
frugivorous and herbivorous animals, use in 

The articulation of the joints and muscles 
of the jaws, also, corresponds to the motions to 
which the teeth are fitted. This formation and 
action of the cheek teeth appears a most striking 
and conclusive distinction. 

Nothing can be more true than that, so far as 
the teeth are concerned, comparative anatomy 
does not afford the slightest evidence that man 
is in any measure a carnivorous animal. 

It is true, however, that there is a great capa- 
city in the human organism, with the assistance 
of its mental faculties, for a very wide range of 
adaptability to different substances, conditions, 
and circumstances, resulting, nevertheless, in 
various degrees of health, strength, and lon- 

gevity. There is, therefore, no reason to doubt, 
that physiological science is correct in the asser- 
tion, that there are the most fixed and precise 
constitutional laws of relation between the 
alimentary organs, and the particular tissues of 
the human body, and those substances which 
the Creator designed for human food ; or that 
there are particular kinds, qualities, and condi- 
tions of food, which are best adapted to sustain 
the highest and best condition of human nature. 

Other animals besides man may be trained to 
live upon substances different to what their 
natural instincts lead them to select. Herbi- 
vorous and frugivorous animals may be trained 
to feed upon flesh. Carnivorous animals among 
beasts and birds can be trained to a vegetable 
diet. But it is worthy of remark, that such a 
change to them produces less inconvenience, 
greater safety to life and health, and less injury 
to the constitution, as a permanent effect, than 
for herbivorous or frugivorous animals to be 
trained to live upon animal food. The keeper of 
a menagerie has said, that feeding monkeys on 
flesh renders them gross, and shortens their lives, 
from which practice he had therefore desisted. 

Neither can we infer that man is naturally a 
grass-eating or herbivorous animal, for reasons 
drawn from comparative anatomy. 

With respect to the teeth. The surfaces 
of the molar or cheek teeth of grass-eating 
animals are formed with sharp ridges for cutting. 
If we take half a dozen chisels, and bind them 
tightly together, the sharp edges will show 
notches between. This will nearly represent the 
surface of the cheek teeth of a grass-eating, or 
herbivorous animal. These teeth meet face to 
face, exactly as the side teeth of all vegetable- 
eating animals do. The sharp edges of the 
upper row falling into the notches of the lower 
row, cut and chop the grass or herbs — a curious 
chopping machine. Whereas, the cheek teeth 
of man, and all frugivorous animals, as I have 
already said, have blunt knobs on the surfaces, 
the upper row meeting in the hollows of the 
lower row, and thereby producing a crushing or 
pounding action, more suitable for grains, seeds, 
fruits, or roots, which are sufficiently cut by the 
front teeth, called incisors, or cutting teeth, and 
their action biting. 

Some persons who are unwilling to relinquish 
their old habit of flesh-eating, or to be convinced 
by the evidence of comparative anatomy, say, 
tliat as the formation of man's teeth, stomach, 
and intestines are, in some respects, intermediate 
between carnivorous and grass-eating animals, 
he ought to live upon a mixture of the food of 
both. Let them show their sincerity by trying 
the grass-eating mixture. 

Now, their inference is far from being a 
rational or a logical one. The most correct con- 
clusion would have been, that his diet should be 
of a different kind from either, and for tvi^o 
most especial and triumphant reasons : 

1st. The cheek teeth of man are not sharp- 
pointed like the teeth of a saw, and tliey do not 
pass beside each other like the blades of a pair of 
shears, as those of all carnivorous animals are, 
and do. Let us never forget that grand distinction. 



2nd. The gastric juice of the carnivorous 
animal is diflfereiit in its quality and property 
from that of the vegetable-eating animal, so 
that, putting a mixture of both kinds of food 
into the stomach, causes a contest there as to 
which shall be served first, and, whichever it is, 
the other is likely to come off with " short com- 
mons," thereby rendering digestion incomplete. 
" It (gastric juice) cannot be equally well-qualified 
to digest both animal and vegetable. In propor- 
tion as animal food predominates, the power of 
the stomach to digest vegetable food generally 
diminishes." The quality and property of the 
gastric juice become altered, and, in many persons, 
weakened, so that frequent or permanent indi- 
gestion ensues, for which medical men prescribe 
a lean mutton chop, a hard biscuit, or stale-bread, 
with a glass of sherry, or weak brandy and water. 
No fruit or vegetables. Any departure from this 
regimen, in some persons, is sure to be followed 
by a bilious attack, or diarrhoea, or something 
else, not more agreeable. 

It is well-known to Vegetarians that most per- 
sons, who partake of a mixed diet, are obliged 
to be cautious in taking fruit or vegetables, 
because they are more liable to attacks of diseases 
of various kinds, than those who live upon a diet 
of wheat-meal, bread, fruit, potatoes, and other 
vegetables, diversified occasionally with rice, sago, 
Scotch barley, oat meal, etc. 

If, to a mixed diet, be added even what is 
called a moderate portion of alcoholic drink, the 
necessity for caution as to the use of fruit and 
vegetables is increased. 

The prevailing opinion upon this subject is, 
that man is an omnivorous animal. Custom is 
the only authority for this opinion with those who 
entertain it. Mankind, in all countries have beeu 
influenced by climate, circumstances, love of ex- 
citement, etc., to their different practices. They 
seem to have tried rather how much indulgence 
the human constitution is capable of sustaining 
without sudden destruction, than to have been 
guided by conscious knowledge, upon clear and 
well-ascertained principles, in full accordance 
with the constitutional laws of our nature, either 
as to quality, quantity, or condition of food. So 
that the purely natural dietetic habits of man 
are unknown, except as a matter of ancient 
history and tradition. 

The animals which approach the nearest to the 
character of omnivorous, or feeding on a mixed 
diet, without preference for either animal or 
vegetable substances, are the dog, the bear, and 
opossum ; yet these, when in a perfectly natural 
state, and when food is abundant, invariably prefer 
fruits, roots, grain, and other vegetable produce. 

There is little resemblance between the front 
teeth of these animals and those of the human 
head, and still less between the eye-teeth, or cus- 
pids, of man and the tusks of the hog. 

The digestive organs of the hog more strongly 
resemble those of man ; but, when these organs 
are taken in connection with the masticatory 
organs, which are the principal anatomical index 
of the dietetic character, and, also, in connection 
with the fact that, in a free state of nature, the hog 
prefers vegetable food, and requires no animal food. 

for the fullest and most perfect development and 
sustenance of its animal structure and physiolo- 
gical powers, the whole force of evidence still 
goes to prove that man is not naturally, in any 
measure, a flesh-eating animal. 

In the order next below man we find several 
species of animals, whose teeth, and other alimen- 
tary organs, in all respects very nearly resemble 
those of the human body ; and in the species 
which comes nearest to man in general organiza- 
tion and appearance, the alimentary organs, in 
almost every particular, so nearly resemble the 
human, that they are easily mistaken for them. 
The number and order of teeth in the orang- 
outang are the same as in man. I have seen 
whole jaws of their teeth, which a dentist could 
not have decided were not human teeth. The 
front teeth are precisely like those of the human 
head. The cuspids, or corner teeth, are gene- 
rally rather longer, and more pointed, and are 
separated from the other teeth by small spaces, 
and approach more to the appearance of the cus- 
pids of carnivorous animals than those of man 
do. In some other species of monkeys the 
cuspids are of a more carnivorous character. 

The form of the stomach, the comparative 
length of the alimentary canal, its relative capa- 
city, the cellular arrangement of the colon, in the 
orang-outang, all likewise correspond with those 
of the human body. As a general statement, 
however, the comparative length of the alimen- 
tary canal is somewhat greater in man than in 
the orang-outang. 

In accordance with the principles of compara- 
tive anatomy, then, the alimentary organs of the 
orang-outang are to be regarded as the true type 
for comparison, to ascertain the natural dietetic 
character of man. 

But it appears that in all that the organs of 
the orang difl'er from those of man, they have 
rather more of a carnivorous character. Yet it 
is well known that not only the orang-outang, 
but all the other species of monkeys, are, in a 
perfectly pure state of nature, when left free to 
choose their own nourishment, and follow their 
undepraved instincts, wholly frugivorous, sub- 
sisting exclusively on fruit, nuts, and other 
esculent farinaceous vegetables. And they never, 
in such a state, feed on animal food, except in 
circumstances in which even the cow and the 
sheep become carnivorous, i. e., when suffering 
from extreme famine, and goaded on by excessive 
and tormenting hunger. 

Now it is important to reflect that the lower 
animals have neither the mental nor voluntary 
powers to deprave their natural instincts to any 
considerable extent. In a state of nature, when 
food is abundant, there is always harmony between 
their organizations, their instincts, and their 
habits. But man's superior intellectual and 
voluntary powers not only increase his ability to 
supply his bodily wants in all the varying cir- 
cumstances of seasons and conditions, but also 
increase his power of multiplying those wants by 
his artificial modes of supplying them, by com- 
plicated cookery, and by the circumstances of 
social and civic life. 

But in thus violatiujr the constitutional laws of 



his nature, man necessarily not only depraves the 
natural instincts, propensities, and sensibilities of 
his body, and increases the force and despotism of 
his wants upon his intellectual and voluntary 
powers, but he also impairs his mental faculties, 
blunts his moral perceptions, deteriorates his 
whole nature, and that of his race, and tends to 
the destruction of body and mind. 

Nothing is more erroneous than the claims 
that are set up for the dietetic aberrations of 
man on the score of his reason. That can- 
not nullify any physiological or other natural 
law ; and unless exercised in subordination 
to the physical and moral laws, would only 
be a superior ability to make himself miserable, 
because his animal nature appeals to his intel- 
lectual and voluntary faculties to assist in pro- 
curing' present enjoyment. 

Having concluded my observations on the 
teeth, I may just glance at some other parts of 
structure in which mankind differs from carnivo- 
rous animals, and resembles the herbivora. 

The salivary glands of herbivorous animals 
are comparatively larger than those of carnivo- 
rous animals. Herbivorous animals have a 
much longer alimentary canal. The calibre or 
diameter of the whole alimentary canal is re- 
latively much greater in man than in carnivoroxis 
animals, and, moreover, the numerous folds or 
wrinkles in the mucous membrane very con- 
siderably increase its length of surface. In the 
earn iora the colon is never cellulated, but 
always cylindrical, and comparatively much 
smaller. The stomach of the carnivora is 
simple, and not fitted to retain the food for a 
long time. The herbivorous animals and man 
have a stomach which is manifestly formed to 
retain the food for a considerable time. The 
herbivora and man have an immense number of 
perspiratory glands and pores in the skin, by 
which the superfluous heat escapes : perspiration 
in the carnivora being principally given off by 
the tongue, the surface of which is different 
from that of the herbivora and man. There is 
also another circumstance that is worthy of con- 
sideration. I have observed before that there is 
always harmony between the structure of an 
animal and its habits. There is a habit in rela- 
tion to carnivorous animals that is not generally 
noticed, but is worthy of notice. You all know 
that dogs and cats, and all other carnivorous 
animals, lap up the water with their tongu?. 
You never saw an herbivorous animal do this, 
they suck or drink it up as man does. This is a 
habit resulting from structure or natural in- 
stinct, and is a proof to the many others that 
man is naturally a frugivorous animal. 

I think it is, therefore, certain that the whole 
evidence of comparative anatomy, when cor- 
rectly estimated, goes to prove that man is 
naturally a frugivorous animal. The names of 
many men eminent in science, as anatomists and 
physiologists, naturalists and physicians, both 
foreign and English, might be brought to con- 
firm this opinion. The mighty minds, who 
scrutinize the forms and properties, and laws of 
things, and move the intellectual and moral uni- 
verse, are not sustained and excited by flesh and 

wine. The grandest performance of Sir Isaac 
Newton was made whilst his body was 
nourished only bv bread and water. Howard, 
Swedenborg,Wesley, Shillitoe, and a long 
list of abstainers might be added. 

"The human system may be considered a 
piece of mechanism, capable of yielding a varia- 
ble amount of available force, that may be 
economized in proportion as intelligence is em- 
ployed in its management. It is, therefore, not 
unreasonable to conclude that the two conditions 
of the quality of the aliment, and the expense 
of vitality by which its use is attained, are most 
important matters in relation to human welfare." 

All proper alimentary substances are the 
natural and appropriate stimuli of the stomach 
and nerves of organic life. All stimulation, 
whether by proper or improper means, causes 
some exhaustion to the vital powers of the tissues 
on which it acts. The immediate feeling of 
strength produced by stimulants is no proof, 
either that the stimulating substance is nourish- 
ing or salutary, nor even that it is not baneful. 
Yet how many are deceived by the temporary 
sensation thus produced ! Strength apparently 
imparted by undue stimulation, induces pre- 
mature and permanent weakness. It is, there- 
fore, one of the most important laws of the 
animal economy, that that aliment which is 
most perfectly assimilated and incorporated by 
the vital functions, with the least expense of 
vital power, is best adapted to the wants of the 
system, and most conducive to health and long 

These, then, are truths which defy all con- 
troversy — truths established in the constitutional 
nature of things, aiid confirmed by human ex- 
perience — that flesh-meat is not necessary to 
nourish and sustain the human body in the 
healthiest and best manner, when proper vege- 
table food can be obtained ; that it is much 
more stimulating to the system, in proportion to 
the nourishment which it actually affords, than a 
pure and proper vegetable diet ; that it renders 
the general action of the system more rapid gind 
intense, accelerates all the vital functions, in- 
creases the expenditure of the vital properties of 
the tissues and functional powers of the organs, 
and more rapidly wears out the vital constitution 
of the body ; and it is almost equally certain 
that it renders all the vital processes of assimi- 
lation and nutrition less complete and perfect. 
Under a correct vegetable diet and regimen, 
there is no organ of the body, or faculty of the 
mind, which does not receive an increase of 
normal sensibility, or of that power which is 
thought to be imparted to it by the nervous 

Every taste that is truly exquisite is afforded 
by the vegetable kingdom. In our own climate, 
with the assistance of known science and art, 
an immense variety and profusion of fruit and 
grain, may be brought to great perfection. 
Providence is very bountiful to us, an-1 if all 
cannot partake of these bounties, the hindrances 
are artificial, the obstructions are man-made, and 
may be removed by improved social arrangements, 
upon the foundation of justice to each other. 



Various motives lead to the giving up of 
animal substances as human food. Some per- 
sons have been influenced by considerations of 
health, agility, and strength ; others by economy ; 
some have adopted a vegetable diet for intel- 
lectual benefit; and many have been induced 
primarily, and previous to any knowledge or ex- 
perience on the subject, on the ground of 
humanity alone, from an aversion to cruelty, and 
the destruction of life, and a feeling of benevo- 
lence, and kindness to the susceptibilities of the 
animal world. 

John Oswald, John Nicholson, Sir 
Richard Phillips, three writers on the sub- 
ject, many years ago renounced the use of flesh 
early iu life, from the recoil and horror ex- 
perienced in their feelings at the sight of a 
slaughter-house. Many others have obeyed a 
similar impulse. Without reasoning or ex- 
perience, or doubt of results, they commenced 
abstinence on the moral or religious ground 
alone, and they lived to write, and plead in 
favour of it, not only on that ground, but on 
account of the physiological, intellectual, and 
moral benefits of it. And how could it be 
otherwise? Truth is always consistent with 
itself in all respects. We have already seen that 
the organization of man is strictly adapted to 
a Vegetarian diet. In harmony therewith, there 
is no reason to doubt that his primitive unsophis- 
ticated instincts would all point to the fruit 
trees as pleasant to the sight and smell, and 
good for food. At peace with the whole 
animated creation, the very thoughts of killing 
or of cruelty could find no place in him. 

It was, probably, famine that first urged man 
to depart from the pure instincts of his nature, 
and to deprive an animal of life to support his 
own. This act and its results within him 
would make him more selfish and ferocious. 
The animal nature would reign, and force and 
violence be its ministers. Can, then, a practice 
be conformable to reason and truth which stifles 
the best feelings of the human heart ? Can the 
persons who are employed to commit these acts, 
by and for others, fail of being degraded and 
blunted by such an occupation ; and can we be 
free of the responsibility of causing that 
degradation ? 

Man cannot become aware of the nobility, 
beauty, height, and capacity of his existence 
while an erroneous diet influences his stomach, 
his nerves, and his brain, and pervades his 
body, his feelings, and his thoughts. As there 
are intellectual facts, and mental being, into 
which the inebriate can never enter, and delights 
which he can never enjoy, so there are moral 
facts and moral being, which can never be revealed, 
and degrees of moral happiness that cannot be 
enjoyed, till all the laws of harmonious relation- 
ship are fully obeyed. 

The truly reflective mind, sincerely aspiring 
to know, and to exemplify in his own being, 
whatsoever is true and good, will always be 
actuated by the highest and purest motives. 
He will seek to know himself, his entire nature 
and capabilities. He will seek to cultivate every 
phase of his being, physical, intellectual, moral. 

social, spiritual. He will seek to exemplify 
in the atmosphere of love, light, and truth, 
whatsoever his wondrous faculties were de- 
signed to become, and to illustrate. He 
hath greater latent power than he hath ever 
imagined. He will believe that Infinite Wisdom 
has not made a blunder, and that the organiza- 
tion and constitution contain the indication and 
the germ of what the being was designed 
to become and to fulfil. He will believe that 
God never sows dead seed. The seed he 
sows he intends to germinate, to grow, to pro- 
duce fruit. If it remain inert, it is because our 
indolence, our ignorance, our selfishness, our 
self-wilfulness, our want of faith, interpose 
the obstructions. Truth is as ready to be 
unfolded as ever. Like the sun, it shines on 
the moon, or man, with unchanging fidelity, but 
we let sensual obtusenejs, like the earth, pass 
between and eclipse its rays. The true man will 
endeavour to remove every obstruction, that all 
the benign influences of truth may grow and 
fructify within him. We may then enjoy life's 
greatest blessings — a healthy body, a sound 
understanding, a benevolent heart, and a truth- 
loving and truth-seeking spirit, ever progressive 
iu all good. (Applause.) 

Tiie Chairman observed that all would, he 
was sure, be much obliged to Mr. Palmer for 
his lecture, delivered originally on a recent occa- 
sion before a large audience in Birmingham. 
For his own part he had had much pleasure in 
listening to it. One thought arising in the 
minds of persons after hearing the treatment of 
the Vegetarian question was, "Is it sinful to eat 
meat ? " Everybody, almost, ate meat, and they 
did this without any thought upon the matter; 
it could not, therefore, be considered as a moral 
offence or sin, though he regarded it as a mis- 
taken practice, and thought a little inquiry upon 
the subject would lead people to give it up for a 
better and happier one. Another common 
thought was that Vegetarians starved and morti- 
fied themselves ; this, however, was just as 
false as anything could be. The great majority 
of Vegetarians were meat-eaters to begin with, 
and this was a strong argument in favour of 
Vegetarianism, since these people had to resist 
prevailing customs, and the opposition of their 
friends, and the influence of home, for women 
were usually very wrong on this system, as they 
were on the temperance question. They were 
very conservative, and clung to the wisdom 
of old customs, and this was very important in 
relation to their duties as mothers and nurses ; 
but once convince them that Vegetarianism is 
safe, right, and true, and they would become as 
good Vegetarians as any others. People had thus 
great objections and opposition to beat down in 
carrying out their practice, and they would not, 
certainly, continue the struggle if they were not 
convinced that it was a better, wiser, and happier 
system of living than the other. He did not, there- 
fore, think that there was any moral offence in 
living in the ordinary dietetic practices of the 
world, but thought it much better and happier to 
live in the other way ; for though the Creator 
permitted man to live in violation of his laws, in 


various waj's, this was obviously less happy than 
living as he had intended his creattires to live. 
Mr. Palmer had stated that the carael, horse, 
stag, and some other animals, had the cuspid, or 
" canine tooth," more developed than man, and 
that if this proved anything, of course it went 
to show that these animals were more flesh- 
eating than man, whilst every one knew that 
these animals never eat flesh at all. When he 
heard people insisting on the "canine tooth" 
proving that man was intended to eat flesh, he 
always felt inclined to ask, " Why they did not eat 
meat with it ? " for the fact was, they always 
pushed the meat past it, and ate it with the 
cheek-teeth, or grinders. These teeth, again, 
were considered by some to be like some other 
parts of animals, that were called rudimentary, 
and were not needed by man to answer the pur- 
pose they served in carnivorous animals — that of 
seizing and tearing their food. Mr, Palmer 
had spoken of the stimulation of flesh-meat, and 
this circumstance led people to suppose they got 
something different to what they could have from 
vegetable substances. This stimulation, bowever, 
was not strength, it was, in some degree, like taking 
a glass of brandy ; it produced a febrile excite- 
ment, like putting the spur to tbe horse, which 
merely brought out tbe latent principle which 
was there before ; the stimulation of flesh-meat 
only quickened the circulation, and caused men 
to live faster ; but this fast living was a disad- 
vantage, and children fed on the mixed-diet 
system looked older sooner than those living in 
the Vegetarian practice. If they did not entirely 
escape such diseases as small-pox and measles, 
these had quite a diff"erent hold upon them to 
what they had in flesh-eating families, and gave 
little or no concern. Mr. Simpson then 
referred to the want of information on these 
subjects amongst all classes, and he thus feared 
that some might not have been so much inte- 
rested in the lecture, as of a highly intellectual 
character, as might otherwise have been the case. 

He wished there were greater facilities for 
reading, and acquiring a taste for reading, and if 
any present knew of any libraries in Accrington 
where bonks on tbe subject of diet could be 
placed, and be well read, he hoped they would let 
him know, and he would take care the books 
were supplied. Working men often deceived 
themselves, and supposed they were meat-eaters, 
and could not do without it, when in fact they 
only partook of it occasionally, and usually ou 
the Sunday, the day they did not work, going 
through their ordinary labour almost without 
using it at all. He commended the snbject to 
all, as one of importance, and assured them that 
the opinion of all the greatest naturalists — such 
as LiNN^us, CuviER, MoNBODDO — was, that 
man was naturally a fruit-eating, grain-eating, 
and vegetable-eating animal, whatever be might 
have become by acquired habit. Man might live 
in other ways than what were natural, just as the 
sheep had been taught to live on mutton and to 
refuse grass. They saw people taught to smoke 
and chew tobacco, to take snuflF, to chew opium, 
and even to eat arsenic (as they did in some 
districts of Austria) ; but all these were un- 
natural and artificial habits, and the stomach 
rebelled against them until it became trained to 
their use. The Vegetarian system, on the con- 
trary, was natural, and harmonized with man's 
nature ; it was appointed, at first, when all 
things were pronounced to be " very good," and 
science — God's spoken voice in creation — as well 
as experience, proved that it was still the happiest 
and best. (Applause.) 

Several objections and inquiries were then 
submitted by one or other of the audience, 
in relation to the gastric fluid, animals 
preying on other animals, what is to be 
done with the animals ? etc., and these 
being replied to by the Chairman and the 
Lecturer, the audience separated at about 
ten o'clock. 



New List of Members. — During the progress of 
the New List of Members of the Society, now 
in the printer's hands, opportunity is still afforded 
for correcting and supplying some of the addresses 
which may have been omitted to be forwarded. 
With the issue of the List, it is to be hoped that 
exertions will be made to supply every information 
necessary to secure the correction of any errors or 
omissions at present without the control of the 

W. G. — Prize Essays. — Information respecting 
the prize essays will shortly be given. One will 
be on the subject of tbe domestic application of 
our system, and another on the more general 
interests of the movement. These two subjects 
are put forward as suggestions adopted at the 
Conference of the Annual Meeting; but it is 
probable that another prize will be offered by a 
gentleman, for the assemblage of the most prac- 
tical objections to the Vegetarian system, con- 
sidering, from the fewness of the arguments to 


I be adduced in this direction, there will be con- 
siderable advantage in having them presented 
for consideration. The Glasgow Association, 
also, we are told, is likely to offer a prize for an 
essay on some particular subject shortly to be 
fixed upon. 

John Andrew, Jun., Secretary. 


Vegetarian Lecture. — We have resumed our 
public teaching in this locality, by the delivery of 
an interesting lecture on the The Teeth of Man 
as demonstrating that the Vegetarian Practice of 
Diet is in strict accordance with Nature, by Mr. J, 
G. Palmer, of Birmingham, on Monday Even- 
ing, September 10th, at Accrington, and on the 
following evening the lecture was repeated in the 
New Jerusalem School Room, Oswaldtwistle, 
James Simpson, Esq., the President of the 
Association, presiding on both occasions. W. S. 

Vegetarian Lecture. — A lecture on the Teeth 



of Man, illustrated by diagrams of the human 
and canine teeth, was delivered in the Mechanics' 
Hall, on Thursday Evening, Sep., 6th, by J. G. 
Palmer, Esq. of Birmingham. Mr. J. Andrew 
JuN., of Leeds, the Secretary of the Vegetarian 
Society, presided, and introduced the lecturer 
in an appropriate address. We anticipate much 
useful inquiry as the result of the lecture. 

E. M. 


Vegetarian Soiree. — We are anticipating some 
public effort in relation to a Soiree on a large 
scale very shortly, but our arrangements are not 
sufficiently matured to enable us to give further 
particulars at present. J. G. P. 

Vegetarian Lecture. — On Tuesday evening, Sep- 
tember 4th, Mr. W. G. Ward of Handsworth, 
President of the Birmingham Vegetarian Associa- 
tion, delivered a lecture in the Temperance Hall, 
Ann Street, Birmingham, being the last of a series 
of lectures in connection with the Association. The 
subject of the lecture was The Vegetarian Larder 
and Cookery, and was ably treated under the fol- 
lowing heads. 1st. A survey of the vegetable 
prodiicts of the world. 2nd. Our natural Vege- 
tarian resources. 3rd. Cookery of various dishes. 
Under this last division the lecturer gave a quo- 
tation from a French writer, who says, tliat he 
who invents a new dish is greater than he who 
discovered a star, as we have enough of stars but 
can never have too many dishes. The peroration 
was eloquent indeed, and elicited the applause 
and admiration of all present. This concluded 
our course of six lectures, which we think have 
produced good effects in many quarters, in a 
quiet way, as we every now and then hear of one 
or two individuals practising Vegetarianism. We 
hope after the Soiree in the Town Hall, which is 
proposed to take place about the first week in 
November, to get out a new programme of Lec- 
tures for the winter months, so as to keep the 
Vegetarian question before the minds of the 
people, that truth and simplicity may be helped 
and advanced so as to meet aud expose the errors 
of the false customs of society. C. R. K. 


Influence. — T cannot report any new adherents 
to our ranks this month, but frequently hear of 
persons trying our practice and of others who 
now eat but little meat, who before the operations 
of our Society looked upon their daily allowance 
of flesh-meat as almost indispensable, but now re- 
gard it as a secondary consideration. A person 
came into ray shop this afternoon, and told me 
that he had four children who had not tasted in- 
toxicating drink. I informed him that I had not 
only four children who had not tasted intoxicating 
drink, but who had never tasted flesh-meat, also, 
and two others who had forgotten the taste of it 
altogether, and the elder one coming in at the 
time, evidently proved to his satisfaction the 
sufficiency of the vegetable kingdom to supply 
all our food. J. B. 


Annual Meeting and Entertainment. — Our 
operations have been continued ; we have held 
one meeting of a conversational character, on 

the 27th of July, when an address was given by 
Mr. John Chalk, on The Duties of Vegetarians. 
Our Annual Meeting was held on the 4th of 
August, on which occasion, the committee 
decided upon fixing an entertainment on a 
limited scale, intending it principally for their 
friends, and accordingly about fifty persons sat 
down to an abundant Vegetarian provision, at 
four o'clock. The repast being over, the officers 
for the following year were elected, and Mr. J. 
Chalk being re-elected President of the Associ- 
ation, took the chair for the evening. The 
report was then read, and the meeting addressed 
by nearly all the male members present, all of 
them testifying to the superior benefits they 
derived from the adoption of a Vegetarian diet. 
The proceedings, which gave great satisfaction, 
were kept up till about ten o'clock. We regret 
that we have not been able to furnish a more 
detailed account of the meeting. W. H. 


Operations. — We have little to record in the 
way of public efforts in this district, but have 
continued to circulate tracts. Messengers, and 
Cookery books, apparently to little purpose, 
though one day the fruit may appear and show 
that these have not been useless. J. D. 


Monthly Meetings. — We have had two meetings 
since our last report in the Messenger. The 
first on July 11th, when Robert Shiels, Esq., 
presided, for discussion and conversation, at 
which about fifteen persons were present. The 
other was held on Wednesday evening, Aug. 8th, 
at Buchanan's Temperance Hotel, Mr. Shiels 
again presiding, when, probably owing to the 
very unfavourable weather, there were only ten 
persons present. Mr. J. C. Gates read the 
introduction to the Vegetarian Cookery, which, 
as presenting a comprehensive digest of the 
arguments of our system, afforded a subject for 
conversation during the evening. 

Distribution of Tracts. — We have distributed 
about 250 tracts, and lend copies of Fruits and 
Farinacea to those seeking information, and 
some are experimenting in our practice of diet, 
one at least having made the declaration required 
by the Society. 

Public Operations. — Since the above commu- 
nication, we are hopeful of having a meeting or 
lecture in Queen Street Hall, from the President 
of the Society, similar to what served to draw 
attention to the Vegetarian question last year. 

J. R. 


Monthly Meetings. — We continue our month